The Abelson murine leukemia virus is a retrovirus carrying the oncogene v-Abl and transforms B cell progenitors in fetal liver and bone marrow. The signaling molecule Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in the transformation of pre-B cell lines by v-Abl but little is known about the role of PI3K activation or the need for the various PI3K isoforms in this process. p85a is the predominant regulatory isoform of PI3K in B cells and is required for normal B cell development and proliferation in mice. Here I show that there is little difference in PI3K activation in wild-type and p85a-deficient v-Abl transformed pre-B cells. v-Abl transformed lines showed comparable levels of activation of p70S6-kinase, Akt, and pFKHR which are downstream of PI3K. I also show that treatment of v-Abl transformed cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, inhibited cell cycle progression in both wild-type and p85a-deficient lines, increased apoptosis was only observed in some lines. These data indicate that PI3K acts downstream of v-Abl in Pre-B cells in a p85a independent pathway.
Maneb (MB), Nonylphenol (NP), and (E)-4-[2-(5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-5, 5, 8, 8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid (TTNPB) are endocrine disrupters. MB and NP are usually the active ingredients in various pesticides. Humans are exposed to them when they ingest pesticide-treated food while aquatic life is exposed via the waste and run off that flow into lakes and oceans, which results from industrial plants that produce these chemicals and from pesticide-treated farmlands. TTNPB is a synthetic retinoic acid analog, an active form of vitamin D, and is known to induce malformations in amphibians. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether MB and NP could induce malformations similar to those induced by TTNPB in the hind limbs of African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and to determine whether TTNPB could exacerbate the potentially teratogenic effects of MB and NP. This was accomplished by exposing sixty, pre-metamorphic, stage 50 frogs to MB, NP, TTNPB, MB & TTNPB, or NP & TTNPB (12 per each of the 5 experimental conditions) for three weeks using 20 ug/L, 10ug/L, and 25 ng/L concentrations of MB, NP, TTNPB respectively, where TTNPB functioned as the positive control. After exposure, the animals were allowed to metamorphose and then were fixed, stained and analyzed. In a previous trial, NP induced bony triangle malformations in the hind limbs of these animals. Moreover, it is expected that the amount of time needed to complete hind limb development will be greatest for those exposed to MB, followed by TTNPB and NP.
C1qRP, the C1q receptor that enhances phagocytosis, is a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells and stem cells that enhances FcR and CR1 mediated phagocytosis. The mechanism for signal transduction through C1qRP that leads to the enhancement of phagocytosis is not yet known, however the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor has been shown to play a role in the signal transduction. To identify C1qRP cytoplasmic tail binding proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA library using the C1qRP cytoplasmic tail as bait. This technique selects for proteins that interact with the "bait" by conferring the ability to first grow on selective media and then activate b-galactosidase only when the bait and test protein bind to each other. A total of five independent screens were performed yielding five and a half million transformants, and representing the library 1.5 times. Thirty-four positive clones were identified and sequenced including GIPC, p105, FHOS, CD 34+ Stem Cell Transcript and RanBp. These positive prey plasmids were retested against the C1qRP cytoplasmic tail to verify the reproducibility of the positive signal in the initial screen, and were further tested against six irrelevant bait plasmids as to determine the specificity of the interaction with the C1qRP cytoplasmic tail. GIPC, p105, FHOS and CD 34+ Stem Cell Transcript show specificity for the C1qRP cytoplasmic tail in yeast, therefore current studies are aimed at addressing the physiological consequences of these interactions in mammalian cells.
Violence has been a consistent characteristic of Latin American and Caribbean societies; it takes many forms and has a wide range of social, political, and economic consequences. Historically, violence has been driven by a political motive. However, the political influence on violence has decreased and a developing problem with gang violence continues to intensify. More specifically, in Honduras a total of 340 gangs have been identified and a growing number of youth totaling approximately 15, 000 males and females are involved in gang violence (Castellanos, 2000). The majority of the gangs activities evolve around petty crimes and research on this topic remains extremely limited (Leyva, 2001). The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine gang involvement and activity in Honduras. The specific research questions that will be addressed are: What social factors contribute to Honduran youth and their gang involvement and are Honduran youth risk factors of gang involvement different or similar to those of youth gangs in the United States.
Studies comparing groups of young & old subjects find linear changes associated with aging in a number of psychological & neurophysiological measures. However, recent evidence suggests that there are also dynamic, non-linear changes associated with aging. Target detection is one such task used to study the non-linear changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to use the target detection task and examine neurophysiological processes associated with motor preparation and stimulus expectancy and how they are affected with age. Two groups of elderly were studied (young-old: 60-69 yrs old and old-old: 88-98 yrs old). First the subject pressed a button, then a visual stimulus was presented 2.5 s later (either a green target or red non-target). There were two experimental conditions (press, no press). In the press condition subjects pushed a button in response to targets, while in the no press condition the subjects did not respond. Brain activity (event-related potentials) was recorded using standard procedures. Data analysis is currently underway. Planned analysis will compare brain activity related to motor preparation and stimulus expectancy between the two groups of elderly. The findings of this study will address questions regarding non-linear changes related with aging and also reveal new information regarding compensatory changes that take place in the brain when we age.
Emission of gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter are undesirable byproducts of combustion processes. These pollutants have harmful affects on humans and the environment. For this reason, emissions are an important topic of combustion research. For this project, a system was developed that measures CO, CO2, NO, NOx, HC, sound frequency, sound amplitude, and temperature levels. All of the data acquisition is interfaced to a computer through data acquisition hardware and LabVIEW software. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in a gas are measured by the two Model 880A Non-Dispersive Infrared Analyzers. Hydrocarbon (HC) levels are measured by the Model 400A Hydrocarbon Analyzer. Nitrous oxides (NO, NOx) are measured by the Model 951A NO/NOX Analyzer. Temperature measurements are taken through thermocouples. The console supports four thermocouple slots for a maximum of four locations for temperature measurement. Sound is measured through a lapel microphone. The frequency and amplitude of the signal is analyzed through the LabVIEW software. The interfacing of emissions, temperature, and sound measurement into a single console will provide useful data for current and future research in combustion. Because these measurements can be taken in real-time, correlation between temperature, emissions, and sound level are easily recognizable.
The ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) of the Santa Ana Zoo were the subjects of an observational study conducted December 2001 through March 2002. A main goal of this study was to compare the differences in habitat utilization and activity budgeting between wild and captive populations of ring-tailed lemurs. Robert W. Sussman described the habitat utilization and activity budgeting of wild ring-tailed lemurs at Berenty and Antserananomby, two research sites in Madagascar. He recorded data on six behaviors: feeding, grooming, resting, moving, travel and other. Data were also recorded on which levels of the forest these behaviors occurred. The forest was split up into five levels, separated by environmental characteristics. The methodology used for this project was modeled closely after Robert Sussman's data collecting methods. Data were collected on the number of individuals engaged in each of the six behaviors, and in which levels of the enclosure these behaviors occurred. Instantaneous scan sampling was utilized as the method of data acquisition. Scans of the entire group were conducted at 5-minute intervals during data collection periods. Data are currently being analyzed using SPSS, and will be compared to data from Madagascar. Comparing wild and captive populations of primates brings forth many interesting subjects of inquiry such as the impact of habitat limitation, the effects of provisioning and the effects of the eliminated risk of predation. Comparing captive ring-tailed lemur behavior to wild ring-tailed lemur behavior will also give insight on the adaptive ability of this species.
The Independent Acculturation Model suggests that separation and marginalized acculturation styles indicate higher rates of mental health disorders in Asian Americans. The majority of Korean Americans fall into these two acculturation styles primarily due to language and cultural barriers. In cross-cultural studies that examine depression in Asian American College students, Korean American College students consistently attain a relatively high depression rate. Despite these findings, there have been limited studies that examine acculturation and depression in Korean American College students specifically. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between acculturation, and depression in Korean American College students. Two hundred undergraduate Korean American students from the University of California, Irvine will be surveyed to investigate their acculturation and depression levels. The Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale and the Asian Values Scale will measure acculturation, while the Self-Rating Depression Scale will assess depression. The University Environment Scale and the Perceived Barriers Scale will be implemented to better put into context the observed population. Multivariate analysis of variance, simple regression and correlation statistical tests will be utilized to analyze the data. Expected results are that the less assimilated (separated and marginalized) will report higher levels of depression than more assimilated (assimilated and bicultural) Korean American College students.
The purpose of the proposed study is to seek the various mechanisms that result in vascular hyporesponsiveness due to the effects of simulated microgravity. More specifically, seek the effects of second messenger pathways within the cell. Our hypothesis is that simulated microgravity results in reduced levels of prostaglandin proteins, specifically TXA2. Male Wistar rats were hindlimb unweighted for twenty days in order to simulate microgravity. Animals were euthanised; the abdominal aorta was removed, isolated from extraneous tissues, and cut into even pieces. Each piece was either in the presence or absence of various antagonists such as indomethacin, genistein, UO126, or SB203580 and stimulated with norepinephrine. One set of tissues was only stimulated with arachidonic acid. Then, these tissues were used to collect samples to perform an ELISA assay, which measured levels of Thromboxane A2. Using data analyses, such as SuperAnova and Cricket Graph, we were able to see reduced levels of TXA2 in the presence of indomethacin, genistein, UO126, and SB203580. However, there were higher levels of TXA2 in the HU aorta stimulated with arachidonic acid than that of the Ctl treated tissue. These studies show that the HU treatment has an affect on the levels of TXA2 produced in the abdominal aorta. The proposed study addresses the effects of simulated microgravity on smooth muscle and deals with identifying alterations of second messenger pathways that may underlie the orthostatic intolerance as a result of exposure to microgravity. Revealing these mechanisms allows a basis for development of effective countermeasures that may prevent the resulting adverse effects.
Fluid Dynamics plays an important role in our daily lives from the aerodynamic design of cars and planes to the circulation of blood through our veins. One aspect of Fluid Dynamics is the Couette Flow, in which the flow of fluid between two concentric cylinders is studied. The outer cylinder is held at rest while the inner is rotated. The rotation of the inner cylinder perturbs the fluid between the concentric cylinders, causing instability in the fluid. At sufficient speeds, the fluid forms donut shaped toroidal vortices. When the rotational speed, called the Reynolds number (Re), of the inner cylinder exceeds a critical speed (Rec), the donut shape is altered into a wavy vortex flow. In the experiment, the states of the fluid are shown to be dependent on the final rotational speed of the inner cylinder.
Cardiovascular Deconditioning (CVD) occurs as a result of the hemodynamic shift in body fluids upon exposure to microgravity in Astronauts. In the presence of normal gravitational forces, the blood pressure gradient is 70 mmHg at the head and 200 mmHg at the feet. However zero gravity causes a cephalad shift resulting in a uniform pressure of 100 mmHg. Upon return to normal gravitational forces, the cardiovascular adaptations induce orthostatic intolerance, resting tachycardia and a decreased exercise capacity, which results in vascular smooth muscle hyporesponsiveness. Src is an early and important mediator of the MAP Kinase pathway by which vascular smooth muscle contraction occurs. Previous studies have shown that PP-1, a selective Src inhibitor, blocks Src mediated contraction in the Control (C) but not in the hindlimb unweighted (HU) abdominal aorta. The objective of this study was to compare protein levels and kinase activity of Src in its mediation of vascular contraction in C and HU. Simulation of microgravity was achieved through a rodent ground-based model of 20 day hindlimb unweighting (HU). The C and HU abdominal aortas were isolated, cleaned, stimulated with norepinephrine and PP-1, and shock frozen. Src protein levels and kinase activity were assessed via western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation, respectively. In the HU, Src protein levels were significantly reduced and also its kinase activity exhibited a reduction by 56 percent. These results suggest that the decreased expression and function of Src explain the reduced level of signal in the MAP Kinase pathway.
Without Papers in Southern California
This study investigates the working conditions of Latinas "without papers" who work as housekeepers in the Los Angeles Area. Of importance is how their working conditions, coupled with their status as "undocumented immigrants," puts them at risk of depending on social services for the support of their children who are born in the United States. While there has been much debate as to whether this particular group has become a burden to the state of California, this study looks at the way these women cope with their migratory status and the conditions of their jobs. They are seldom successful in determining their own pay rate and often times their potential employers take advantage of these Latinas migratory status to underpay them. Preliminary finds show that as undocumented workers, Latinas "without papers" work under the constant fear of being fired whenever their employers feel they no longer need them or want them. Findings show a major reason these Latinas lose their job is when they become pregnant. Most employers do not allow these women's small children in the house and prefer to let them go and find someone new. Without proper documentation, from work permits to legal residency, undocumented Latinas are not able to find work other than housekeeping so they are forced to seek social services like welfare or food stamp to provide for their newborns. When asked, most of these Latinas reported that with proper documentation they would be able to find work other than housekeeping, lessening the likelihood of relying on social services after giving birth.
Nearly four decades after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Tinker v. Des Moines Community School District allowed students to wear black armbands as a sign of political protest, the First Amendment rights of students in public school remain unclear. Although the Tinker decision set a precedent that limited the power of school administrators to censor student speech, subsequent decisions reflect the court's growing tendency to view public school as a place meant to foster civility and respect instead of as a "marketplace of ideas" in which students participate in the free exchange of viewpoints. My paper examines the conflicting legal standards being implemented by modern courts, and illustrates how the uneven application of such standards prevents school officials, parents, and students from obtaining a clear understanding of what kinds of expression are legally allowed on school grounds. Finally, I offer my own analysis on how the courts should interpret First Amendment law in public schools, and test the hypothetical legal standard synthesized in the paper with a variety of speech-related theoretical cases.
There is ongoing controversy regarding the appropriate use of narcotic analgesia for patients presenting frequently to the emergency department with subjective pain complaints. On the one hand, doctors want to treat patients' pain, to relieve them of their discomfort with the appropriate use of narcotics. On the other hand, some believe that physicians blindly enable some patients' addiction behavior by giving narcotics freely to any patient with a narcotic request for pain relief. The study attempts to estimate the prevalence of addiction as measured by the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20) in our population that frequently presents to the emergency department with chronic pain complaints. The goal is to compare this prevalence to age-matched controls, and test the accuracy of physicians at diagnosing addiction in our population. The DAST-20 surveys were given to those patients accepting participation via informed consent. For each survey successfully completed in the primary group, an age-matched control patient of Level 4 (the lowest acuity identified in Emergency Department triage) was surveyed. The treating physician who was blinded to the DAST-20 results rated the suspicion of addiction and substance abuse of the patient on a scale of 1 to 10. This was later correlated to the actual findings from the DAST-20 in order to assess the accuracy of the E.D. physicians in detecting addiction.
The oxidation of GTP can result in the formation of 8-oxo-dGTP (dGTP). During replication, dGTP can be incorporated into the template strand in place of GTP. When incorporated into a DNA strand, dGTP appears to chemically resemble thymine leading to DNA mutagenisis. In E. coli, the MutT1 protein preferentially hydrolyzes dGTP into its' monophosphate form, thus preventing its' incorporation into DNA. The MutT2 protein was found to have a structure and function similar to that of MutT1, however MutT2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of CTP, dCTP and 5-methyl-dCTP. Thus, to better understand the structure and functions of these two proteins, I have been investigating what region of the reading frame differentiates a MutT1 protein from the MutT2, specifically in the dGTPase versus dCTPase activity. Through the use of overlap PCR, I have domain swapped regions of the MutT1 and MutT2 genes. There are 3 regions that will be swapped: one upstream, the nudix box, and one downstream region. Thus, by creating new proteins with interchangeable structures from both the MutT1 and MutT2 genes, we will better understand the roles that these regions play in the functionality of these repair enzymes. Data analysis is currently underway and will involve the cloning of these hybrid genes into E. coli strain CC101T [T1-raD(lacI-proB)XIII mutt::Km] carrying an F lacI-Z-proB+ episome in order to measure for mutation frequency. Through our investigations with MutT1, our lab hopes to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA repair.
Article 27 was an essential part of the 1917 Mexican Constitution, originally drafted following the Mexican Revolution from1910-1917. The article proclaimed Mexico the owner of the lands and water of the nation. Furthermore, it established an agrarian reform to redistribute land to the peasants and provided for communal land holdings. For most of the century, Article 27 was a major source of stability for the people of regions like Chiapas, not only providing them with rights to a livelihood, but also giving them a sense of pride and national identity. In preparation for the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari revised Article 27 of the Constitution in 1992. The governmental repeal closed communal land holdings and prompted the selling of such for the purpose of expanding local agribusiness and facilitating the introduction of multinational corporations in to the local economy. The people of Mexico most directly affected by the revision were and continue to be the indigenous and peasant populations in the state of Chiapas. To this end, the majority of these groups have been left without land to farm in a society where survival is contingent upon subsistence farming. This study seeks to examine the consequences of the legislative reform in terms of social and cultural transformations within the indigenous and peasant communities of Chiapas. More specifically, this study investigates the formation of solidarity movements such as the Zapatistas and female-led weaving cooperatives as collective and well-calculated statements of resistance.
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care consumer products in California's rivers, streams, and other aquatic habitats poses a threat on human and ecosystem health. Due to ineffective wastewater treatment techniques, degradation by microbial metabolism of organic compounds, i.e. steroids, detergents, prescription and nonprescription drugs, is not completed during conventional wastewater treatment. Effluents containing these chemical compounds are released, and threaten aquatic species. This study targets caffeine as a model compound for elucidating the environmental fate of these products through analysis of its degradation in three differing aquatic systems: (i) Lotic freshwater represented by San Diego Creek, (ii) Lentic estuarine water represented by Corona Del Mar Pond, and (iii) Seawater, represented by the Pacific Ocean. We are also using a model wastewater bacterium isolate, Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 700097), to develop approaches towards enhancing degradation of specialty chemicals, such as caffeine, in wastewater treatment. Preliminary findings suggest that San Diego Creek water possesses naturally occurring microbe(s) that degrade caffeine efficiently. Spectrophotometer analysis indicates that total removal of caffeine in treated Pseudomonas putida beach and pond water, and both untreated and treated creek water occurred in a course of 3 weeks. Meanwhile untreated pond and ocean water remained contaminated with caffeine. Ongoing research is targeted at isolating strain(s) of caffeine degrading microorganisms existing in the microbial community of San Diego Creek. The research has significant implications for the proposal to chlorinate partially treated wastewater that is discharged by the Orange County Sanitation District directly into the Pacific Ocean.
It has long been established that anatomical maps of the adult rat sensory cortex are not mutable. However, after discovering that moving adult rats from their standard cages to a complex sensorimotor environment (CSE) that promoted natural whisker use induced strong changes in the functional maps of the sensory cortex, we decided to research whether there were any corresponding changes in the underlying anatomical map. For this purpose, the map of anatomical representations of the whiskers of the rat barrel cortex, otherwise known as the Posteromedial Barrel Subfield (PMBSF), was visualized and quantified in coronal and tangential sections through cytrochrome oxidase (CO) reactivity. No significant differences between the brains of rats exposed to the CSE and those kept in standard cages were observed in regards to cortical thickness, the length of the row axis, the distance between the centers of the C1 and C2 barrels, C2 and B2 barrels, individual barrel diameter, or individual barrel area. However, the brains of rats exposed to the CSE showed a significant increase along the lengths of the arc axis in the barrel field (2.48 ± 0.07mm) (unpaired t-test, t = 2.54, p < 0.05). Thus, promoting natural whisker use outside the standard cage can lead to plasticity in the anatomical map of the adult rat sensory cortex. This finding may open a new research avenue on the mutability of anatomical maps.
To combine my interests in creative writing and history, I chose to develop a fictional tale of a young woman living in the United Sates during World War II. By taking the story of a girl's coming of age and setting it in this time period, I hoped to explore not only her individual experience of the war, but also the experiences of many American women at that time. Because the main character who narrates this story does not have a close male relative in the war, she is able to observe the difficulties women face on the home front, including the absence of husbands and sons, balancing a job with the demands of a household, and the question of what should be sacrificed for victory. To discover the reality of these issues, I researched this era in two ways. First using texts like Maureen Honey's Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender, and Propaganda during World War II and The WPA Guide to Illinois, I studied the facts of the war to authenticate the chronology and details of that time. Additionally I turned to sources of popular culture like LIFE magazine and Richard R. Lingman's Don't You Know There's a War On? to get a better sense of the rhythm, emotions and flavor of wartime America. Through the realities of this time period, I worked to build a background of contemporary feminine roles to complicate and enrich the main story of this young woman's struggle to define her self.
The problem of finding an explicit formula for the positive odd values of the Riemann Zeta Function, has existed since the times of Euler. In this project I show how to approximate these numbers by the roots of polynomials in z, , and . I also evaluate many infinite series similar to the following: = . Finally, I illustrate several polynomial functions with product and partial fractions expansions similar to those of the cotangent function. The purpose of this last exercise is to illustrate functions with "nice" partial fractions expansions that have solvable derivatives of all orders.
The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene on the pulmonary and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/1A2 was investigated in mice. Adult male aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive mice were injected on 3 consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthre (25 mg/kg, i.p.) suspended in corn oil. At 24 hours after the last injection, the animals were sacrificed, and their lungs and livers were harvested. CYP1A1/1A2 proteins and the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were analyzed in the pulmonary and hepatic microsomes. The results demonstrate that EROD activity was significantly induced in the 3-methylcholanthre-treated group compared to the control or the oil control group. Similarly, CYP 1A1 protein abundance in the lung and CYP 1A2 protein abundance in the liver were markedly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene. The mechanism of induction of CYP 1A1 and its role(s) in lung cancer is discussed.
Previous research shows that the college completion rate for Latinos falls well below other groups. It has been documented that there is a problem with Latino student's academic persistence. Many factors influence Latino's academic persistence, however this study will examine which social variables contribute to the academic persistence of Latinos in Higher Education. A primary purpose of the study is to investigate the role that social support (family, peers, and mentors) plays in the academic persistence of Latinos. It will examine the perceived discrimination experienced by Latino students in higher education. A survey questionnaire packet will be distributed which includes 8 instruments that will assess the constructs under investigation: social support, environmental support, self-esteem, mentorship and academic persistence. The independent variables that will be examined are social support from family and peers, self-esteem, perceived discrimination, and mentorship. The dependent variable is academic persistence defined as the perception or the likelihood that the respondent would graduate or complete or receive a degree from their college or university. The sample will consist of 150 Latino college students at the University of California, Irvine. Based on the literature, it is hypothesized that family support will be the most influential factor for Latinos' academic persistence. Additionally, it is hypothesized that mentorship will have a greater impact than peer support and that Latinos will report a high perception of discrimination.
Sir Orfeo is a Middle English poem of the fourteenth century (c. 1330) that adapts the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice (Orfeo and Heurodis in this poem) and turns it into a Breton oral poem dressed in medieval and Celtic garb. The adaptation proves a common strain of mythical ideas existing across time and geography. Conceptually it sees the individual split in two: the world of the mundane and the world of nature. The mundane or the quotidian (Orfeo's court) may be viewed as stasis, the incomplete existence that the king must escape in order to face the other world, the world of mysterious and arbitrary nature symbolized by the fairy king who kidnaps his wife Heurodis and sends Orfeo's static world reeling. As the fairies take his wife, the disheartened king renounces his kingdom. His wife's disappearance and his self-exile are instances of movement that oppose contented stasis. The royal couple's static mundanity and order, their quotidian happiness, contradicts the instability of nature, which they seem to ignore. In the end the king returns to his court, a slow progress back to stasis, but nature-fairyland-is never conquered. It remains a menacing presence, a mystery impossible to unravel.
This randomized, double-blind study assessed the effectiveness of SAMe, (S-adenosyemethionine) a molecule that occurs naturally in body tissue and fluids, in relieving pain related to osteoarthritis of the knee compared to the pharmaceutical medication, Celebrex. Subjects underwent an initial assessment to gain entry into the study and then committed to a 18 week regimen of the following: 1 week of wash-out of anti-inflammatory medications, 2 months of treatment A or B, 1 week of wash-out, and 2 months of treatment A or B. Treatment A consisted of SAMe while treatment B consisted of Celebrex. Twenty-six participants that completed the study were evaluated according to their pain, activity, and strength levels throughout the study by assessing related questions on the SF36, WOMAC and COOP questionnaires, as well as a visual analog pain scale. Isometric and isokinetic strength was collected from tests performed on the Biodex machine. Though investigators and participants remain blinded until all the participants have completed the study, it was found that among the twenty-six subjects evaluated there was improvement in pain, activity, and strength levels after ingestion of the first study medication and a smaller improvement after the second study medication. Subjective evaluations from the questionnaires correlated and complemented the objective kinesiology assessments. Therefore, taking a medicine to reduce pain improved subjective activity as well as objective measurements of strength and mobility. Once the study blind will be broken, results will show the relative effectiveness in pain reduction of SAMe versus Celebrex.
Research studies support that Native Americans have underutilized mental health services as a result of distrust, cultural irrelevance in counseling methods, and fear of assimilation. This study explores how Native American's level of acculturation and cultural congruity in the campus environment affects their attitudes toward seeking mental health services. Fifty Native American college students were surveyed to assess the impact level of acculturation and campus cultural congruity has on their attitudes toward seeking psychological services. The survey was comprised of three scales: the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS), Campus Cultural Congruity Scale (CCS), and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (ATSPPS). Multiple regression analysis will be used to examine how the level of acculturation and campus cultural congruity will affect the attitudes toward seeking mental health services. Predicted results will reveal that lower acculturated Native American students will have a lower attitude toward seeking psychological services while higher acculturated Native American students will have a higher attitude toward seeking psychological services. Conclusions for the study will help researcher and psychologists gain a better understanding of how Native American's level of acculturation and campus cultural congruity play a role in their perceptions towards counseling.
Schizophrenia affects an estimated 1% of the US population. Although the precise cause of schizophrenia remains unknown, recent research provides some support for biochemical hypotheses involving abnormalities of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. It is believed that when certain pathways are disrupted, the results include hallucinations and disorganized thought, which are psychotic symptoms currently used to define schizophrenia. Numerous post-mortem studies have identified molecular differences between patients with schizophrenia and controls usually studying single genes at a time. Thus, abnormalities in gene expression may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Using microarrays, samples from a matched set of subjects can be screened to determine genes that are differentially expressed in brain regions of patients with schizophrenia. The microarray methodology is instrumental in identifying candidate genes for further study. We selected four candidate genes previously shown to be differentially expressed by microarray for further quantification by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Quantitative RT-PCR is a powerful tool for measuring mRNA levels because it is more sensitive than microarray. In one application of the technology, small samples of mRNA can be converted to cDNA and then amplified to produce a large number of identical gene fragments. Identification of gene expression profiles in schizophrenia may lead to novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
The current clinical standard for donor heart preservation is cold cardioplegic arrest and storage in a hypothermic crystalloid solution. However this method has its own limitations. The transplantation of the heart after cardioplegia arrest results in an ischemic condition to the myocardium. This method only allows us to preserve the heart for only 4-6 hours in cold ischemic time period resulting in a short window of viability and limiting number of heart donors. Recent methods are directed to extending the cold ischema time of myocardial preservation to extend the cold ischemia time of myocardial preservation. In order to reach that goal scientists have been trying to change the substances that they use in the solution in which they preserve the heart. Our lab has developed a method to extend the preservation of the heart using a method of continuous myocardial perfusion with a hypothermic normokalcemic bovine Hb- solution. Hypothermic perfusion preservation with an oxygen hemoglobin carrying solution may avoid ischemic injury and lead to improved recovery of cardiac function. The purpose of our study is to compare cardiac function after 8 hours of continuous hypothermic perfusion with a polyethylene-glycol-hemoglobin (PEG-Hb) solution to hearts preserved by 4 hours of hypothermic ischemic storage.
Legal and Social Analysis
President Bush's newly established executive office of Faith Based and Community Initiatives raises a host of questions surrounding the separation of church and state. The purpose behind the new office is to expand the scope of "Charitable Choice" legislation, which allows religious groups to compete for federal funding to help them in their work to provide social services. The establishment clause in the Constitution provides that "Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion." This paper first examines the original intent behind the establishment clause as well as the Supreme Court interpretations of it over the past sixty years. The President's Initiative is held to the Supreme Court's current two-part test. While the initiative, and programs like it, is likely to pass constitutional muster on establishment clause grounds, there are potential problems that are likely to occur upon implementation. The civil liberties viewpoint maintains that charitable choice laws threaten religious organizations' autonomy as well as the civil rights of potential program recipients. On the other hand, the social service viewpoint contends that such problems are accounted for in the new legislation. Such views are explicated and analyzed in light of popular support for the Initiative.
Binary star systems are two stars gravitationally bound to each other orbiting around their common center of mass. Our observations focus on an eclipsing binary system. These stars appear as a single point of light to an observer, but based on its brightness variation and spectroscopic observations we can say for certain that the single point of light is actually two stars in close orbit around one another. The variations in light intensity from eclipsing binary stars are caused by one star passing in front of the other relative to an observer. If we assume that the stars are spherical and that they have circular orbits, then we can easily calculate how the light varies as a function of time, called a light curve, for eclipsing binary stars. These photometric observations and calculations can be performed using the UCI Observatory's computer program. Further observations of the eclipsing binary as a spectroscopic binary, using the doppler shift of their spectra where absorption lines shift periodically back and forth relative to each other, can give data for the velocity curves. Using both photometric and spectroscopic results, we can determine properties such as individual velocities, mass, radii, densities, temperatures of the stars, and the true orbital sizes. Because binary stars are easy to observe, their results play an important role in astronomical studies as a guide to accuracy and stellar evolution.
lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy in adults, is
a good model for studying the effect of a single seizure focus on cognitive
function. There is growing evidence that a seizure focus can impair
brain function in between seizures, in the "inter-ictal" state.
The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of TLE on auditory
perception. Twenty subjects with TLE and 15 neurologically normal controls
were tested on 3 psychophysical auditory tasks. The auditory tests
include: a cochlear function test, a brief tone discrimination test
with tone durations of 10msec, 100msec and 200msec, Scan-A and Staggered
Spondaic Words test. Preliminary results show that subjects with TLE
performed significantly worse than controls on all durations of the
brief tone discrimination task, indicating impaired processing of brief
auditory stimuli. Although subjects with TLE generally performed worse
than controls on the SCAN-A and SSW test, group differences were not
significant. These data provide further evidence for impaired auditory
perception in people with TLE. The results indicate that the presence
of seizure focus in one part of the brain can affect the physiology
of areas distant from the focus.
Change Effects on Carbon-Cycling: Radiocarbon Analysis of Alaskan
Historically, northern latitude ecosystems were determined to be large carbon storage sites. The ability of this ecosystem to store carbon below ground is facilitated primarily by low temperatures. Over the past fifty years, the temperature of this area has steadily increased. Eddy covariance measurements suggest the equilibrium of this ecosystem is actually reversing, resulting in a net production of atmospheric carbon in the form of green house gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane. Researchers hypothesize that soil warming is causing old carbon, accumulated since deglaciation in the permafrost layer, to be released into the atmosphere, changing the behavior of these ecosystems. However, eddy covariance measurements can not distinguish sources of carbon lost to the atmosphere. Increased emissions in warm years could simply be the result of increased surface litter inputs to the soil. Alternatively, if previously accumulated carbon is actually being released into the atmosphere, high latitude ecosystems could begin to act as a significant contributor to the global carbon budget. New technologies allow for the measurement of carbon-14 isotopic content in soil and atmospheric samples. Using isotopic carbon ratios it might now be possible to determine the source of carbon being released by tundra ecosystems. If the effect of local and global climate changes on northern latitude ecosystems can be more accurately determined, their contribution to the dynamics of the global carbon cycle can be more fully understood.
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), over 6.3 million motor vehicle crashes occurred in 2000, more than 2.1 million of which were fatal or caused injury. Out-of-hospital personnel and their evaluation of both the patient and the involved vehicle in these crashes can give doctors vital information regarding the mechanism of injury, and is important patient treatment. Therefore, the reliability of this information should be investigated. This ongoing study seeks to determine the accuracy of prediction by out-of-hospital personnel of motor vehicle crash victim injury profile and outcome, along with relevant crash scene information. After verbal consent was obtained, paramedics transporting motor vehicle crash victims to UCI Medical Center were provided confidential and anonymous questionnaires in which they reported the extent of vehicle damage and predicted the victim's injury profile and final outcome. These predictions were compared to information obtained from the trauma team's medical documentation and the professional crash scene investigation report. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the UCI Human Subjects Research IRB. Preliminary data revealed that 63.5%, 100% and 72% of the enrolled paramedics correctly predicted final injury profile, life or death outcome, and extent of vehicle damage, respectively. These data suggest that paramedics can be accurate in injury and outcome prediction and crash-scene assessment. Future research should evaluate the relationship between out-of-hospital personnel prediction of injury profile and outcome along with crash scene dynamics to discover ways to improve patient care while reducing morbidity and mortality in the long run.
Cell Protein 27 (ICP 27), a viral shuttling protein in the Herpes Simplex
virus, is necessary for viral DNA replication during lytic cycle infection.
ICP 27 exports viral RNA and affects the host RNA processing pathways
of polyadentilation and splicing to shut down host protein synthesis
in favor of viral production. For ICP 27 to function effectively, transport
between the host cytoplasm and nucleus is crucial. ICP 27 utilizes
pathways that meet the criteria necessary for nuclear export. Through
protein-protein interactions, it has been shown that ICP 27 binds with
REF/ALY, an export adaptor, and interacts with TAP, an export factor.
Immunofluorescence indicates that ICP 27 coalesces with over-expressed
TAP for export into the cytoplasm. A mutant version of TAP, through
the deletion of the C-terminus, results in ICP 27 remaining in the
nucleus. We concluded that ICP 27 utilizes the TAP mediated pathway
that satisfies the three classes of factors essential for nuclear export
since REF/ALY functions as the adaptor protein, TAP functions as the
receptor protein, and the nuclear pore complex (NPC) makes transport
across the nuclear membrane possible. In addition SRp20, a splicing
factor, co-localizes with ICP 27 in the nucleus. The role of SRp20
as a nuclear export factor for ICP 27 remains inconclussive. There
is speculation that SRp20 acts as an adaptor protein for an ICP 27
nuclear export pathway. Through immunofluorescence, preliminary data
indicates that ICP 27 remains nuclear in the presence of over-expressed
SRp20. Data for the mutant SRp20 construct is pending.
The Music of Benjamin
Britten as Interpretation of Henry James' Novella, The Turn of
Literary critics of Henry James's novella The Turn of the Screw have tended to take one of three interpretive positions regarding the role of the young governess who comes to a mansion to care for two young children, and there becomes convinced that the ghosts of the former valet and governess are attempting to morally corrupt them. The first interpretation, often referred to in James criticism as "the first story," states that the young governess is defending the children from evil which is embodied by the two ghosts of Peter Quint and Miss Jessel. The second interpretation takes the opposite position, which states that the governess is imagining the ghosts, and is herself the greatest danger that the children face. The third view is that James purposefully makes the story ambiguous, by not allowing the reader to decide between the first or second views. Benjamin Britten's opera, The Turn of the Screw, uses music to make a case for the third interpretation, by using musical themes that at times seem to support the governess' innocence, and at other times, to imply her guilt. The listener is left in the same uncertain position as the governess, and is not allowed to easily decide who is good or evil. Unlike the governess, who cannot bear the uncertainty of not knowing whether she is innocent or guilty, and who tends to leap to explanations blaming the ghosts or herself, the listener is challenged by an opera which does not allow for such solutions.
The conflict between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir has been waging since the subcontinent attained independence from Great Britain on August 15th, 1947. India and Pakistan have fought three conventional wars - 1948, 1965, 1971 - all of which have seen fighting in Jammu and Kashmir. With India and Pakistan possessing nuclear weapons, Pakistan's unstable government, India's large military and the two nations' historical animosity, the Jammu and Kashmir conflict is accurately the most dangerous conflict in the world. While the conflict has been fought on at the conventional level in the past, it continues to be fought at the unconventional level with the ominous possibility of reaching the nuclear level. My research has examined the following questions: 1) What are the events that led up to and caused the beginning of militancy in the region in 1989? 2) Is the conflict uncontrolled with no mechanisms in place to prevent it from escalating? 3) If there are mechanisms for preventing unbridled warfare, what are they? Tentatively, my research indicates that despite the potential for and appearance of chaos, conflict management has prevented hostilities from escalating to the conventional and nuclear level. The use or threatened use of force, for compellance and coercion, helps explain the relationship between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir.
Violence between nations has been a threat to different populations of the world. Regardless, of the seriousness of these threats, the lasting impressions were forgotten. However, who would have known that the events of September 11, 2001 would leave a permanent footprint in the lives of people around the world. The terrorist attacks of September 11th had outstanding affects in the United States. The Muslim American population was affected, as well as the rest of the American population. After the attacks on the World Trade Center this past year, there were some occurrences of hate crimes towards Muslim Americans. Present research is being conducted at a mosque, which is a place of Islamic faith, to determine whether there are lasting effects on the religious and daily activities of the Islamic American population. Data analysis is currently being examined in order to understand "How do people cope with racism?" in respect to September 11, 2001. The analysis will derive from observations and interview questions pertaining to the changes that have taken place at this particular mosque.
Religion and politics are intimately intertwined, while officially independent of one another, in the United States. Religious institutions have become seedbeds of political cues, regardless of denomination. Increased levels of religious involvement has been shown to correlate with increased levels of political participation (Rosenstone, et.al., 1995; Verba, et.al. 1995; Peterson, 1992). At the center of the relationship between the religious sphere and the public square is the religious elite. There has been no comprehensive study conducted to determine what forces at play in a religious elite's life make him or her more likely to embrace democratic values, encourage political action, and participate in politics. This study is an analysis of Roman Catholic priests from the Diocese of San Diego and Diocese of Orange. The study utilized a mail survey which asked subjects to answer a number of demographic questions, as well as questions which would provide information about their own levels of participation, political attitudes, and extent to which they have mobilized others to participate in politics. This study serves as an analysis of political attitudes of Catholic clergy from these two dioceses, and gives valuable information pertaining to the political culture within which the Catholic priest must work. The study reveals the fact that political attitudes seem to differ on generational levels. Furthermore, the study shows that there are some underlying similarities among priests, but like citizens, priest fall into many different categories of political thought and perception.
This study examined differences in gene expression in ammonia resistant Drosophila compare to their controls. The study populations consist of four independent populations that have evolved resistance to high levels of ammonia in their larval food and four independent controls. The study first started with the collection of 72 hour-old larvae, extraction of RNA followed by a quantification of the RNA using high-density arrays, examination of possible gene expression changes in the ammonia resistant, followed by the characterizations of genes using the Berkeley fruit fly database. The results suggested that there were genes that were consistently over-expressed and under-expressed across four independent experimental relative to control populations. The for gene was consistently under expressed in the ammonia resistant larvae. This result is consistent with behavioral differences that have been made previously on these populations. The GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase, gene is consistently over expressed and may be an important first step in the detoxification of ammonia. Further studies are necessarily to identify the role of the genes in conferring ammonia resistance.
Exposure to tobacco-related advertising has been identified as one of the risk factors for tobacco use. However, anti-tobacco marketing has initially begun looking at empirical research on the effectiveness of using a celebrity or non-celebrity endorser in promoting abstinence from tobacco usage. A recent media campaign like "The Truth" has had great success in producing awareness and significant changes in attitudes and beliefs achieving reduced rates of smoking (Tobacco Control, 2001). It is interesting to note that many of the advertisements, currently being run by anti-smoking campaigns, feature little or no celebrities. The purpose of this Applied Research Study is to determine whether a celebrity or non-celebrity endorser has a greater impact on anti-smoking sentiment in the subject. In addition, there are many factors that contribute to smoking including: heredity, social class, age, and other variables contribute to heightened usage of tobacco. To clarify the goals of this study it is crucial to note that advertising - that is, attempting to influence a person's behavior in some way by visual or audio cues - will be the main focus. This does not neglect the complexity of the human psyche and the addictive behavior associated with smoking (Pechmann, 2000). This project is a microcosm of the mass media that surrounds anti-smoking campaigns and will try to capture an "essential" step in this multi-faceted marketing domain.
During the past six months of planning, the question of which is more important in self-actualization, nature or nurture, has been posed to my crew of eight and cast of five. The play, Baby with the Bathwater, is a wonderful springboard into this issue because of the content within which traces the life of the poorly nurtured Daisy Dingleberry. He goes through the worst childhood, schooling and society imaginable, and then comes to the conclusion that something is wrong with himself. He then seeks outside help, his parents' support, but finds, in the end, that listening to your own instincts lead you to happiness. This theory may fit the play but how does it relate to real life? Is this statement true for the cast and can we get it across to an audience? This is the question posed. The cast has agreed that we can be good people by listening to ourselves more but also that good can from good nurturing. That is, in fact, an extended truth in the play. Yes, you can listen to your nature to become a better person, but the next step in the journey to happiness is becoming a good nurturer. The hope of this show is to inspire all those involved, cast, crew and audience, to become people who take into account the importance of letting your instincts lead the way.
Autism is a disorder with onset in childhood and is characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication. The cause of autism is unknown, but it is informative to study patients with autism having chromosomal abnormalities that could contribute to the disorder. This study was undertaken to define the extent of a chromomsomal deletion in a patient with autism and osteodystrophy using flourescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarrays so that genes in the deletion region could be identified and studied. We obtained 22 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) and performed FISH studies using the flourescently labeled BACs. We also sent the patients DNA to Spectral Genomics for them to determine the extent of the deletion using a microarray. In our laboratory, we worked to optimize the conditions for performing the microarray procedure so that in future studies we could determine if other patients with autism have chromosomal abnormalities. We found that our patient is deleted for approximately 5MB on chromosome 2q37.3. Candidate genes in the deletion region for autism include Glypican 1, Vigilin and axonal transporter of synaptic vesicles (ATSV). Glypican 1 and Vigilin can also be considered as candidate genes for osteodystrophy as they are abundantly expressed in skeletal tissue. We also determined that using microarrays is a feasible method for detecting chromsomal abnormalities in other patients with autism.
This study is about Asian American Women and the reasons they use cosmetic surgery. Previous literature shows that Blepharoplasty (adding a double fold in the eyes) and Rhinoplasty (increasing height of the nose) are most frequently used; roughly 40% of Korean American women utilize Blepharoplasty and Asian American women make up 7.5% of the entire population of women that engage in facial cosmetic surgery. The research focuses on 15 interviews with Asian American Females, between the ages of 18 and 25, who have had or are considering cosmetic surgery, and two Asian American Cosmetic Surgeons. It is also largely dependent on literature review of previous studies on cosmetic surgery and Asian American Studies. There are three significant findings in the research. First, significant studies have addressed that Asian American women are influenced by a subversive desire to look westernized. Secondly, there is an emerging pattern of young Asian American women using cosmetic surgery as a rite of passage into their adulthood. Finally, the research findings show there is a significant socioeconomic reason which Asian American women utilize cosmetic surgery. This study is significant because this is an arena that is rarely examined; it is unique due to it being an interdisciplinary topic, with emphasis on the literature in Asian American studies, Sociology and Women's Studies. In studying the politics of cosmetic surgery and Asian American women, we gain a better understanding of how the western influence through globalization has shaped the Asian American culture and identity.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular bacterium known to cause diseases of the human respiratory tract including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusities. C. pneumoniae infections are worldwide in distribution with antibodies to C. pneumoniae present in up to 80% of the adult populations studies. Recent studies have linked the pathogen to chronic disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis. However, the role of C. pneumoniae in chronic diseases is not well understood. Clinical experience shows that acute symptoms of Chlamydia infection in the lungs frequently recur after short or conventional courses of appropriate antibiotics, and persistent infection has been documented by culture after treatment. In our laboratory, it has been documented that once mice that have been challenged intranasally with mouse pathogen, C. trachomatis, mouse strain of pneumonitits, the mouse carries this organism for prolonged periods in the intestine. This then raised the question as to whether the intestine can also serve as a reservoir for the human pathogen C. pneumoniae. The mice model of infection is used to answer this question. We infected mice in parallel with both the C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. Thirty C57BL6 mice were obtained to monitor and compare the C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, infection course. After inoculation, at day 5, 14, 28, 56, 94 and 117, two mice from each experimental group were sacrificed. Lung and small intestine were collected for tissue culture and PCR analysis. PCR work is still underway. We hope to establish whether the intestine can serve as a reservoir for the long-term carriage of C. pneumoniae.
When one thinks of women and cosmetics in eighteenth-century France, one may conjure up images of ladies bedecked in yards of clothing, with elaborate hairstyles and heavily painted faces. Sir Henry Beaumont described his first encounter with French women: "The first time I saw the ladies all rouged in the front of the boxes at the Opera in Paris, they seem'd to me to look like a long bed of high-colour'd, full-blown peonies in a garden." As modern-day women, we look on our predecessors as slaves to a beauty ideal set forth by men. But upon closer analysis, perhaps cosmetic use was a method of self-expression in a world that had, from the start, regarded women as more of a curse than a blessing. Women have struggled with the question of identity over the course of history. What did it mean to be a woman, and how best to develop a self-authorizing power in the context of an inherently patriarchal society? Despite the trappings of the patriarchy, women found ways to express themselves and recapture some sense of self-authorization. The question remains: how high is the price of self-authorizing power? Through a discussion of 18th century cosmetic, social and artistic history, as well as an analysis of the novel Les Liasons Dangereuses by Cholderlos de Laclos, this study is expected to promote and stimulate understanding of women's strategies of resistance during a time when a woman's worth could only be understood in terms of the male-dominated society in which she lived.
Anthrax Lethal Factor (ALF) is a zinc metalloprotease excreted by Bacillus anthracis, which is ultimately responsible for the lethality of anthrax. A 20 amino acid peptide with a very high affinity (apparent KD in the nM range) for ALF was isolated from a large phage display library with a diversity of approximately 1012 made in the Weiss lab. Systematic mutational studies with every residue in the peptide substituted for alanine are ongoing. These studies involve substitution of the wild type amino acid with an alanine effectively truncating the side chain and eliminating most of its unique functional activity. This allows mapping of the relative contribution of each amino acid to the overall binding affinity of the peptide. Preliminary mutational studies of this nature have shown that the first 15 amino acids are more important for binding than the last 5 amino acids. Completely understanding the specific and high affinity interactions between the peptide and ALF will allow verification of structural computer modeling performed by collaborators. Ultimately, this work contributes to the understanding of molecular recognition, a process important for pharmaceutical development and biology in general.
My project was creating and analyzing simulated images for NIRCAM, a proposed near infrared camera that may be placed on the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). For this endeavor, I was under the supervision of Tammy Smecker-Hane. Dr. Smecker-Hane is part of a large collaboration of scientists who are proposing that NASA build this camera for the NGST. The first step was to write software in Interactive Data Language (IDL) that could create simulated images of stellar fields in the nearby galaxy M 32. The analyses of these "fake" images would help to quantify how errors in photometry grow with increased stellar crowding and as a function of stellar magnitude.
of Adolescent-VIP Relationships: Developing a Typology
Mentoring is a concept that has been around for centuries, and extensive research in developmental psychology has been conducted on the impact of mentoring on youths. Current research has begun to focus on the manner in which these relationships form and a few studies have begun to explore the different characteristics and dimensions that make up these relationships. The purpose of this study was to extend current research in order to develop a typology of the characteristics of different forms of adolescent-mentor relationships. The relationships of 47 pairs of adolescents and their "very important" nonparental adults (VIPs) were examined. Using survey and transcribed interview data that were collected as part of a larger study, we selected adolescents at risk for poor developmental outcomes (i.e., those with high levels of depressive symptomatology, high frequency of problem behavior, low parental warmth and acceptance) who differed with respect to their VIP's level of problem behavior. Eighteen adolescent -VIP pairs were analyzed based on 8 relational dimensions including degree of importance of the relationship, mutuality and reciprocity, involvement with other adolescents/VIPs, scope of the relationship, disclosure, advice-giving, qualities that drew the adolescent/VIP into the relationship, and commitment to maintain the relationship. Results suggest that there are many different types of relationships that exist between adolescents and their VIPs. Further, "at risk" adolescents appear to benefit from these relationships despite the presence of high VIP problem behavior.
The alarming prevalence of sexual assault within the Greek System nationwide is undeniable. According to the Department of Justice's statistics office, in collaboration with the FBI campus-watch program, "A male fraternity member was named the aggressor in 93% of all university-related reported rapes between 1984 and 1993." Investigation of the possible factors that give rise to this correlation between fraternities and sexual assault is vital in order to shed light on this, commonly considered, taboo issue. Social-psychology, in its study of the ways in which a group influences people's behaviors offers well-evidenced explanations as to why sexual assault might be specific to Greek living. These studies have theorized that as an exclusive, male-oriented group, fraternities cultivate many of the factors that foster misogynistic ideals and sexual aggression, which in this case victimizes college women. Furthermore, statistics have shown that the majority of college men and women alike uphold misinformed stereotypes of sexual assault. In response to these popular misconceptions of rape, it is imperative to raise awareness and provide education in an effort to alleviate this social problem that threatens the safety of campus living.
What helps victims overcome challenges and thrive in the face of a traumatic event? In an effort to answer this question, data from a longitudinal study, which was launched immediately following the September 11th terrorist attacks, will be examined. 1,382 subjects completed surveys at three different time points and were randomly sampled from across the U.S., including an oversampling from 4 cities where traumatic events have recently occurred (New York City, NY, Oklahoma City, OK, Littleton, CO, and Miami, FL). This presentation will report results from the data collection conducted two months after September 11th. The quantity and quality of social interactions and the main item(s) identified by the participants as being helpful to them in coping with and adjusting to these difficult times will be analyzed. Some emphasis will be placed on determining the kinds of social interactions and items that were associated with rates of PTSD among the four oversampled communities. These findings will enhance our knowledge about the ways in which people cope and hopefully enable us to use them as tools for providing the right services crucial to future victims of trauma.