From the classic period to the present, satirical critiques of homosexuality have persisted in an array of written forms, exposing and exaggerating homosexual behavior as a flawed and degenerative mode of conduct. Through various historical and cultural contexts, we can observe how satirists, such as Martial, parody gay men as sexually compulsive in ancient Greece, or how Juvenal mockingly characterizes Roman politicians as effeminate and weak for cross-dressing, or how contemporary artist Eminem shoves fags and lez[bians] down to the bottom of the social hierarchy. Rendering homosexuality as an unnatural and abnormal violation of social standards, these satirists endeavored to reestablish the values and ideals cultivated within a normative, heterosexual tradition. Implicitly or explicitly, every dainty derision and excessive portrait of gay men have warned against the debilitating effects of this "deviant" subculture, until the emergence of the modern-day Gay Movement finally allowed gay satirists to retaliate against compulsive heterosexuality and homophobia. Employing similar satiric techniques, gay satirists interpret and expose hetero-normativity as an oppressive institution that prohibits variation within an impermeable complex of sex-gender-sexual desire. Societal norms were questioned, challenged, and reproduced as comic, fundamentalist fallacies. We see how artists like T.R. Witomski belittle and ridicule homophobic paranoia, how poet Harold Norse deconstructs rigid gender roles, and how Kate Clinton glamorizes lesbian identity. These pro-gay satiric pieces, versus the many relentless satires that critique it, have come to create a unique platform for the ongoing debate on same-sex desire, using wit, laughter and ridicule as a means to vindicate or eradicate homosexuality.
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress, the mechanism of which remains uncertain. Superoxide anion is the primary oxygen free radical produced in the body and NAD(P)H oxidase is the major source of superoxide production. We hypothesized that CRF-induced oxidative stress may be due to increased superoxide production. Accordingly, NAD(P)H oxidase protein was determined in CRF (5/6- nephrectomized) and sham-operated control rats. The CRF group showed marked up regulation of gp91 phox subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase in the liver and kidney which are among the metabolically most active tissues. Arterial pressure and tissue nitrotyrosine abundance were elevated and urinary nitric oxide metabolite (NOc) excretion was depressed in the CRF animals pointing to increased inactivation and sequestration of NO by superoxide anion. Thus, CRF results in oxidative stress, which is associated with elevated NAD(P)H oxidase expression leading to increased superoxide production.
The distribution of the New High German (NHG) dorsal fricatives [ç] and [x] has long been an area of interest in Germanic linguistics. Traditionally, the fricatives have been assumed to exist in complementary distribution, but research shows that there are many caveats to this generalization. With the advent of Optimality Theory (OT), several new approaches have been made that de-emphasize the allophonic tension between the fricatives. In my work, I have begun to develop a stress-based account of the distribution, based in part on preceding work in OT that has used morphological alignment constraints to drive the proper output forms. An account along these lines is desirable because [x] seems to "surface" in NHG only in stressed positions, while [ç] is preferable elsewhere. In addition, I have examined the situation in Middle High German (MHG), in which [x] is the only relevant dorsal fricative. Using my synchronically motivated analysis of [x] and [ç] in NHG, I am in the process of determining to what extent constraint reranking can reflect the consonant inventories in MHG and NHG.
The San Joaquin Hills, Orange County, California have recently been identified as a seismically active source with a Late Quaternary uplift rate of 0.21-0.27m/ky (Grant et al., 1999, in press 2002). Recent mapping has identified the presence of several shorelines below the stage 5 shorelines dated by Grant et al. (1999), which may represent younger sea level highstands or large co-seismic uplift events. In order to determine the uplift rate of the San Joaquin Hills over several time intervals since 122ky, or recurrence intervals for large earthquakes in the southern Los Angeles Basin, a preliminary reconnaissance study was conducted mapping paleoshorelines and estimating their elevations. The lowest elevation emergent shoreline, which was previously mapped, measured, and correlated to date as a post-1635A.D. feature, is interpreted as evidence associated with a M>7 earthquake (Grant, et al. press). In 17 locations, a prominent shoreline was discovered with an estimated range of 6.1m-9.2m above the active shoreline angle. Based upon preliminary analyses and correlation with older emergent shorelines, this feature is not likely to represent a stage 5 or stage 3 sea level highstand due to its low elevation, young appearance, and inconsistent uplift rate to the radiometrically dated stage 5 solitary corals measured by Grant, et al. (1999). The feature may therefore represent Holocene coseismic uplift, with a rate as high as 1.1m/ky. Accurate elevation measurements and dating of the shorelines is required to confirm or refute whether the uplift rate of the San Joaquin Hills has increased in the last 122,000 years.
During the past decade, a considerable amount of research has been conducted concerning the suggestibility of children's eyewitness reports (Ceci et al., 1994). This research has resulted in increased knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of child witnesses and has been used extensively in legal cases in which children are involved. Results suggest that children can be led to make inaccurate statements and even claim untrue events occurred. Although the interview techniques used to question child defendants are at times similar to the techniques used with child victims, little is known as to whether jurors recognize suggestive interview tactics employed with both child defendants and victims. This project concerns jurors' perceptions of the effects of suggestive questions on child victims' versus defendants' disclosure of a transgression. 167 college students read transcripts of police interviews with a child victim or defendant and answered questions about the suggestiveness of the interview and the occurrence of the transgression. The study conformed to a 2 (confess v. no-confess) x 2 (victim v. defendant) x 3 (age: 7, 11, or 14 years) design. Preliminary analyses indicate that jurors perceived 11-year-olds as the most credible, regardless of whether they were victims or defendants. Surprisingly, jurors did not perceive interviews with defendants to be more or less suggestive than interviews with victims.
The U.S. Hispanic population is poised to become the nation's largest minority. Whereas the overall population of the United States has grown since 1990, its Latino counterpart has grown 38% (U.S. Bureau of the Census 2000). The Latino population is not only becoming an important component in American way of life nationwide, it is also important on a local level. As our cities become more ethnically diverse, it is important to understand how people of various ethnicities relate to each other, especially in public space. This ethnographic study looked at a Latino grocery store in Santa Ana, California, where the white customer base is steadily increasing, despite declining residency rates for Whites, and increased residency rates for Latinos. This study aimed to discover why Whites increasingly shop at this Latino market, and to gain an understanding of the inter-ethnic relationships that are fostered in this non-traditional environment, where all of the employees are Latino, the main language spoken is Spanish, and a majority of the products sold are marketed for Latinos. Findings indicate that the White customers feel special in that the Latino employees defer to them, which reinforces their own feelings of superiority. Latino employees treat Whites special, which helps them legitimize their workplace. Both groups buy into and subsequently reinforce White superiority and Latino servility. This research is based on 20 in-depth interviews with White and Hispanic customers, interviews of cashiers and managers of the store, and participant and non-participant observation.
When seeking legal representation many low-income minorities find that the services they are provided with are inadequate. This is because, in being of low-income they are only able to attain free legal representation. When provided with free legal representation, such as Public Defenders, they find that the lawyers representing them are overwhelmed with many cases. Low-income minorities are therefore being provided legal representation by public defenders that lack the resources necessary to give each case the attention it deserves. In researching this topic I have interviewed lawyers and judges to see their perspectives on how minorities are treated and represented in the legal system. After having conducted the interviews I have found that minorities face biases in every aspect of the legal system. I also found that the representation of minorities by public lawyers is just one aspect of bias in the legal system. There are other factors that affect their proper representation such as social biases and stereotypes.
The interaction of annexin I with a dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air/water interface, has been studied by epifluorescence microscopy and measurements of surface pressure vs. area. Annexin I (AnI) is a member of a multigene family of cytosolic proteins that show calcium-mediated binding to phoshpolipid membranes. Although the precise physiological function of this family of proteins is unknown, the available evidence strongly suggests that they participate in several membrane-related cell processes. The zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC is the major component of the plasma membrane. These experiments serve as a model system for the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. It will be shown that AnI interacts with the DPPC monolayer in the absence of Ca++ by penetrating the monolayer as indicated by the increase in surface pressure with time in experiments at constant area and by the increase in area with time in experiments conducted at constant surface pressure. Experiments carried out with the monolayer in a biphasic state, show that the interaction is pH dependent. At pH 6.0 the interaction is specific with the liquid condensed phase, while at pH 7.4 the interaction occurs at the liquid expanded/liquid condensed interface.
Visual Suppression During Binocular Rivalry
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon that occurs when two incongruent images are presented to an observer, one to each eye, but only one image is perceived at a time. Thus, the conscious percept usually alternates between the two images instead of fusing both images together, so that one stimulus is suppressed when the other is present. This experiment investigates the thresholds at which perceptual suppression occurs under the condition of binocular rivalry. By showing multiple levels of luminance, this study asks at what level one stimulus is able to suppress a second one. The participants are shown two incongruent stimuli in different colors, each to opposite eyes: a constantly present stimulus in green and a flashed stimulus in red that varies in luminance. When the red stimuli suppresses the green stimulus the participant responds by pressing a button. Participants are also asked to ignore false targets (gray flashes).
Limited resources may cause plants to experience trade-offs between growth and reproduction, and within reproduction, between male and female function. As a consequence of these trade-offs, different breeding systems may evolve, including gynodioecy (females and hermaphrodites in a population) and dioecy (males and females in a population). In order for breeding systems to evolve, plants must have the genetic potential to change resource allocation between male and female reproductive functions in response to selection. The twenty-six species of Schiedea exhibit a wide range of breeding systems, including hermaphroditism, gyno-dioecy, and dioecy, suggesting that changes in male and female biomass allocation have occurred in this group in the past. The goal of this project is to determine the genetic potential for change in allocation patterns in Schiedea salicaria, a gynodioecious species with 12% females in the population. Negative genetic correlation of male and female biomass could enhance the evolution of separate sexes while positive genetic correlations would make the evolution of separate sexes more difficult. Both male (stamen) biomass and female (carpel + capsule) biomass showed significant narrow-sense heritabilities, a necessary condition for allocation patterns to evolve. Female traits of viable seed mass and capsule biomass showed significant positive correlations with each other in females and hermaphrodites. Male traits (anther length, pollen number, and stamen biomass) showed significant positive correlations with each other. Male traits and female traits showed no significant genetic correlations in hermaphrodites, suggesting that these correlations will not impede the evolution of separate sexes in Schiedea salicaria.
Glutathione (GSH) or ¡-glutamyl cysteinyl glycine is an anti-oxidant tripeptide that is present at high levels in the ovary and many other organs in the body. GSH synthesis starts when glutamate and cysteine are bound using the enzyme GLCL (with catalytic and regulatory subunits) producing ¡-glutamyl cysteine. Next is the production of GSH formed by combining ¡-glutamyl cysteine with glycine, using the enzyme GSH synthetase. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) binds to the active site on GLCL, inhibiting the rate-limiting step of GSH synthesis. In this experiment 12 female Sprague-Dawley rats on pro-estrous were given intraperitoneal injections of either 5mmol/kg BSO dissolved in saline or saline vehicle. These rats were sacrificed 8 hours later and the effect of GSH depletion on GLCL mRNA transcription and GLCL protein translation were investigated. It was hypothesized that GLCL mRNA transcription and protein translation would increase in response to a lowered amount of GSH. The amount of ovarian GSH in rats injected with BSO and saline was 1.86 nmol/kg and 5.89nmol/mg, respectively, indicating a statistically significant decrease (p=.021, by t-test) in the amount of ovarian GSH in rats given BSO, as expected. Ovarian, uterine and body weights were not significantly affected by BSO treatment (p>.05). The levels of GLCL protein translation are to be determined by a Western blot and the levels of mRNA transcription, using a Northern blot.
Conformational preferences of neutral six-membered-ring systems are generally dominated by steric effects. These systems tend to prefer conformers in which substituents are placed in equatorial positions. Recent theoretical and experimental evidence, however, suggest that electronic effects profoundly influence the conformations of six-membered oxocarbenium ions. It appears that there is an electronic interaction between an axial electronegative substituent and an oxocarbenium ion in tetrahydroyranoid systems. This electronic interaction confers a high degree of stereocontrol in the addition of allyltrimethylsilane to pyranoid acetals by controlling the conformation of the intermediate oxocarbenium ion. The stabilizing electronic phenomenon has led to a general predictive model developed by the Woerpel group. The model for pyranoid systems, thus far, is useful for predicting the selectivities for electronegative substituents at various positions of the ring. Results for the synthesis of three new substrates, which contribute to the optimization of a more reliable model, are discussed.
In his book Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, Doug McAdam explores the necessary components that cause the rise of social movements. These four components are Expanding Political Opportunities, Broad Socioeconomic Processes, Growth Indigenous Resources and Cognitive Liberation. My thesis is an exploration of this model and it's relationship to the cultural phenomenon of jazz music. It is my contention that jazz, as a cultural phenomenon, has had a profound effect on the development of Black insurgency. Thus, the political process model fails to explain how cultural phenomena play into the development of social movements. I trace jazz from its roots in African tradition to its proliferation as popular music in the 20th century and it's relationship to both American and global society. Results conclude that although Black insurgency was most likely inevitable, cultural phenomena such as jazz greatly accelerated the potential for insurgency. A chapter on cultural phenomena other than jazz is also included to further demonstrate the shortcomings of the political process model.
The discipline of software engineering is one of the most important that a student of computer science must develop. However, its nature often makes it a difficult concept to teach. A true software-engineering project often requires several years of time, dozens of people and a multitude of phases and steps. This makes a thorough understanding of the scope of such a project difficult to convey in a ten-week course. While current techniques of lecturing and assigning projects do a great deal to educate students, these pupils rarely are able to experience software engineering at its most complex form. The card game SpeedSE provides students with a simulation of a large-scale software-engineering project, and allows them to make decisions that will effect its outcome. This competitive game has been structured so that players who properly manage their programmer and resource cards will have an increased chance of victory. Players who cut corners or make bad decisions are punished via 'problem' cards that represent the pitfalls that might be faced should such mistakes have been made in reality. Thus, through this game, many of the concepts of software engineering are represented. This novel approach to this subject will be a useful tool to educators, and it is hoped that it will broaden our concepts of how such software engineering lessons can be taught.
The results of oxidative stress, such as ateriosclerosis, are prevalent in today's society. The function of the clotting protein, fibrinogen, is adversely affected by free radicals in vivo. This phenomenon can be paralleled in vitro. Fibrinogen's chain-like structure contains many amino acids which may react with these free radicals. These highly reactive sites are analyzed through the use of model peptides that contain these amino acids. Model peptides of Histidine (H), Lysine (K), Methionine (M), Tryptophan (W) and Tyrosine (Y) must be purified through the use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and a Speed Vacuum Concentrator. These purified peptides underwent timed interval reactions with the strong oxidizing agent, CT (Chloramine-T). These results were analyzed through HPLC and Mass Spectrometry. Human Fibrinogen (KABI) analysis, by fibrin polymerization reactions and spectrophotometry is ongoing. The findings of this study will help to further understand the plethora of complexities due to oxidative stress in aerobic organisms.
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is crucial for proper development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in Drosophila. Neuronal stem cells divide asymmetrically to produce two daughter cells with different size, fate (differentiation vs proliferation) and distribution of cell fate determinants. Previous studies have shown that the tumor suppressor Discs-large (Dlg) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) are important participants of the ACD process as well as brain development since several dlg and pins mutants show abnormal brain growth. Dlg consists of six protein domains including the SH3 domain, which was shown to bind the C-terminal part of the Pins. However, the precise SH3-binding site of the Pins has not been characterized. We hypothesized that this binding site could be the Proline-rich sequence (P-X-X-P) also found in other SH3-binding proteins. To test this hypothesis, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to change the first and fourth Prolines into Alanines. We are currently conducting in vitro and in vivo tests to test whether mutation of the Proline rich sequence of Pins can affect its binding to Dlg and demonstrate the importance of this interaction for brain development. We are using affinity chromatography to test the direct interaction between mutant Pins and Dlg. We will also test the implications of a mutated Proline-rich sequence in vivo. These data will help us understand more about neuronal development in Drosophila. Indeed, since Drosophila Dlg and Pins have mammalian homologs, the investigation of this protein complex will provide insight into the function of these proteins in higher organisms.
Lack of sleep in non-depressed populations is related to lower positive mood (Paley &Tepas, 1994), worse grades in adolescents (Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998), impairment of semantic memory, increased sense of distress, depression, and social introversion (Mendelson et. al., 1984). The current study examined the effects of sleepiness on response styles to induced sadness. According to the response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987) people who ruminate in response to a depressive mood will suffer for a longer more pronounced time period, while those who distract themselves will experience alleviation from their depressive mood. The current study hypothesized that people who reported more sleepiness would engage in greater rumination, compared to those who were well rested. The study used a similar mood induction paradigm to that of Butler & Nolen-Hoeksema (1994). For the current study, 22 out of the 40 participants were induced with a sad mood and asked to recall a memory into a recorder. Data analysis is currently being conducted. The recorder responses will be evaluated for ruminative memory responses and distracting responses, including the number of emotion words mentioned in each response. Findings will be discussed in the context of potential mechanisms responsible for the association between negative mood and lack of sleep.
The response of cartilage tissue to thermal stress can be investigated indirectly by measuring changes in optical properties during heating. Temperature distributions in cartilage depend on the mode of heating. Laser irradiation of thick cartilage specimens results in non-uniform heating, causing asynchronous stress relaxation in different regions of the tissue. In contrast, slow heating of cartilage in a Rose chamber results in more uniform temperature profiles. In addition, the heating of tissue in a saline- (or mineral oil) filled Rose chamber eliminates dehydration effects that are commonly encountered during laser heating. The purpose of this investigation was to measure diffuse reflectance and diffuse transmittance of porcine septal cartilage tissue during slow heating. Diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured using integrating sphere and lock-in detection techniques. Cartilage surface temperatures were estimated using a thermocouple and cold-junction compensator. Diffusely transmitted light was observed to decrease, plateau, and then increase whereas diffusely reflected light was observed to increase, plateau, and then decrease. The change in slope for both transmitted and reflected light occurred at cartilage front surface temperatures of between 45 and 50 ºC. The results suggest that changes in the optical properties of cartilage tissue occur due to a phase transformation during heating.
Cell aggregation of membranes, which eventually leads to fusion between two different membranes, is an important process that allows cells to communicate with their surroundings. The exact mechanism of membrane aggregation and fusion are not clear, but are most likely protein mediated events. Annexin 1, a member of the annexin family, exhibits membrane aggregation and fusion. A novel model for membrane aggregation mediated by this protein, based on the recently solved crystal structure of full-length annexin 1 in the absence of Ca2+, has been proposed. The model hypothesizes that the initial calcium dependent binding to one membrane expels the previously buried N-terminal domain, creating a second membrane-binding site. Structural and functional studies are being conducted in order to validate this model. The first steps to validating this model are the expression and purification of an annexin 1 fusion protein, which was a construct containing the annexin 1 N-terminal domain fused to the N-terminus of Red Fluorescence Protein (DsRed). Expression and purification of the control, DsRed, and the fusion protein have been attempted. The original fusion protein construct was subjected to proteolytic cleavage, and thus a new fusion protein, in which the sites most susceptible to cleavage were eliminated, was constructed. Once expression and purification has been completed, biochemical membrane aggregation and fusion assays need to be conducted. Also, crystallization of the proteins will be attempted in order to use x-ray crystallography to determine the three-dimensional structure of the fusion protein to confirm the fold of the annexin 1 N-terminal domain.
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have sparked an interest in understanding variability in individuals' coping strategies and adjustment to this national trauma. In recent years, attempts to identify factors that can account for variability in response to trauma have begun to address the role of religious influences on coping. Less studied, however, is the role of personal, non-institutional "spiritual" beliefs. Using longitudinal survey data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 1300 individuals assessed 9-14 days post 9/11, 2 months post 9/11, and again 6 months post 9/11, this presentation will examine how religious affiliation and personal spiritual beliefs differentially function as early predictors of adjustment. Individuals with religious affiliations will be measured by respondents' identification with terms such as "Christian," "Baptist," "Jewish," etc. Those with personal spiritual beliefs will be identified from statements such as "I believe in God" or other statements of belief that are not linked with a particular religious affiliation. Adjustment will be assessed in the form of PTSD symptoms, anxiety, depression, positive affect, and overall life satisfaction. The scope of this trauma and the use of nationally representative data will allow a more thorough and generalizable analysis of the role of religion and spirituality than has been possible in prior studies. Understanding how religious affiliation and/or personal spiritual beliefs are associated with adjustment may aid in the identification of at-risk populations for negative mental health outcomes when traumatic events occur in the future.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) leads to a reported alteration of the neural microvasculature, connective tissue, and a reported decreased myelination. Design-based, unbiased stereologic techniques were used to evaluate the histopathologic changes with a model of CTS. The model was surgically created by placing a non-constrictive silastic tube (ID 1.33 mm) around the rat sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerves were harvested at 1, 6, and 8 months and were cut into three sections corresponding to the areas proximal (PN), at (CN), and distal (DN) to the site of compression. Stereological evaluation was performed with the Olympus C.A.S.T. Grid software to estimate the number of myelinated axons, number of Schwann cell nuclei, epineurial area, and perineurial area. We determined that the ratio of perineurium to epineurium nerve cross-sectional area relative to the normal nerve decreased by 16% (CN) and 13% (DN); 34% (CN) and 15% (DN); 25% (CN) and 24% (DN) at the one, six and eight-month time intervals respectively. Furthermore, Schwann cell number increased by 497% (PN), 625% (CN) and 498% (DN); 125% (PN), 209% (CN), and 76% (DN); and 193% (PN), 304% (CN), and 118% (DN) respectively at the one, six, and eight-months of compression. The number of myelinated axons, however, did not change significantly for all time intervals. In contrast to previous assumptions, our data shows that chronic nerve compression (CNC) induces an increase in Schwann cell number. Furthermore, CNC induces histopathologic changes as early as two weeks after injury, much earlier than any detectable electrophysiological changes.
This study examined how one's own bias, prejudice, and self-esteem impacts how judgments are made of ambiguous stimuli. Digital photographs were taken of twenty-one female undergraduates - eleven Asian American, ten European American - and via computer software were morphed with four "parent morphs." The parent morphs (all female high school seniors) were chosen during a pretest measure to be most representative of the following four categories: attractive Asian American, attractive European American, unattractive Asian American, and unattractive European American. Each participant was presented with a series of twenty "morphs" containing varying percentages of their own photograph and the parent morphs. Participants were shown each picture and asked to estimate the percentage of the morphed photograph that represented their own picture. Participants also completed several questionnaires, background measures, self-esteem scales, and were asked to rate the four parent morphs and their own photograph for attractiveness. The first hypothesis was that the participants would see more of themselves in the photographs that were morphed with their own race (the ingroup), and less of themselves in the ones morphed with the other race (the outgroup). The second hypothesis was that participants would see more of themselves in the photographs morphed with the attractive rather than the unattractive parent morphs. The first hypothesis was supported by the data, the second was not. In fact, participants saw more of themselves in photographs morphed with the unattractive than attractive parent morphs.
The purpose of this research project is to investigate miscarriages of justice and why they occur in today's legal system. There are varying definitions of the term miscarriage of justice; the one used for this project is an instance in which a person was wrongfully convicted and/or incarcerated for a crime they did not commit. The data collected for this project includes a review of the literature on this topic, as well as an analysis of newspaper, magazine, and journal articles that document cases in which miscarriages of justice occurred. Analysis of the data has revealed seven categories in to which causes of miscarriages of justice fall. A database on the Government Information Sharing project website has made it possible to roughly estimate the yearly earnings of many victims of miscarriages of justice, so the link between the income of suspects and the outcome of their trials can be examined. As of April 7, 2002, the innocence project at the Cardozo school of law has freed 104 wrongfully incarcerated persons. Other innocence projects have exonerated more people, or put their guilt in question, either after those persons died or were put to death by the state. This topic is in need of more study. The system needs to be fixed so that people are no longer incarcerated or put to death for crimes they did not commit. Until then, the states, as well as the federal government, should follow Illinois' lead and put a moratorium on the death penalty.
Patriarchal repression has concerned American women writers since Colonial days. This study traces the development of feminist responses to patriarchy within Mexican letters through three well-known writers: Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz, (1648/51-1695) Rosario Castellanos, (1925-1974) and Elena Poniatowska (b.1933). Their female characters share life in an oppressive patriarchal society in which the fearful symbol of the church dominates their lives. The protagonists draw from both academic instruction and popular lore to formulate their resistance. Symbolism serves them to satirize their oppressors. When church officials restricted Sor Juana's intellectual pursuits by assigning her to duties in the kitchen, she effectively defended women's education by turning the kitchen into a science laboratory. Castellano's protagonist, threatened with a daughter's subservience to her brother's privilege, devises a deadly plan that culminates in his death. Inadvertently, it also dooms family patriarchy. And in "The Cooking Lesson," while preparing dinner for her husband, a bride sees herself in the meat she cooks. Each cooking stage reflects episodes of her unhappy, albeit barely begun marriage. She destroys the patriarchal ideal by burning the meat until it is uneatable. Poniatowska's protagonists, Lilus' parents try to stifle her instinctive curiosity by enrolling her in a convent school. However, like in Sor Juana and Castellanos, Lilus's convent becomes a feminist laboratory. All three authors appropriate writing in a bid for freedom and survival in a painfully menacing society.
Cognitive maps contain spatial information about a person's environment whereby people organize past and present experiences into a mental representation of map-like features. When an individual relies on his/her cognitive map to estimate distance, it becomes a more difficult task and thereby leads to spatial distortion between locations in an environment. In this study we are examining the effects of spatial distortion in estimating the location of landmarks on the UCI campus. The judgment of distance from a starting point to a destination may be over or under-estimated. This is likely to depend on an individual's establishment of a base location and selection of buildings where they spend most of their time on the campus. We hypothesize that an individual's perceived judgment of distance will be short when traversing a path through the base location. Data analysis is currently underway. If students select different buildings as their base location, there is reason to believe that the establishment of egocentric coordinates plays a role in judging distance from starting point to destination. I propose that an individual's selection of a base location will affect the length of the path drawn by the participant when the path goes through the base location. I predict that the path length will seem shorter when traversing through the base location to reach a particular destination. Furthermore, it will be important to assess if the base location and home location are similar and how each individually or together influence the judgment of distance by the participant.
Early Detection of Oral Cancer Using in vivo Fluorescence
Oral cancer is frequently detected too late; about 2/3 of all oral cancers that are detected have already undergone systemic spread leading to a poor patient prognosis. Currently, oral cancer is detected by surgical biopsy. Hence, an effective technique for early diagnosis of intra-oral lesions, as well as a non-invasive method of monitoring suspect lesions and screening malignant patients is urgently required. Pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues may fluoresce differently than healthy tissue after a pre-treatment with photosensitizers. The photosensitizer precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) does not fluoresce directly, but is converted protoporphyrin (PpIX) which fluoresces when exposed to certain wavelengths of laser light. PpIX fluorescence occurs more rapidly and with greater intensity in pre-malignant and cancerous tissues, providing the basis for non-invasive techniques. The photosensitizer hypericin also induces increased fluorescence in neoplastic tissues. Unilateral cancer induction occurred in the hamster cheek pouch using the carcinogen dimethylbenzathrace (DMBA) for 3-20 weeks. Prior to sacrifice, either ALA or hypericin were applied topically. Tissue samples were cytosectioned then underwent histological evaluation and fluorescence measurements. Statistical evaluation showed that fluorescence intensities were greatest (p<0.05) in malignant tissue, intermediate in pre-malignant tissue, and weakest in healthy tissue. With such promising results we hope to not only develop a new non-invasive method of cancer detection, but also to establish the range of detection capability as well as its diagnostic accuracy.
In coronary transplantation, endothelial cells (EC) are the first donor cells to be recognized by the host's immune system, since they form the interface between donor and recipient. Rejection is the most common problem following transplantation, and the major cause of mortality. EC are known to constitutively express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which are potent stimulators of the rejection process. Rejection can be initiated by CD4+ T cells recognizing MHC class II antigens on EC within the graft. The activation of T cells requires not only recognition of antigen, but also a co-stimulatory signal that is delivered by a cell-surface molecule on antigen-presenting cells such as EC. We are interested in B7-H1, a molecule that mediates EC and T cell interaction, through binding to PD-1, its receptor on T cells. Conflicting data suggest that B7-H1 may either stimulate or inhibit immune responses. Therefore, we want to examine the role of this "co-stimulatory" molecule by inhibiting its function. This can be done by making an Ig-fusion protein that is composed of the extracellular domain of the receptor and the Fc portion of an antibody (PD-1 IgG). This fusion protein will bind the B7-H1 ligand and block receptor-ligand interaction. Preliminary evidence suggests that blocking this interaction augments immune responses, suggesting that B7-H1 normally provides a negative signal. We are currently purifying PD-1 IgG to confirm its action on immune responses.
Oxidative stress is associated with an excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. These ROS are associated with a multitude of diseases including chronic renal failure (CRF). The oxygen free radical that is the main contributor to CRF is superoxide anion (O2-) which is produced by the reduction of molecular oxygen in many biological reactions. The enzyme that is responsible for controlling the amount of O2- is superoxide dismutase (SOD), a metalloenzyme in the body. We hypothesized that decreased superoxide dismutase is the cause of CRF-induced oxidative stress. In order to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis, immunodetectable superoxide dismutase isoforms (Cu Zn SOD and Mn SOD) were assessed by Western blot analysis. The CRF group (via a 5/6 nephrectomy) displayed a significant downregulation of both Cu Zn SOD and Mn SOD in the liver as well as the kidney. Administration of the drug Tempol, a cell-permeable SOD-mimetic agent, for one week displayed a decrease in the effects of hypertension as evaluated by a reduction in the nitrotyrosine abundance. Therefore, CRF causes oxidative stress, inducing abundance in superoxide activity. This result is related to decreased SOD, which is associated with elevated superoxide activity.
the 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Promoter, but Not
Highly Similar ATF-2
The promoters of several key genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis are activated by sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). However, unless acting in conjunction with other co-activators, SREPs are weak activators that cannot appreciably affect gene expression. The rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol is 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). SREBP is known to regulate the promoter in conjunction with other coactivators. A putative cAMP response element (CRE) consensus site was identified on the HMG-CoA reductase promoter. This site is recognized by cAMP-response element-binding factor (CREB) and several related proteins that comprise a small cohort called the CREB/ATF family. Mutation studies supported the importance of this binding site as mutations that alter the eight-nucleotide CRE consensus site eliminated promoter activity. Two ubiquitously expressed members of the CREB/ATF family, CREB and ATF-2, were evaluated for their ability to coactivate the HMG-CoA reductase promoter in conjunction with SREBP. The relative efficiency of CREB and ATF-2 in coregulating HMG-CoA reductase was evaluated by transient transfection in Drosophila SL-2 cells. Results show that CREB is an effective co-activator of the HMG-CoA reductase promoter, whereas ATF-2 is not.
History is not immutable. How events are remembered and what they mean depends as much on what happened as on the society that created the memories. As a result, changes in the definitions of ideals and values force a reevaluation of historical events and their meanings. Civil War memory, specifically that of the white middle-class, in the forty years after the war ended reflected this process of reevaluation. The initial histories of the war were shaped by the Victorian society that dominated the American middle-class in the mid-nineteenth century and by the need to assign blame and find meaning for the war. However, in the next forty years, political, social, and economic changes combined to challenge both the ideals of Victorian society and the authority of the middle-class. In response, the white middle-class began to redefine their ideals and their society in order to reclaim their position of authority. At the same time, Civil War memory was being reshaped to fit these new ideals. The North's wartime achievements, emancipation and a unified country, once seen as political and moral victories, were reinterpreted as the result of forces outside of human control that neither side was responsible for. The redefinition of Civil War memory occurred along class and race lines, allowing both sections to celebrate a united nation while forgetting the importance of emancipation and promises left unfulfilled.
Our experiment sought to determine if the antineoplastic effect of etoposide (VP-16) includes alterations in Lewis Lung Cancer (3LL) cells which evoke an immune response in host C57Bl/6 mice. Preliminary experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of VP-16 induced immunity were also performed. Briefly, C57Bl/6 mice were injected with 3LL cells, which had survived an 80-90% lethal concentration of VP-16 in-vitro (3LL/VP-16). 75% of recipient mice were killed by these cells, yet 60% of the surviving cohort rejected subsequent 3LL challenge. Furthermore, splenocytes harvested from these mice also protected naïve mice injected with 3LL. These results are in strong support of the hypothesis that VP-16 induces alterations in 3LL cells which renders them immunogenic. Although VP-16 is categorized as a topoisomerase II inhibitor, its exact mechanism of action remains largely unknown. In order to test the hypothesis that apoptotic 3LL/VP-16 cells upregulate expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) 60 and 72/73, which have been shown by others to elicit cell mediated immunity, immunoblotting was performed. 3LL/VP-16 cells displayed substantial upregulation of HSP60. Further, total RNA was extracted from 3LL and 3LL/VP-16 cultures and analyzed through a ribonuclease protection assay. Preliminary data indicates an upregulation of both TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in etoposide treated 3LL cells. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha are implicated in the growth/differentiation of dendritic cells, professional antigen presenting cells capable of inducing a cell-mediated immune response. Hence, given the immunosuppressive nature of traditional chemotherapy, our findings support the notion that future cancer treatment may be maximized through immunospecific means, including both humoral and cell mediated responses.
The American people have all felt, in varying degrees, the repercussions of the terrorist attacks of September 11th. But has our awareness of the multitude of suffering outside of the United States increased in the way we might have hoped? Our nation has spent years putting funds and efforts into relieving the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan, but it has been severely set back since the bombings in that country. Afghanistan has been badly hit by war, drought, starvation, poverty and destruction. Groups such as Help the Afghan Children Incorporated (HTACI) and The Afghan Medical Association of America (AMAA) work to provide and improve education, health care, vocational training, income generating projects and relief aid in emergencies. However, the prolonged bombing has worsened the troubles of the Afghan people because aid organizations have not been able to get food and medicine into the country. According to the Red Cross, there are about 6 million people in Afghanistan in need of aid, of which about 3.5 million are refugees. The U.S. is only dropping 30,000-70,000 rations per day. The humanitarian and medical relief organization, Doctors Without Borders, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1999, has rejected the link between humanitarian aid and military action. Many have begun to question the effectiveness of the aid we are providing and wonder if it is simply propaganda. The mosaic I have created reflects my own struggle with these issues and my continuing search for answers.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is part of the Lentivirinae family that causes the disease AIDS which over 775,000 people in the US alone have contracted. Researchers have shown much interest in the mathematical modeling of the HIV-1 virus population dynamics within humans. The branching process model that illustrates the peak virion level associated with primary infection proves most useful in HIV testing specifically in the viral load test. The models employed consist of systems of ordinary differential equations in which the components are virion plasma density along with activated uninfected CD4+ T-cell concentration, latently infected CD4+ T-cell concentration and actively infected CD4+ T-cell concentration. The deterministic models demonstrated that the plasma virion density would achieve a maximum at about 3 weeks after infection and then undergo a dramatic decline. More accurate models of HIV dynamics must include stochastic effects. Models of single and several components were analyzed in order to find the most efficient approximation of peak viral load before the asymptomatic stage. The deterministic and stochastic models will be compared and analyzed and an explanation will be given as to why some stochastic simulations failed to accurately represent the life cycle of the virus. In the future, accurate models including drug therapies of the HIV virus will be compared to models in Asia, specifically in Thailand and Singapore.
Thimerosal, a preservative component of vaccines, contains ethylmercury that accumulates in cellular mitochondria. Recently, there has been concern over thimerosal regarding its potential link to the development of autism. There is evidence in autistic patients of neuronal cell loss consistent with programmed cell death (apoptosis). Previous studies showed that thimerosal induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in lymphocytes. In this study, the effect of thimerosal on the mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells was investigated. Neuroblastoma cells treated with thimerosal were examined for mitochondrial membrane potential (Dy) and generation of reactive oxygen species (O2 -) by JC-1 and dihydroethidium staining, respectively. Cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria were determined by immunohistochemistry using fluorescence imaging. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Thimerosal decreased neuronal cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner, 54% viability at 6 h, and only 2% survival at 24 h (5.0 µM). Similarly, thimerosal caused depolarization of Dy and enhanced O2- generation. At 5.0 µM thimerosal concentration, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to the cytosol in 30% of cells at 1 h and 85% of cells at 3 h. AIF was released in 40% and 90% of cells at 30 minutes and 1 hour, respectively. These results suggest that thimerosal induces changes in the mitochondrial environment that result in death of neuronal cells. Ongoing investigation seeks to delineate the molecular mechanism of thimerosal-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.
The current study sought to examine the impact of detention policies under Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of 1996 Southeast Asians in America and explore the characteristics of this community. The fact that these are individuals who faced mandatory detention and eventual deportation as a result of criminal convictions signals two principle areas of concern: 1) citizenship - what factors hindered them from attaining citizenship status? and 2) deviance - what factors led up to their criminal convictions? As a subcomponent to exploring on a micro level of those affected by the policy, the investigation also attempted to capture a glimpse of the macro considerations of policy formation and implementation. Ultimately these interrelated levels facilitate a discussion regarding the context of the Southeast Asian experience and how their ethnic background magnifies the profound policy implications and complexities within this largely foreign-born community. While the INS continues struggling in a battle to meet the expectations of Congress in policy implementation, their attempts to fulfill legislative intent have resulted in severe compromises of the familial structure within this community and overshadow other pertinent issues affecting this population such as the lack of citizenship status and deviance.
The filter diagonalization method (FDM) and decimated signal diagonalization (DSD) method are alternatives to the conventional Fourier transform for spectral analysis. Both of these parametric fitting methods employ windowing techniques that reduce the original large data matrix to a number of smaller matrices and extraction of the eigenvalues is obtained by diagonalizing the smaller matrices. The fundamental difference between FDM and DSD is that FDM filters basis functions whereas DSD filters the time signal. FDM and DSD are compared using model signals with known parameters and the spectrum for myoglobin. From these experiments, it is observed that results from DSD are at best comparable to FDM. In this direct comparative study, FDM is the better method.
Puppetry is an art form that more often than not fades out of our lives as we grow older. We can see wonderful puppetry work on family and educational television shows like Sesame Street. It is sad that in America, puppetry has been labeled "For Children Only." Its many complex and exciting forms are not taken advantage of. In the world of live theater, directors, designers and actors collaboratively create a world on stage and tell a story to the audience members viewing the performance. By using puppetry, masks and alternative storytelling techniques, the story can be told in new and imaginative ways. In my research performance project titled, The Poe Play audiences were transported into a world inspired by five different Edgar Allan Poe short stories and poems. Puppets walked among live actors, many actors were given new faces with the use of masks, animals appeared in thin air and things were never what they seemed. By making the most of each moment in a theater piece and utilizing puppetry, mask work and other techniques the audience can be affected in ways never before achieved. With this approach the audiences' perception of reality is challenged and they must succumb to the new rules of the world created around them. Puppetry is limitless in its potential and is an art form that opens the door to new methods of storytelling magic.
System Remyelination in the MS Model Using Predifferentiated Emryonic
Stem Cell Transplantation
More than 2,500,000 people around the world suffer from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is a demyelinating disease that results from loss or damage of myelin, a protective white matter that ensheaths axons in the nervous system. Upon damage or loss of myelin, nerve signal transmission is halted, and consequently, many function of the body become compromised. Recent studies by Dr. Keirstead have shown that central nervous system remyelination could be achieved by transplanting embryonic stem cells at sites of experimental demyelination. However, differentiation of these stem cells has been random, and their migration across regions of demyelination has been limited. These limitations are due to unknown factors that operate at sites of demyelination. In this study, we have hypothesized that in-vitro predifferentiation of embryonic stem cells would increase the degree of transplant-mediated remyelination. Predifferentiation of embryonic stem cells was achieved by treating stem cells with growth factors in-vitro. These cells were then transplanted in an MS model, which was obtained by pre-injecting mice with the neurotropic Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV). Assessment of remyelination involved quantifying newly formed myelin membranes using toluidine blue staining of transverse spinal cord sections. In addition, cryostat sections were visualized to determine the extent of cell migration. Preliminary results indicate successful differentiation of stem cells into oligodendrocytes (myelin cells), and an improved cell migration. Quantification of remyelination is currently being conducted. If significant remyelination is obtained, then predifferentiated stem-cell transplantation could potentially be a treatment for MS.
For as long as there has been gang violence in Los Angeles, there have been "innovative" programs and interventions designed to stop such violence. In Los Angeles County, gang related homicides now account for between 35 and 40 percent of all homicides. (Klein, 1995). This number is much higher in particular neighborhoods of the city. For instance in Boyle Heights, gang homicide accounts for 75% of all homicides while in Watts the number is only slightly lower at 60%. Obviously, few of these "innovative responses" have proved effective in combating the death and misery caused by gangs and their members. However, that has not stopped interested parties from espousing particular approaches to gang violence. The criminal justice response to gang violence relies on suppression tactics such as increased patrol and/or increased incapacitation by conducting massive "sweeps" (e.g., "Operation Hammer"). Street gang workers and social service providers employ interventionist tactics such as increasing employ-ment/education opportunities or by conducting conflict resolution sessions between gangs. One particular intervention that gained considerable nationwide attention was the gang truce negotiated among several gangs from the Watts neighborhood. While anecdotal evidence suggests that such truces may be an effective method to break the cycle of gang warfare on a more permanent basis, such claims have never been empirically tested. The purpose of this research was to determine if statistical evidence supports the claims of the truce supporters, i.e., that there was a dramatic decrease in gang homicide among gangs in the affected area.
Optical communications networks rely on the ability to route signals from many sources onto a single optic fiber, and then after traveling some distance, to separate those signals out again. One network component that can be used to separate the signals is a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). An FBG consists of an optic fiber with a section whose index of refraction changes periodically. The periodic change causes the fiber to reflect a particular wavelength of light while transmitting the others through the length of the fiber. The wavelength that gets reflected depends, in part, on the index of refraction, which changes with temperature. Our intention is to implement a device that can control the temperature of an FBG and thus control the reflected wavelength. In this device, heating is achieved by passing a current through a metal strip deposited on the FBG. The metal layer acts as a temperature dependent resistor. As the current flows through the metal strip a voltage is generated that depends on the resistance. The device detects this voltage and compares it to an adjustable reference value so that the amount of heating is automatically adjusted.
Optical signal transmission using fiber cables has become a main stream in communication industry. Optical signal transmission is favorable due to its low signal loss, high-speed, and high capacity. However, operations under some limitations raise the cost of the system and reduce the availability of this technology to the public. One of the major costs in the optical transmission system is at the signal splitting and filtering process. Signal process is usually done in the form of electrical signals. The optical to electrical and electrical to optical conversions introduce high cost and low efficiency to the processing systems. To overcome these challenges, many researches have focused on the development of optical switches and filters using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology. One of the research approaches is to construct micro-mirrors that redirect optical signals as the mirrors rotate in different angles due to electrostatic force. When mirrors are in micro scale, precision control of the mirror movement is crucial and difficult. In a desirable feed back control system reflected optical signals from the mirrors should be observed by an optical sensor that generates reference and feed back signals. An experimental module which includes Laser, focuser, precision alignment stages, and a quadrant photo detector is set up and operated to test the sensitivity of the quadrant photo detector. Micro-mirrors are held in place with the laser and the photo detector and the contact between laser beam and the surface of micro-mirror is observed and aligned under microscope which is held with various angles from the normal to the sample.
Fifteen million people worldwide will be diagnosed with cancer this year. Cancer cure and survival depend on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Early detection permits minimally invasive treatment and greatly improves the patient's chances of long-term survival. This project focused on developing a fast, reliable non-invasive modality for the clinical early detection and diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy. In 300 hamsters with healthy and dysplasic cheek pouches, topical ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acid, was applied to produce protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence. In 150 animals ultrasound at 1 or 3.3 MHz with a total intensity of approx. 0.3W/cm2 was applied to cheek surfaces for 5 seconds prior to sacrifice 20-180 minutes later. In another 75 animals, 20% ALA in OPLO (Oral Pluronic Lecithin Oranogel) was applied topically to the cheek pouches prior to sacrifice 20-180 minutes later. In the control group, another 75 animals, 20% ALA in Eucerin only was applied prior to sacrifice 20-180 minutes later. Directly after sacrifice, cheek pouch tissues were excised then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Routine 6um cryosections were used for fluorescence measurements and histological evaluations to determine optimum acceleration modality and any potential effects of this modality on diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Data analysis is currently underway. This work will identify optimal ultrasound technique, parameters for acceleration of PpIX fluorescence. It will quantify effects of ultrasound parameters on time-based PpIX fluorescence development, intensity and localization and hence on detection sensitivity and specificity. This multi-use capability will immediately produce a sharp drop in cancer-related suffering.
The events of September 11th have profoundly affected every Americans life. Whether a person immigrated to this country or was born here, the terrorist attack against the United States has opened up the eyes of every one of America's citizens. In the wake of the attacks, it is important to examine the political role the United States plays abroad. India, a country that is strategically important to the United States in the war on terrorism has had an unusual relationship with the United States in the past. This study briefly examines the history of India and how it became a country, the past relationship between the United States and India, and India's current situation with the United States. Additionally it examines factors such as India's global market, the population of South Asian Indo Americans in the United States, and the war on terrorism to predict the future relationship of the United States and India. The findings in this study will hopefully increase the awareness of the United States influence and involvement abroad as well as demonstrate the importance of a healthy relationship between the United States and India.
The optical fractionator, a stereological technique, was used to estimate total number of proliferating neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of mice in order to determine whether Neotrofin, a PABA-derivative of hypoxanthine currently in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease stimulates neurogenesis. Adult mice (5-7 per group) received Neotrofin intraperitoneally at doses ranging from 0.01-mg/kg to 100-mg/kg. Saline was given as a negative control. Starting two hours after treatment, the mice were given four intraperitoneal injections of BrdU at 3-hour intervals. Twenty-four hours after treatment with Neotrofin the animals were perfused with ice-cold paraformaldehyde. The brains were post-fixed in paraformaldehyde for 24 hours and then transferred to 30% sucrose for 3 days. Coronal sections (40-µm) were then prepared. Every 6th section (SSF = 1/6) of the entire hippocampus was immunostained for BrdU and sampled (while blind to all treatments) with an area-sampling fraction (ASF) of 0.4275 and a thickness-sampling fraction (TSF) of 1. After a pilot study demonstrated that these fraction values satisfied the minimal sampling requirements for the optical fractionator, a full analysis was conducted. The stereological findings revealed an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve with significantly more BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus at dosages of 0.1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg as compared to control. Thus, a single administration of Neotrofin stimulates proliferation of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus in mice. These stereological techniques were also applied to the analysis of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone using the same animals and this will be discussed.
and mobile computing are among the fastest growing technologies in the
field of telecommunications. In recent years, the U.S. government has
began the allocation of Digital Spread Spectrum, a technology that benefits
users in the cellular and the Internet world. With the emergence of the
spread spectrum technique, the underlying vision for personal communication
services of allowing users to communicate, at any time, location and form
has become a reality. Along with the expansive growth of cellular networks,
cordless telephony is also believe to provide new application services
that is more suitable and cost effective for low power embedded systems.
One of the areas of interest for cordless telephony is the concept of
adapting wireless data applications operating within a limited coverage
region. The main goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility
of providing wireless data transmissions using existing cordless telephone
technologies. It is an industrial joint-venture research project between
Conexant Systems Wireless Communications Division and the UCI Center for
Embedded Computer Systems. This research investigation is conducted by
using Conexant's development station and its "Merlin" chipset,
an 8-bit 6502 microprocessor for the 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Digital Spread
Spectrum cordless telephones.
Induction of Interferon-Inducible
Protein by Beta-Amyloid and Aging
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of amyloid b (Ab) peptides in the brain in the form of amyloid plaques, which damage and kill neurons. However, the signaling cascade leading to Ab-induced neurodegeneration is largely unknown. To gain insight into the signaling cascade, this study attempted to identify Ab-induced genes in rat hippocampi expressing fragments of mutant amyloid precursor protein (MSH-b). The current study found both interferon-inducible protein (IFI) 10 and 16 were up-regulated by the expression of MSH-b. Furthermore, the expression of these proteins was up-regulated by aging. The analysis of expression levels in the human equivalents of IFI-16 in Alzheimer's diseased brains and their age matching equivalent showed varied expression from aging with a slight increase in Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of expression levels of different interferons identified the up-regulation of interferon-? (IFN-?) and down-regulation of interferon-a (IFN-a) by MSH-b. In addition, aging appeared to up-regulate both IFN-? and IFN-a, suggesting induction of these proteins is affected by Ab and aging. These results suggest IFI's are induced by Ab and aging via IFN-?. Interferon-inducible proteins and IFN-? are known to be involved in inflammatory response and thus may be involved in Ab induced injury responses in Alzheimer's disease.
Based on social learning theory, locus of control (LOC) develops as a learned, generalized expectation where events or outcomes in ones life depend on forces within or without themselves. External LOC describes the expectation that outside forces such as luck, chance, or fate determine the outcomes of life situations. Internal LOC describes the view that ones own decisions and behaviors determine the outcome of life situations. The research between LOC and ethnicity has well established that minority groups such as African Americans, Asians, and Latinos have a more external LOC than whites in the United States. The main reason offered is the idea that these minorities follow a more collectivist and family oriented view while whites follow a more individualistic and independent point of view. Promotion of an internal LOC within American society also seems to be linked to generational differences in LOC as immigrants have a more external LOC than non-migrants. Research regarding dream recall frequency (DRF) and LOC provides mixed results. In addition, limited research exists regarding dream content and LOC, though support for consistency between personality in waking and dreaming states is evident. This study aims to examine whether LOC affects DRF and LOC in dreams, the latter to support consistency between waking and dreaming states. Differences in DRF between different ethnicities due to a varied LOC are hypothesized. Lastly effects of generation in the U.S. and immigrant status on LOC, DRF and LOC in dreams will be observed.
Physical activity has long been shown to promote the mental well being of individuals; the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit, however, have not yet been completely understood. A possible mediator of this effect is the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule that exerts neuroprotective effects and promotes neuronal plasticity in a variety of brain regions. In the rat model, the induction of BDNF expression has been shown to occur after a short period of exercise (as little as six hours of voluntary running) and remain elevated during extended periods of physical activity. Despite these results, further studies on the relation between physical activity and BDNF regulation in the brain are necessary to extend the practicality of these observations to humans. In this study, we examined the effects of an exercise regimen's continuity and intensity on BDNF regulation. Rats were exposed to two exercise paradigms, continuous versus intermittent voluntary wheel running - a treatment that provided us with a quantifiable mode of activity. The duration of training was for either four or seven total days of activity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were then used to quantify the amount of BDNF protein produced in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the animals. Results from these assays have shown a significant increase in BDNF levels in animals that were more physically active within the continuous exercise paradigms, helping to establish a positive correlation between the amount and frequency of physical activity and neurotrophin regulation in the brain.
My years at UCI have taught me many a thing. I have learned that this campus is a tight-knit community of different groups that don't really mesh well together at all. I have always been an open person and I have always valued understanding. Combating ignorance is my cause and I choose to fight it through my art, which is drama. I recently read a play called "Porcelain" that amazed me with its understanding of the different worlds of homosexuality and Asians in western society and how they are filtered through the media as well. This is a very provocative play that will test the limits of comfort that we are used to in theater and life. Homosexuals of color are a minority within a minority whom are completely underrepresented and underexposed. I plan on representing and exposing them, and in turn, all of us in the process. The show dates are the weekend of May 18/19, and I plan on having discussions about the various topics in and revolving the show. I think that with the racial make-up that UCI comprises, this is an invaluable show to be seen.
The field of oscillating combustion attempts to reduce NOx emissions of combustion processes by 50% and increase thermal efficiency by 5% while maintaining product quality and temperature uniformity. This technology has already achieved reductions between 49 and 90% in NOx emissions in laboratory tests while keeping the CO emissions averaging less than 100 ppm. Our approach to oscillating combustion is slightly different than traditional systems. We adjust the level of premixing in our burner to achieve a resonant oscillation in the exhaust stack of the combustor. This resonance drives a pressure wave into the reaction zone, causing the production of oscillating combustion. This self-excited resonance method produces high heat transfer and rapid mixing in the flame zone to produce an intense reaction. From laboratory tests thus far, many promising results are obtained. However, there are uncertainties that need clarification: (1) The precise mechanism responsible for the NOx reduction; chemical vs. thermal. With our system we can explore these two possibilities by controlling the heat transfer rates while maintaining chemical mixing oscillations. (2) Controllability of the oscillations via fuel-air mixing - In order for our system to self-excite its oscillations, we must adjust the level of premixing in the flame. The sensitivity of the oscillation strength and combustion performance to this mixing variation is not yet known. (3) Effects on the rest of the system - There are other compounds besides NOx in the flue gases such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
Allograft rejection remains a serious concern for transplant recipients as current methods of immunosuppression have serious toxicities and do not aid in prevention of chronic rejection. The immunological synapse (IS) is the junction between T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC). Binding of the APC to the T cell leads to vigorous T cell activity. Hence the IS is a possible target for therapeutic immunomodulation in organ transplantation. Actin polymerization drives T cell membrane reorganization in IS to accept APC. Actin polymerization is ultimately regulated by small Rho GTPases Rho, Rac1 and CDC42. Here we propose to interfere with IS formation by inhibiting Rho GTPase with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOG) to prevent lectin induced T cell proliferation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are isolated from venous blood of euthanized rats on approved IRB protocols. A buffy coat is obtained and diluted in RPMI and layered on Ficoll. After centrifugation, the interface is aspirated and washed three times. PBMC pellet is resuspended in RPMI + 10% FBS. PBMC are transfected with Rho GTPase ASOG (custom made by GIBCO Life Technologies). PBMC assays are carried out on three groups of PBMC: (1) untreated PBMC, (2) PBMC with liposomes but no ASOG, and (3) PBMC transfected with Rho GTPase ASOG. Cells are allowed to proliferate for 72 hours where MTT is added after 6 hours. The plate is read on a plate reader and absorbance recorded at 480 nm. Absorbance is directly related to the number of viable cells.
The world's most common solid organ cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reported in 1.2 million new cases each year and has been shown to overexpress transforming growth factor-b2 (TGF-b2). TGF-b2 is thought to be immunosuppressive and inhibit immune system tumor surveillance. Therefore, by inhibiting TGF-b2 production with antisense TGF-b2 gene therapy we would greatly decrease suppression of tumor surveillance and ultimately tumor incidence. We injected the rat HCC cell line MRH-7777 into the flanks of Buffalo rats to initiate tumor growth. The mature tumor was then implanted into the liver of naïve Buffalo rats. Irradiated MRH cells transfected with antisense TGF-b2 containing pCEP-4 plasmid vector were injected into the flanks of the rats with liver tumor twice weekly along with various control treatments. In the antisense treatment group, 4/7 (57%) of animals exhibited complete tumor regression as compared to 2/23 (9%) for the control groups. In addition the 43% of the antisense group that did not experience complete tumor regression showed considerably smaller and less developed tumors than those of the controls. The marked absence of tumor in the antisense treatment group compared to the controls lends great support to antisense gene therapy being efficacious in the management of HCC and we hope that it will lead to further studies of the merits of TGF-b2 inhibition therapy.
Through the course of US development as a world superpower, policy formulation has become vulnerable to the prevailing national interests of the time. This study aims to probe the effect of US international economic interests in US foreign policy. In citing two historical examples, that of El Salvador's Civil War (1980-1992) and Colombia's current political strife (early 1990s- Present), it is proposed that US foreign policy is not merely aimed at winning each respective war, but also geared towards protecting and furthering US economic interests. This is supported through the analysis of US political involvement in both countries at the commencement of the conflict and the economic aspects of planned solutions to the crisis. The evaluation of US foreign policy results in links between US involvement and negative economic effects of these two particular conflicts. It is then observed that the specific solutions backed by the US, El Salvador's "National Plan," and Colombia's "Plan Colombia," seek to maintain stable political arenas in which US interests can flourish and at the same time instill structures of economic dependence. The goal of this study is to note the effect of economic interests on foreign policy and to assess the future of Colombia's civil conflict in keeping with the US pursuit of its national interests or economic interests.
in Feudal States: A Ligurian Case Study
This study analyzes the criminal statutes of the feudal states of Savignone and Mongiardino in Liguria in present day Northern Italy, as they were enforced during the 1600s and 1700s. At that time, these territories were outside the jurisdiction of the Republic of Genoa. Feudalism was the form of government adopted by the Fieschi family, ruling the area comprising the two rural communities. A detailed picture is provided of the political, social and cultural aspects of this enclave, drawing from the work of the historian Renata Ago, a specialist in feudalism. Data were collected in Genoa and the town of Savignone, where the bibliography was composed, the ancient codes retrieved, and contacts were made with experts in the history of Italian law. The criminal statutes are examined according to the types of behavior penalized, the emphasis given to certain crimes, and the differences existing between the laws of the two townships. The offenses of homicide, rape and robbery are analyzed to reveal how justice was administered in the feudal province. A description of the prevalence of these felonies and the punishment prescribed during the period is used to reflect on the rationale for the punishment adopted and the evolution of the criminal law and its application over that time. The study is expected to contribute to understanding how Italian criminal statutes developed from exercising their influence over a localized area to incorporation into national codes.
I present an optical technique for quantification of tumor vascular parameters in-vivo. Concentration vs. time of indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) are measured in tumor tissue proceeding bolus dose administration. This is achieved using a combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique that facilitates fast measurement of broadband tissue absorption. Absolute concentrations of contrast agent, hemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and water are measured simultaneously. Pharmacokinetic models for ICG and MB are developed to characterize tumor physiology. It is demonstrated that the tissue uptake of small molecular weight contrast agents such as MB is flow-limited, yielding a signal of blood perfusion that directly provides the arterial input function. ICG, in contrast, has a low vascular permeability because of its binding to plasma proteins, and together with the arterial input function, allows for calculation of the vascular permeability constant from the ICG time course. Also, we show the potential to use the measured total hemoglobin concentration to extract the vascular and blood volume fractions. In parallel, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images were acquired using Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Quickly enhanced and slowly enhanced regions of the tumor, corresponding to high and low levels of perfusion-limited transcapillary leakage, respectively, are shown to correlate with corresponding fast and slow dynamics of the MB profile.
Coronary vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States today. Several studies have been carried out in order to quantify coronary vessel characteristics. One method for morphological study of the coronary vessels is casting. Casting is a process of generating a model of an object by pouring a molten substance into a mold and leaving it to solidify so that it takes on the shape of the mold. Using the casting method, this current study focuses on the quantification and reconstruction of the coronary venous system. As part of the current study, swine hearts were prepared and perfused with alcohol-methyl salicylate. A filling mixture, which is composed of a diluted silicone-based compound catalyzed with a curing agent, was injected into the coronary venous system of swine heart under specific physiological pressure. After the catalyzed mixture formed an elastomeric gel, the casted heart was scanned using a conventional Computed Tomography (CT) system and transferred to the Medical Imaging Laboratory for 3-D reconstruction. Data analysis is currently underway. The analysis will provide the missing information on the lengths, angles, and diameters of the first 2-3 generations of the coronary venous tree. If quantitative morphological data of the coronary venous tree can be elucidated, it will enhance the current research on coronary vascular disease. This data will also help physicians in finding new treatments for heart diseases.
Human vision devotes millions of neurons and recruits specific cortical areas for the task of face perception. Faces are unique visual stimuli that allow cognitive scientists to learn more about high-level visual processes and to explore the possible differences between processing of faces and other objects. Previous research has identified two transformations that may specifically affect perception of faces: face inversion and face negation. In our study, we examine effects of inversion and negation on both perception and attention to local and configural face features. We study attention through the use of a flicker task adopted from the change blindness paradigm. Our results show that inversion and negation not only affect perception of faces, but also attention to faces. Moreover, we find that human vision preferentially attends to the eyes rather than the mouth, suggesting an endogenous attention pattern for faces. To further explore attention and faces, we conducted a second study to see if attention can be modulated by emotional expression. Observers completed a visual search task in which dots were placed near the eye or mouth on sets of happy and sad faces. Preliminary results suggest that emotion can influence our attentional strategy since observers attend to the mouth more than the eyes for a sad face, and attend to the eyes more than the mouth for a happy face. The implications of both these experiments will be discussed along with ideas for future directions of face perception research.
We present a novel disk-based multiresolution triangle mesh data structure that supports paging and view-dependent rendering of very large meshes at interactive frame rates from external memory. Our approach, called XFastMesh, is based on a view-dependent mesh simplification framework that represents half-edge collapse operations in a binary hierarchy known as a merge-tree forest. The proposed technique partitions the merge-tree forest into so-called detail blocks, which consist of binary subtrees, which are stored on disk. We present an efficient external memory data structure and file format that stores all detail information of the multiresolution triangulation method using significantly less storage then previously reported approaches. Furthermore, we present a paging algorithm that provides efficient loading and interactive rendering of large meshes from external memory at varying and view-dependent level-of-detail. The presented approach is highly efficient both in terms of space cost and paging efficiency.
I am compiling a comprehensive, to-the-point reference documented with photos and art, which clearly shows the progression and evolution of form and function in headwear throughout the 1800s. A reference such as this, including examples from art rather than simple line drawings, will be useful for theatre technicians, students, and anyone interested in costume, historic dress, and millinery. The reference is illustrated with photography and historic works of art, as well as original artwork created specifically for the project. The data is synthesized chronologically with clear examples and text pointing out the significance, cause, or result of innovations and shifts in style in the context of history.
The effects of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF-a) administered by a peripheral (subcutaneous) route, on motor behavior and central nervous system (CNS) morphology in a rat model of Parkinson's disease are reported here. Following a unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, animals received subcutaneous TGF-a for four weeks and were tested for rotating behavior for a total of twenty weeks. Animals were sacrificed at twentieth week and brains processed for evidence of generation of new neural precursors, mature neurons or fully differentiated phenotypes. In this study we report a 20% reduction in motor deficits in the TGF-a infused animals twenty weeks after the lesion. Analysis of the brains of TGF- infused animals reveal the presence of recently generated neurons in the multiple areas of the forebrain and midbrain. We report here that peripherally administered TGF-a may induce functional recovery from CNS damage through heretofore-unreported in vivo mechanisms that may include mobilization of neural stem cells into areas of the brain that are acutely denervated, and their differentiation into functional neurons resulting in a reduction for the motor deficits induced in this animal model.
Concern about the meaning of human existence has taken precedence in an age increasingly dominated by the spread of technology. The following questions serve as starting points in dealing with the challenges we face amidst the increasing opposition between machine and human forces. Can the machine replace the human body or mind? What more does humanity represent than just a complex series of functions? The threat of technology is a real one. Mechanization is not merely a problem of loss of jobs; but is about the loss or erasure of the self. The threat brings into question the little that we hold in society. We may vote and speak freely; but we realize all too painfully how powerless we really are. So much is at stake at the mercy of just a few. And never before have these few been so helpless in the growing problems, which seem to be insecure. The promise that technology unites and empowers us with control now seems to be taking control. Machines have already taken control over large areas of human life. Machines are here to stay. The question of identifying our humanity and leading a humanesque life in a technological age becomes prominent. But what is a world full of machines without man.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that afflicts 1% of the world's population and costs the health-care community at least $17.3 billion per year in treatment expenses. Although the causes underlying schizophrenia remain unclear, theories have suggested the involvement of glutamate receptors in the brain. Two different types of glutamate receptors, excitatory and inhibitory, exist. A possible involvement of excitatory receptors remains controversial and inhibitory receptors have not been studied. Accordingly, this study looks at inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors. While it is not yet possible to study such receptors directly in brain, it is now known that they also are involved in an ability to taste monosodium glutamate (MSG). This study uses a novel taste test paradigm to establish taste thresholds and, thus, glutamate receptor sensitivity. Schizophrenics and normal controls were asked to distinguish between cups containing water and cups containing MSG solutions. Solution concentration was increased until subjects could identify just noticeable differences. Six patients and four controls have been examined. As shown by a comparison of mean thresholds between patients (18.76 + 24.42 millimolar) and controls (4.23 + 2.91 millimolar), results to date are similar for the groups. However, a majority of the patients tested thus far had undergone successful pharmacotherapy and possessed only mild positive symptoms at the time of testing. Two patients with moderate symptoms had much higher thresholds (>35.00). Ongoing recruitment is focusing on patients who are more symptomatic.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act has had a profound impact on the way people treat each other in the workplace. People are no longer allowed to discriminate because of a person's "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." One of the most controversial questions being asked about Title VII is what exactly does it mean to be discriminated against "because of sex" and does this include sexual orientation. Rulings immediately following the passage of Title VII made it clear that sex discrimination only meant protection against discrimination because of ones anatomical sex. For instance, a woman discriminated against because she was biologically woman and not a man, a quality that is clearly out of her control would violate Title VII. Price Waterhouse v Hopkins (1989) broadened the definition of sex quite a bit because in this case the Supreme Court ruled that a company cannot discriminate against somebody because they fail to live up to a sex-stereotype. In this case, Anne Hopkins was a woman who was thought to act too aggressive and people told her she needed to go to "charm school," which prevented her from getting promoted. The Supreme Court found this in violation of Title VII. Sex stereotyping is a form of gender discrimination based on a person's demeanor, which the Supreme Court has now made a subpart of sex discrimination. In a recent 9th Circuit court opinion, a transgendered person was grated protection "because of sex", which stretches Title VII even further. This expansion of sex makes sense according to sociological studies. Gender is really made up of three main categories: 1. Demeanor, 2. Occupation, and 3. Sexuality. Sexuality is a pivotal part of what makes up a person's gender and so based on research regarding the most recent Supreme Court and Federal Court rulings, sexual orientation merits protection from discrimination under Title VII.
It is with the rise of current events that intense attention has been given to women and their existing status in Middle Eastern countries. From an academic perspective, this wields one of the most opportune times to once again reevaluate and critically examine women and how their roles are constructed. In this analysis, rather than approaching it from a sociological or psychological perspective, this research has sought to analyze from a critically ethical and philosophical basis. This project will examine historical and cultural positions of women and philosophically analyze the formation of their gender construction. The compiling of this information will then be processed to see what stances can be made, what conclusions gathered. The research will then be presented in two distinct parts. The first will be a lengthy and detailed essay of critical work that discusses construction and connects it to the current standing conditions in the Middle East. The second will be a paper presented in the philosophical tradition as a dialogue. This dialogue form allows ethical issues to be debated and critiqued from two opposing sides, between two or more characters. This form allows for the fine layers of complexity in this type of situation to be revealed. The finding's of this study hope to shed light on the conditions on women in certain areas of our world and further our capacity to sensitively analyze the complex system of gender construction before us with respect to this region.
This presentation is an introduction to Langmuir probes. The topics discussed include an overview of the theory and operation of the probe as well as the steps involved in the construction of the probe. While the dimensions of the probe are unique to my project, the steps and procedures followed are useful to anyone building a probe. The presentation also includes graphs and data analysis of observations taken and repeated with my Langmuir Probe.
The general aim of the research was to investigate wound healing and Extracellular Matrix remodeling in the lung as applies to respiratory diseases such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis that afflict about 15 million people in the United States alone, over 5% of the population. This goal was accomplished by studying engineered cylindrical airway tissues in a mechanical Minute Pressure Detecting Apparatus created from scratch. Cylindrical Airway Tissues were generated by seeding epithelial cells on the inner wall of a fibroblast and collagen mixture annulus prepared in a special bioreactor. Fibroblast and epithelial cells were appropriately cultured, harvested, and manipulated. The Minute Pressure Detecting Apparatus yielded pressure change, minute pressure, and airflow measurements in the tissues. The Apparatus system consisted of a laptop computer fitted with a Data Acquisition Card and LabView software used in conjunction with a Validyne pressure transducer and carrier demodulator. Dwyer flow rotameters were used to measure and control airflow through a Cole-Parmer pipe network in the system that connected a gas source to the cylindrical airway tissues and the Apparatus. After calibration, minute pressures between 0.0 and 15.0 (+ 0.1) inches of H2O were measurable. The addition or removal of a Cole-Parmer flow oscillator to the system yielded oscillating or constant pressure profiles. This system allows for numerous, reproducible, and alterable laboratory simulations that mimic normal and abnormal in vivo tidal breathing patterns and environments. These attributes make the Minute Pressure Detecting Apparatus versatile, applicable, and valuable.
My research project deals with a comparison between Mesa Court residence halls at UC Irvine and the McLean Environmental Living and Learning Center (ELLC) at Northland College in Wisconsin. What warrants a comparison between residence halls at these two institutions is that the ELLC has sustainable design features, commonly referred to as "green design". William H. Mansfield III (former deputy executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme) stated that the ELLC is "One of the most environmentally advanced residence halls in the world." The ELLC can serve as an example for other institutions because it has renewable energy technologies and is resource efficient. The demand for housing at UC Irvine has increased over the past several years. Enrollment reached a record-breaking level in 2001. The increasing amount of students on campus has resulted in a pressing demand to meet the housing needs of this university. Mesa Court's recent expansion of its dormitories is one answer to the housing problem. In addition, there are future plans for East Campus Student Apartments. This research project analyzes the degree to which Mesa Court's residence halls have sustainable design and how such design can be improved in the future. This project also addresses the ELLC as a resource efficient residence hall with the hopes that such efficiency can be adopted at UC Irvine.
Earlier studies form this laboratory have demonstrated the presence of oxidative stress and its role in the pathogenesis of lead-induced hypertension (HTN). This study was designed to determine whether oxidative stress in animals with lead-induced HTN is associated with dysregulation of the main antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) or glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Immunodetectable Cu, Zn SOD, Mn SOD, CAT and GPX were determined (by Western blot analysis), in the kidney, brain and left ventricle of control and lead-exposed rats (given drinking water containing 100 ppm lead acetate for 12 weeks). Subgroups of the study animals were treated with IV infusion (180 umol/Kg/hr) of the superoxide trapping agent, tempol, and arterial pressure and urinary nitric oxide (NO) metabolite (NOc) excretion were determined. Lead exposure for 12 weeks resulted in a marked rise in systolic blood pressure (BP) and a significant reduction in urinary NOc excretion. Rats with lead-induced hypertension exhibited a mild increase in kidney and brain Cu, Zn SOD coupled with normal Mn SOD, CAT and GPX in the kidney, brain and left ventricle. Infusion of tempol for 30 minutes in the lead-exposed group significantly lowered arterial pressure and raised urinary NOc excretion (but had no effect in the control group) pointing to increased O2- activity in the lead-exposed animals. Thus, rats with lead-induced hypertension exhibit evidence of increased superoxide activity, which does not appear to be due to a primary reduction of Cu, Zn SOD, Mn SOD, CAT or GPX.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is unknown whether TLE can compromise specific cognitive functions such as memory or perception. This study examines the effect TLE may have on both tactile and auditory perception. Twenty subjects with epilepsy and 20 neurologically normal controls between the ages of 20 and 50 were recruited. A total of ten tactile tests were administered to each subject. Tactile perception was measured using a grating orientation test, a groove width test, and the Von Frey test. Data analysis is currently underway. The performance of the epileptic subjects will be compared to that of the controls on each of the perceptual tests. These data may provide evidence for cognitive dysfunction, particularly perceptual dysfunction, in people with temporal lobe epilepsy. The results may also illustrate that a seizure focus in one part of the brain can affect the physiology of anatomically remote brain regions.
Slave religion, the "invisible institution," was a foundation for survival and a means to achieve spiritual freedom in the life of the American slave. This is also true for the literary slave narrative, which was an outcry against slavery, told from the bellows of deep-rooted anger, pain and a newfound pride in freedom. In the slave narrative, the drive to expose the grotesque cruelty and the perversion of law and religion used in order to justify and maintain that "peculiar institution" combines with the suture of Christianity. The purpose of this study is to observe the role of Christianity within the slave narrative through examining rhetoric, imagery, formulas, and the ways in which it conjures pathos within the reader. I explore how Christianity operates in these narratives as a pervasive element in understanding life, commanding personal thought and action, as well as a rubric for right and wrong, good and evil. The narratives depict Christianity as a common reality for many slaves while functioning underneath as a rhetorical ploy, equalizer, and a means for establishing authority. Moreover, using Christian rhetoric and confronting the issue of slavery from a moral standpoint when it existed as a political institution was often the only way that these autobiographers were going to obtain a readership that was willing to listen, organize, and assist. Thus, the goal of many of the narrators was to make the political moral, to put a scarred face to an economic system that rested upon and profited from denying humanity.
The legal profession has a major influence over the American society. Attorneys are involved in the corporate, financial, commercial, political and virtually every institution, which affects Americans. Due to the significant responsibility the profession undertakes, it is essential that it be maintained at top order. Nevertheless, in recent years the legal profession has undergone adverse changes in its legal culture. According to Mary Ann Glendon, author of A Nation Under Lawyers, over the past three decades the backbone of the legal profession has been eroding. In particular, she argues that one such negative transformation is the removal of almost all moral suasion from the rules of ethics regulating the profession. The current codes of conduct fail to mention the ideal behavior that should be followed in order to maintain an honorable and respectable profession, and only identify actions that are not permissible. The proposed study aims at investigating how this lack of morals and ethics in the regulation of attorney conduct, have negatively affected the profession, and the attorney perceptions of this new phenomena. The investigation is a two-fold process. First, questionnaires were distributed to about 100 attorneys in order to inquire about their perceptions of the issue. Second, about 20 attorneys were given in-depth interviews, seeking to pinpoint factors, which lead to the changes in the ethics codes, and the negative consequences that have resulted from these changes. The findings of the study are expected to increase our understanding of the effectiveness of the codes directing the legal profession.
Changes in Photosynthetic
Traits With Evolution of Separate Sexes
Schiedea salicaria (Caryophyllaceae) is a gynodioecious Hawaiian plant species with populations consisting of hermaphrodites and a low (12%) frequency of females. There is little morphological differentiation between female and hermaphroditic plants. The existence of closely related gynodioecious and dioecious species suggests that changes in biomass allocation to male and female function and related physiological traits may be heritable with significant genetic correlations, and this species may be in the process of evolving greater differentiation between the sexes. In this study, I measured the heritability of physiological traits in a quantitative genetics study using paternal half-sibships. Physiological traits were measured using an infrared gas analysis system (IRGA). Hermaphrodites showed significant heritability in instantaneous photosynthetic rate (A, h²=0.27), and stomatal conductance (g, h²= 0.37), but females did not show significant heritability in these traits. Instantaneous photosynthetic rates showed a significant positive genetic correlation (r=0.39) between the sexes, but instantaneous water use efficiency did not show a significant correlation between sexes. Correlations between morphological traits (stamen biomass, carpel and capsule biomass) and physiological traits were not significant. These results suggest that some physiological traits have the genetic potential for change in allocation patterns.
Speech arises as a result of a highly developed system of rules and representations that exist within our mind. However, disorders do arise, affecting one's ability to communicate. Among these disorders is Broca's aphasia, a family of certain linguistic impairments related to damage caused in the Broca's area of the brain. Those who suffer from the disorder possess a common characteristic of omitting functional words (e.g. will, the) and inflectional morphology (e.g. "plural" -s, -ed). This tendency is commonly referred to as agrammatism. Some describe this purely as a syntactic deficit, claiming that certain syntactic information within the "universal grammar" of Broca's aphasics has been deleted. Proposals such as the Trace-Deletion hypothesis maintain that traces licensed by syntactic movement are deleted during speech production. For instance, in the sentence, "The cat was chased [t] by the dog," the trace [t] follows the verb chased forming a reference to the object cat. Thus, within this framework, the agrammatic aphasic performs at chance when identifying the subject/object role of cat. Unfortunately, this hypothesis fails to include an important property of language: prosody. It seems that prosody is severely disrupted in agammatic aphasics. Current research has shown that prosodic information is used during speech production to re-activate trace within the phrase. Hence, a prosodic deficit would hinder one's ability to re-activate trace appearing as if the trace were deleted. In this study, it will be shown that a prosodic deficit accounts better for the observed patterns of agrammatic speech than a syntactic deficit.
The purpose of this study is to understand the extent to which the Chicano/Latino community responds to governmental initiatives. In addition, the study will examine the degree to which Chicano/Latino activists are forwarding the interest of the community itself. Although the interests of the Chicano/Latino community in California have remained relatively constant over time, with particular needs for political inclusion, economic opportunity, education, and protection from bias, the mobilization of the Chicano/Latino community has varied over time. What's more, the tactics they have used to express their claims, and the particular issues they have focused on, have also changed. For more than four decades, Chicano/Latinos have mobilized in support of or against specific legislation that have targeted their community. This study will examine the development of Chicano/Latino mobilization through time while indexing and analyzing the activities in which this specific group has participated. It is projected that Chicano/Latinos have been more reactive than proactive in addressing issues that are relevant to their community.
The Calcineurin (Cn)-NFAT pathway is believed to be involved in fiber-type specificity, and it is proposed that the pathway is a transducer or sensor of intracellular Ca2+ levels, as they dictate phenotypic variations. Compensatory overload studies allow the investigation of cell-signaling pathways regulating both hypertrophy and shifts in myosin heavy-chain (MHC) fiber-type expression. To test the involvement of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway in controlling the expression of various myosin heavy chain isoforms, rat hindlimb plantaris muscles (fast muscle) were either overloaded or treated with CsA. Phenotypic changes, proportions of mRNA levels, and total protein for each of the MHC isoforms were observed. We hypothesize that both MHC mRNA and MHC protein expression will be shifted to slower isoforms in overloaded muscle and that CsA will prevent both hypertrophy and fast to slow fiber-type conversions, if the Cn-NFAT pathway is essential in the regulation of fiber type. We found, however, that CsA does not block increase in fiber size nor does it prevent fiber type conversions in overloaded muscle. A conversion in the hypertrophied muscle was observed in that independent of CsA administration, MHC isoforms decreased for fast type IIB fibers and increased for the slower type IIA/IIX fibers. This demonstrates that there are other cell-signaling pathways responsible for controlling changes in fiber size and phenotypic fiber type conversions.
An aircraft performance study of maximum cargo weight was developed using an experimental approach. The free design parameter was main wing aspect ratio. Ten model airplane wings were built with aspect ratios 6 through 15. Each wing was mounted on a remote controlled airplane, which was subsequently loaded with lead weights. More weight was added after each successful flight until the plane could no longer fly level. The study found that as aspect ratio increased, the weight of the wing increased; however the lift produced by the wing also increased. Low aspect ratio wings were lighter, but produce less lift. High aspect ratio wings were heavier, but produce more lift. The study found an aspect ratio with an optimal balance of wing weight and lift, which carried the heaviest load. Using the experimental results, a model was developed with Microsoft Excel. The results demonstrate the relationship among aspect ratio, wing weight and cargo weight.
The risk of stroke is greater in males compared to premenopausal females. Studies suggest that gonadal hormones are responsible for this gender difference in modulating vascular tone. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine the effects of testosterone on cerebrovascular reactivity and thromboxane production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) isolated from orchiectomized (ORX) and testosterone-treated ORX (ORX+T) male rats. Briefly, resistance sized arteries (~150 mm) were cannulated, pressurized (60 mmHg), and superfused with physiological saline solution (pH 7, 37oC). Following 1 hr equilibration, a concentration response curve to the potent vasoconstrictor, U-46619 (thromboxane mimetic; 10-9-10-6 mol/L) was generated and intraluminal diameter was recorded using a video dimension analyzer. Western analysis was used to measure thromboxane synthase protein levels in isolated, homogenized vessels from ORX and ORX+T rat brain. In addition, an ELISA kit was used to determine thromboxane production in 4 mm MCA segments incubated in a physiological buffer solution for 6 hrs. Constrictor responses to U-46691 were not different between groups. However, thromboxane synthase protein was greater in cerebrovessels from ORX+T compared to ORX. Additionally, thromboxane production was enhanced by chronic in vivo testosterone treatment in ORX males. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone increases thromboxane synthase and the vasoactive factor, thromboxane, independent of U-46619 vascular responses.
Colonias are unplanned settlements forming within two hundred fifty miles of the United States-Mexico border. Colonias are characterized by low educational attainment, substandard housing, inadequate access to clean drinking water, and inadequate sewage disposal and plumbing systems (Colonia Fact Sheet 1988). Of known colonias, a majority are located within the state of Texas; thus providing us with the majority of known data on border towns. Relatively little research has been done on colonias located in other states, particularly in California (Velez-Ibanez 2001). Using ethnographic means, this study examined a colonia in Southern California in order to draw a comparative analysis of colonias in Texas and California. Preliminary analysis shows that California colonias are very similar to those found in the state of Texas in that they exhibit many of the main characteristics found in Texas colonias.
Southern California beaches attract numerous beachgoers year round due to the long coastline and temperate climate. Viral contamination in coastal beach waters can be a health risk to beachgoers as well as a concern to both the state and county health departments. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor coastal waters on a regular basis for viral contamination in order to insure public health. In this study, the CentraMate Tangential Flow Filtration System was used for viral concentration in order to test for the efficiency of viral recovery from coastal waters. This allows us to detect viruses in coastal, as well as other aquatic environments. Specifically, we compared the efficiency of viral recovery using 10L coastal water samples, and two different types of membranes, 30KD Omega filtration membrane and 30KD-cellulose membrane. Sampling of coastal water was conducted at Huntington Beach, in Orange County, CA from November 2001 to April 2002. The filtration system with a 30KD Omega filtration membrane yielded a recovery range from17.89% to 88.3% with an average viral recovery of 42.32%. The efficiency of viral recovery with the 30KD cellulose membrane was 28.35% for a two-sample analysis. Thus, the 30KD Omega filtration membrane allows for more efficient filtration.
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is followed in all instances by posttraumatic degeneration, which leads to progressive tissue loss and cystic cavitation. Cellular and humoral immune responses have been implicated as mediators of posttraumatic degeneration, and the expression of specific leukocyte chemoattractants has been shown to precede immune cell influx into the injured CNS. However, regulation of the cascade of proinflammatory molecule expression and immune cell recruitment into the traumatized CNS is poorly understood. Here we show that the lymphocyte chemoattractant CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 10 is upregulated after injury to the adult mammalian spinal cord, and that antibody neutralization of CXCL10 in injured animals dramatically reduces the CD4+ T lymphocyte invasion that normally occurs after trauma. This treatment resulted in a significant reduction of posttraumatic tissue loss and locomotor deficit. We conclude that CXCL10 plays a critical role in the recruitment of CD4+ T lymphocytes to sites of spinal cord injury, and that a reduction of the robust CD4+ T lymphocyte response to CNS injury significantly benefits tissue preservation and functional outcome following spinal cord injury.
Injury to the central nervous system is a serious clinical issue that has been difficult to overcome. The unsuitable environment created by an injury inhibits the proper regrowth and facilitation of functional recovery. In our study we focused on the therapeutic capacity of Human Olfactory Ensheathing Glial (OEG) cells acquired from the human olfactory epithelium via an FDA-approved protocol. Building upon previous attempts to grow and amplify these cells in vitro, we were successful in mass-producing them for transplantation. Spinal cords of thirty adult rats were injured using the NYU contusion device. Five to seven days after injury, approximately 250,000 OEG cells were transplanted into the injury site of fifteen animals while the remaining animals were not injected but were used as controls. Six weeks after transplantation, the motor cortices of all animals were injected with tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran amine (RDA) for anterograde tracing of the corticospinal tract. We observed behavioral and cellular differences amongst the transplanted and non-transplanted groups.
Studies in rats and human subjects have indicated that stress and stress-activated glucocorticoid hormones (=cortisol) induce memory retrieval deficits. The present study examined the involvement of the hippocampus in mediating stress hormone effects on memory retrieval. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a water-maze spatial task to find a submerged platform. Retention was tested 24 h after training with a free-swim probe trial. Sixty min before retention testing, the glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (5 or 15 ng in 0.5 ml) or vehicle was microinfused into the hippocampus. RU 28362 infusions impaired retention performance assessed both as decreased time spent in the quadrant containing the platform during training and longer latencies to cross the platform location. A subsequent study showed that lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region modulating stress hormone effects on memory function, blocked the impairing effect of intra-hippocampal RU 28362 infusions on memory retrieval. These findings indicate that the hippocampus contributes to the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on long-term memory retrieval and that the BLA interacts with the hippocampus in regulating memory retrieval. These findings have implications for human cognitive functioning: stressful events such as job interviews or academic examinations induce the release of glucocorticoids into the blood stream and can result in memory retrieval impairments. Furthermore, increased circulating cortisol levels are found in human subjects with mental depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's Disease. Identification of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such glucocorticoid-induced memory retrieval impairments may result in new therapies. Supported by NIH Grant GM55246-03 (QKG) and NIHM Grant MH12526 (JLM).
Currently within the European Union a strange phenomenon is taking place: Europeans are beginning to take more responsibility for their own defense. Recent events point to a greater European unity developing outside of, as well as within, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The 1998 British-French summit meeting at St. Malo was an initial signal of this new European role. The St. Malo declaration launched a common defense policy within the framework of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. This declaration stressed the importance of the ability of the EU to "have the capacity for autonomous action...in order to respond to international crises." The St. Malo initiative was seen as an unprecedented shift in British policy, which had always insisted that NATO be the only institution for common defense in the Atlantic Area. Britain has been particularly affected by and involved in the European defense process. Britain's unique 'special relationship' with the United States and its European Union membership make it a nation with both an Atlantic and a European outlook. This study presents how the present British stance arose and how it continues to develop today, including how Britain's new role has promoted the formation of European Security and Defense Policy. This analysis will lead to greater understanding of today's European defense arrangements as shaped by the British role in US-European relations.
Learning and memory become disrupted in people with Down syndrome as they age. This population is especially at risk for Alzheimer's disease because both diseases are thought to be a result of abnormal expression of genes located on chromosome 21. A testing paradigm developed in animal models will be used to examine cognitive functioning in young, middle aged, and older people with Down syndrome. In this subject population, it is expected that visual discrimination learning will remain intact in all subjects. Reversal learning will be impaired in older individuals. Spatial memory will decline at a younger age than object recognition memory. Overall memory functioning is expected to decline with age. Functioning of subjects on these tasks is hypothesized to decline with age because the pathology of AD is characterized by the systematic spread of debilitating lesions originating in the parietal and temporal lobes of the brain.
overarching goal of NASA is to increase the safety and reduce the cost
of space transportation from ground to orbit. Specific targets are to
reduce the probability of crew loss to less than one in 10,000 flights,
and to reduce the cost to orbit to less than $1000 per pound of payload.
The benefits of this include the ability to devote more resources and
time to important scientific experiments, the development of new technology,
and to further our spirit of exploration. NASA's Space Launch Initiative
(SLI) is developing technology for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles
(RLV's), crafts intended to replace the current Space Shuttle as safe
and viable means to transport humans and scientific research equipment
to and from Earth orbit. Flight Mechanics is one of ten technical areas
of the SLI. In order to achieve more aircraft-like operation for these
RLV's, the UC Irvine Flight Dynamics and Control Lab (FDCL) contributes
to this particular SLI technical area through its RLV entry guidance research.
Visual simulations of RLV flight are being developed to aid the performance
evaluation of new guidance methods before production begins on any new
craft. Software such as MATLAB and C++ are used to define spacecraft flight
conditions and to study design performance outputs. The AVDS flight simulator
program is used to produce the visual simulations of spacecraft designs.