Abstracts

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Chemically Controllable Self-Assembly of Solid Phase Synthesis Beads
Paul Hetman
Mentor: Dr. David Van Vranken

Natural assemblies of many biological components are dependent on complementary functional groups or more accurately complementary interactions. There is an increasing necessity to develop the ability to chemically control self-assembly on the micrometer level. Ionic interactions are one of the simplest, and so proved to be a good starting point for the pursuit of controllable assembly. Commercially available solid phase resin is naturally suitable for this study because of the relatively simple way to manipulate their surface and the relative uniformity and affordability of them. Although these advantages exist, many of the functional groups in a solid phase resin bead are on the interior and are not accessible through a physical bead to bead interaction and would not contribute very much to any physical interaction that could be utilized. This problem could be corrected by the dendrimeric addition of an amino acid such as lysine, which could be used to amplify the preexisting functional group density on any resin surface. This iterative addition of lysine functional groups and the greater functionalized beads were appropriately named nth generation according to the number of dendrimeric lysine reactions. Aggregates of beads formed very clearly at the 4th generation and strengthened with the increase of functional group density. Furthermore the ionic interactions observed could be further agitated chemically and mechanically by adding substitute complementary interactions or by mechanically disrupting the system.

Hearing Their Voices: Middle Eastern Women in Politics
Janine Highiet
Mentor: Dr. Lina Kreidie

My thesis discusses Middle Eastern womenís involvement in politics. I will take a socio-psychological approach, examining five aspects to determine a correlation between each facet and political activity of seven women interviewees. The characteristics examined will be: background (including ethnicity, age, marital status, and income level); education (including the intervieweeís education level, parents education, and importance placed on education); religiosity (determined by how religious each defines herself and how religious their family is); family structure (which refers to how large their family is, who had the most influence on the interviewee, and how important each believes family is); and life experiences (including turning points in the individualís life and what they attribute certain aspects of their identity to). The results will most likely demonstrate that the background has a moderately strong positive correlation to political activity; educationís correlation will be rather weak; religiosity will not prove to have a correlation; family structure will have a stronger correlation; and life experiences will prove the key explanation to why variances in other areas occurred. Included in the thesis is a background chapter offering history and an explanation of the MENA region, focusing on women. There is also a chapter devoted to discussing critical issues facing Middle East women, such as the hijab, Personal Status/Family Laws, and education and working women. Overall, my conclusion will demonstrate that while aspects taken individually can not determine correlations to political activity, there is a strong correlation between the socio-psychology of each woman and political activity.

My Life. . . At Least Until This Point: Solo Comedy Performance
Matthew Hilliard
Mentor: Dr. Mary Leslie Ishii

Comedy has always been an important and imperative part of my life. From the time I was a child, I was labeled "the class clown" and would always jump up on the table and tell jokes. Laughter, to me, is the greatest form of medication and the paramount way to unite people. So inevitably, I decided to make comedy and acting my career and life goal. I wrote and developed a show called My Life: At Least Until This Point, which I intend to use as a showcase of my skills to further my career in the entertainment industry. The research grant I received for this project from UROP allowed me to purchase several necessary "tools of the trade" to get my show produced. The money was used to have pictures taken, purchase mailing supplies, acquire costumes, and generate publicity for the show, which has been optioned by several theatres in the Los Angeles area. I was unable to secure a theatre on my own to produce the show (funding would not allow it), however the grant allowed me to make contacts and friends with many different theatres, including the Celebration Theatre in West Hollywood that has furthered my "list of contacts" and helped my career as well.

The Attitudes of University of California, Irvine Seniors Toward Supporting the University After Graduation
Thanh Hoang
Mentor: Dr. Michael Scavio

The California state deficit causes UCI to focus more heavily on private support in order to help bridge the gap in the lack of funding. Alumni support appears to be more important than ever. Alumni support can defray the cost of tuition for many students and their families through scholarships and fellowships and with greater alumni participation, UCI can attract more corporations and foundations to financially support the university during the deficit crisis. In order to successfully attract greater alumni participation, it is pertinent that the university gains a better understanding of the attitudes of students toward the university right before they graduate. The experiences and feelings of seniors will ultimately determine whether or not they will donate to the university as alumni. The data analysis will reveal correlations between student attributes and their likelihood of contributing to the university, whether or not their experiences affect future support, and what factors may appeal and motivate individuals to contribute to their alma mater. In addition, the research will measure which reasons to give to UCI are important to current students and whether future income will determine future giving. The outcome will allow the university to develop a better understanding of studentsí satisfaction with the university and determine whether certain attributes will promise greater financial assistance.

Analysis of Automated Screening for Small Genomic Imbalances in ASD
Sarah Holguin
Mentor: Dr. Moyra Smith

Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. The cause of autism is unknown, but several individuals with autism have chromosomal deletions resulting in the loss of a gene or cytogenetic abnormalities resulting in the disruption of a gene. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization provides a means to quantitatively measure small DNA copy-number changes and to map them directly onto a known genomic sequence. There is much variation in the literature regarding the protocol for preparation of microarray chips to be used during genomic hybridizations. A popular method involves immobilizing BAC DNA fragments onto array chips. Preparation and spotting of BAC DNA is problematic because BACs are single-copy vectors and it is difficult to obtain a sufficient concentration of high-molecular weight DNA. To overcome these problems, we attempted to use Whole Genome Amplification of BAC DNA prior to spotting. Whole genome amplification was accomplished with degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR. The results of this technique were compared to the results of sonicated BAC DNA prior to spotting.

The Role of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 in Host Defense Following Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System
Martin Hosking
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Lane

Intracerebral infection of mice with a neuroattenuated form of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis characterized by widespread virus replication and increased chemokine expression with subsequent leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. Expression of the CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 are important in host defense by attracting viral-antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) by binding and signaling to the chemokine receptor CXCR3 expressed on the surface of these cells. In order to better understand the functional contributions of CXCR3 to host defense, CXCR3-/- mice were intracerebrally infected with MHV and disease severity was evaluated. Surprisingly, there was neither an increase in mortality nor an impaired ability to reduce viral titers within the CNS in MHV infected CXCR3-/- mice as compared to CXCR3+/+ mice. Analysis of T lymphocyte infiltration revealed that CD8+ T cells were selectively impaired in their ability to migrate and accumulate within the CNS of infected CXCR3-/- mice suggesting differential roles for CXCR3 in promoting T lymphocyte trafficking following viral infection.

Finding My Voice: Research of the Music Industry
Josh Howatt
Mentor: Dr. Mary Leslie Ishii

Since the age of five, music has continued to be a major passion in my life, and with the help of UROP, I was granted the opportunity to further expand and nurture my pursuit toward a career in the music industry. My ultimate goal was to record and produce a "demo CD" that would provide me with a means of presenting my work to major and independent record labels. In addition to this, I planned to coordinate with the college radio-station KUCI, in order to have my music broadcast, either recorded or live, to a larger audience. Finally, I intended to have my efforts culminate in a live performance of my work to take place within the UCI campus. I hope to obtain important information about the industry, which will better prepare me for my intended future. I plan to research all aspects of recording studios, producers, record labels, publishers, managers, other artists, and most importantly where and how my music relates to each of these venues. I expect to walk away from this project better informed of the rules and expectations of the music industry, so that I might better represent myself as a professional, by having learned these tools from first-hand experience.

Milagro: Scalar Data Analysis
Ian Howe
Mentors: Dr. Anthony Shoup & Dr. Gaurang Yodh

High Energy Radiation from the sun (e.g., created by solar flares) has not been accurately measured previously. Milagro is basically the worldís largest high-energy telescope. It is able to accurately measure the radiation coming from the sun in the high GeV to TeV ranges. High-energy photons create extensive air-showers by pair production and Cherenkov radiation. Photomultiplier tubes emersed in water detect the Cherenkov radiation and yield counting rates for the high-energy radiation flux. By analyzing these counting rates we can learn about the high-energy behavior of the sun (such as when a solar flare occurs). Results are currently pending.

Object Transfer and Replication in a Distributed Blackboard System
Gene Hsiao
Mentor: Dr. Stephen Jenks

Distributed systems are advantageous because they have the ability to share distributed resources, combine processing power to achieve a faster solution, and provide reliability through replication. Despite these advantages, the complexity in communication and synchronization amongst nodes are enough to discourage even those that might benefit the most from distributed systems. A data-driven activation architecture, based on the blackboard model, might be a viable solution to make transparent such communication intricacies while retaining reliability via replication. Specifically, this research will study the challenges and issues faced in implementing an effective manager of replicated objects in a distributed blackboard system. This manager will distribute various objects to computers in the system and will replicate to support recovery in case of failureóall without user intervention. Abstracting away communication complexities from the application layer and ensuring reliable synchronization through replication will make distributed programming easier and worthwhile for programmers in any field.

Opening Doors to Latinos in Higher Education
Lindsey Huber
Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

According the United States Census Bureau, Latinos are now the largest ethnic minority group in America. Population projections from the census also report that the Latino population will continue to grow exponentially in the future. As the Latino population in the U.S. is steadily increasing, the number of Latino college students remains low. In the year 2000, the Latino population was 35 million. In the same year only about 160,000 Latinos had obtained a bachelorís degree. The numbers of Latinos graduating with a college degree are among the lowest of any ethnic group, while significantly more Asians and slightly more African Americans graduate college. The literature identifies retention programs to have a positive impact on student success and graduation. This study examines Latino college students that participated in a TRIO Student Support Services program at a four-year university. TRIO is a network of federally funded programs designed to create equal access in secondary and post secondary education. Student Academic Advancement Services (SAAS), a TRIO student support services program, was examined. Data for cumulative grade point average (GPA), number of units completed, and graduation rates was collected for first generation and low-income Latino undergraduate students that utilized SAAS services and first generation, low-income Latino undergraduate students that did not utilize SAAS services. Preliminary analysis suggests that Latino undergraduates who utilized SAAS services had higher GPAís, more units earned and higher graduation rates than first generation and low-income Latino undergraduates who did not utilize SAAS services.

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Metabolic Rate of the Little Skate (Raja erinacea)
Ahmed Ibrahim
Mentor: Dr. Adam Summers

Skates are dorsoventrally flattened carnivorous fish that inhabit deep and shallow waters of marine environments (Leonard, et al.). Like all elasmobranches (i.e., sharks, rays), skates lack a bony structure. Instead they have a skeleton comprised of a matrix of soft, white or translucent chondrin called cartilage. All skates are oviparous (egg-laying), laying flat, rectangular egg capsules with a pair of posterior and anterior horns emanating from the corners of the single-embryo capsule. The little skate (Raja erinacea) is a common species of the North Atlantic marine ecosystem. Though the species is well known and frequently studied, its bioenergetics have not been fully investigated. We measured the metabolic rate of the little skate using two approaches to bioenergetics. The first method was respirometry, where live individuals (n=10) where placed in chambers and oxygen consumption was measured in uniform increments of 15 or 30 minutes. Data were recorded in mg O2·hr-1·g-1. The second approach used homogenized skate tissue (n=20) for the measurement of energy content via micro-bomb calorimetry. The mean recorded metabolic rate was 0.0543 mg O2·hr-1·g-1. Oxygen consumption over the nine month development period was calculated to be 0.352 g O2·g-1. Results for calorimetry were recorded in kcal/g or kcal for crude measurements. The mean recorded calorie content among the individuals was 4.25 kcal/g and 4.22 kcal/g in yolk samples. Using regressional analysis the yolk conversion efficiency of the skate embryo was found to be 61.2%. More work on the bioenergetics of Raja erinacea is still in progress.

Localized Expression of Specific Brain Morphogenic Proteins in the Mouse Forebrain
Sylvie Inkindi
Mentor: Dr. Christine Gall

The expression patterns of several bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) in adult murine forebrains were studied by in situ hybridization. BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß superfamily. They have widespread functions during early vertebrate brain development; however, the exact cellular localization and functions in the adult brain have not yet been determined. 35S-labeled cRNA probes were used for each of the five BMPs analyzed (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, and BMP-7). Of all the BMPs examined, BMP-2 had the broadest distribution pattern. BMP-2 transcripts were observed across numerous forebrain regions including the striatum. BMP-2 production within the striatum suggests that it could serve as a trophic factor for striatal/mesencephalic connections. The distribution of BMP-7 mRNAs was more restricted compared to BMP-2. No labeling was observed in the amygdala, hypothalamus, or neocortex. However, a light distribution of autoradiographic grains was detected in the medial septal nucleus. BMP-7 expression by medial septal cells could have an autocrine or paracrine effect on septal cholinergic neurons in the adult forebrain. BMP-4 cRNA hybridization was localized in cells that were scattered throughout cortical and subcortical fields as well as in fiber tracts. This pattern of expression suggests that select neuronal populations in addition to some glial cells express BMP-4. Light autoradiographic labeling with BMP-6 cRNA was detected only in the striatum. BMP-5 was not detected in the adult mouse forebrain. The present data show patterns of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, and BMP-7 mRNA expression not previously described for the mouse forebrain.

Service Name Based Distributed Discovery in the Bio-Networking Architecture
Samuel Irvine
Mentors: Dr. Tatsuya Suda & Dr. Junichi Suzuki

The Bio-Networking Architecture is a biologically inspired platform for developing distributed applications on the Internet. In this architecture, network applications are constructed from a decentralized collection of mobile objects that provide services to one another. To facilitate mobile object location, the environment needs to provide a discovery mechanism that is able to locate objects that exist anywhere in the network. This discovery mechanism must be efficient, scalable, robust, and able to operate in a decentralized environment. To address these requirements, we have developed a discovery mechanism based on distributed Adelson-Velskii and Landis (AVL) weight balanced binary trees. The mechanism works by constructing an AVL tree in which mobile objects act as the nodes of the tree and the service name that each object provides acts as its key. Our discovery mechanism provides a deterministic O(log(n)) upper bound when searching for an object where n represents the number of objects in the discovery tree, and an O(k*log(n)) upper bound when searching for multiple objects with a range of k keys. We have implemented this discovery mechanism on our own simulator and have conducted extensive simulations to obtain performance implications of the discovery mechanism. Through simulations, we confirmed that the discovery mechanism is efficient and scalable in terms of the number of objects contained in the discovery tree. The simulations also demonstrate that the discovery mechanism is robust against dynamic changes in the network that arise through the migration, insertion and failure of mobile objects.

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Ethnic Minority College Students and Mentorship
Alexandria James
Mentors: Dr. Jeanett Castellanos & Dr. Thomas Parham

Ethnic minority (African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans) college students are a growing population at 4-year universities. The purpose of this study is to examine how ethnic minority students experience college. The study investigates their perceptions of the university environment, their cultural congruity with the environment, the role of mentorship, and the studentsí overall satisfaction. With an emphasis on mentorship, the study will also investigate the types of activities that enhance the mentoring relationship. Surveys will be distributed to a sample of 200 ethnic minority college students at a Research Type I Institution. It is hypothesized that students who are in a positive mentoring relationship will have a more positive perception of the university environment and show higher levels of satisfaction with the university and life. Results will help us understand the specific activities that ethnic minority students prefer in mentorship relationships and the influence that the environment and faculty contact has on overall satisfaction. Recommendations for future research and practice will be generated from the findings.

Optical Sensor for Non-Invasive Photodynamic Detection of Oral Cancer
Dave Goldwyn Jequinto
Mentor: Dr. Petra Wilder-Smith

Using existing techniques, non-invasive diagnosis or monitoring of oral pathologies is not possible. The object of this investigation is to identify in vivo fluorescence excitation/emission spectra characteristics of healthy and pathological oral tissues using a non-invasive fiber-optic diagnosis system. In patients referred to UCI Medical Center Department of Otolaryngology for inspection of existing leukoplakias and erythroplakias, in vivo multi-wavelength excitation/ detection spectra from normal and pathological sites were acquired using a flexible fiber-optic system prior to conventional biopsy. Spectral characteristics of dysplastic, malignant and other pathological sites were identified and characterized. Detailed diagnostic status of each lesion mapped was obtained from the routine histopathological report on the biopsy tissues. Considerable differences were consistently observed between spectral emissions of the different pathologies investigated, based mainly on changes in tissue extracellular matrix, vasculature, and tissue metabolic state. Characteristic in vivo spectral signatures were identified for a wide range of oral histopathological diagnoses.

McNair Evaluation
Keyana Jones
Mentor: Dr. Stephanie Schneider

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the McNair Scholar Program at UCI. The purpose of McNair is essentially to get underrepresented students to obtain a PhD by providing them with a mentor, research experience, and other tools. This research seeks to evaluate the McNair Program at UCI to ensure that the program is meeting its established goals and also to determine whether the means to meet these goals are efficient. There is currently evidence to show that programs like McNair are successful; nonetheless, the UCI McNair program has never been officially evaluated. Evaluations are necessary to ensure that certain strategies work and also to provide suggestions for change in a rapidly changing society. The research was conducted by distributing surveys to current and past McNair scholars, as well as to a control group. The survey was derived based on the programs stated and implied goals. The sample contained a total of 90 subjects whose contact information was provided by the Director of McNair. The results were analyzed by using statistical data and by comparing the three groups. I am in the process of analyzing the data at the moment but I expect the McNair group to have chosen to attend graduate school at a higher rate than those who did not participate in McNair. Furthermore, I expect the McNair subjects to be more prepared and qualified for graduate school due to the tools that McNair provides, when compared to the control group.

Multinational Corporations and their Role in Eastern Europe
James Jordan
Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

The privatization of state enterprises in the former communist block was a unique undertaking that will probably never happen again. Comparing and contrasting Poland to the Czech Republic will provide invaluable insight into the roles multinational corporations play in these transition economies of Eastern Europe. The economic, political and social transition from a command and control economy to a market economy required a near total overhaul of the regulatory environment. Poland and the Czech Republic entered the difficult transition period blessed with skilled labor and a strong industrial base, but like other transition countries, without the regulatory and ownership structures necessary for a well-functioning market economy. A strong emphasis was put on attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) by creating an attractive investment climate with incentive packages. So why would multinational corporations invest and risk losing their hard earned capital in Poland and the Czech Republic? The answer is an extremely large potential for economic growth and profit in almost every region and industry. Market size is one of the most important factors for foreign investors in their decision of where to invest their capital. Another influence is the workforce that is available, including the amount of skilled and unskilled labor and the cost of that labor. The robustness of the economies today is due in large part to foreign direct investment and without their extremely liberal laws and policies toward foreign investment, multinational corporations would have never invested as heavily and in the numbers they did.

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Data Acquisition
Golam Kabir
Mentor: Dr. Richard Nelson

Data acquisition simply stands for acquiring and collecting data. In this research, we are designing and building a data acquisition system (DAS) that will (1) collect data (such as voltage, current, and temperature) from an experimental setup and deliver it to a computer in digital form and (2) provide a user interface to program the data acquisition process and display the data in graphical form. The system collects data from analog and digital inputs using voltage sensors, current sensors, and temperature sensors and then stores the data on the hard drive. An analog-to-digital converter on the data acquisition board converts the collected analog data into digital data, and by programming the DAS hard drive, we will save the collected data on the hard drive. The program on the hard drive will also allow the user to command start and stop of the data acquisition, and will also provide over range notification. Some of the other basic features will be 100 KHz input, D/A Outputs Ė 2, Digital Ė 2 to 8, 16 bits, support multiple projects with easy software changes, the user will be able to set the sample rate and record size, and the device will be portable. My presentation will summarize a typical application for the DAS and cover the system requirements, the components selected, and the diagram of the system being integrated.

The Peculiar Mate Discrimination Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster yellow1 Mutant Females Toward Different Types of Males During Courtship
Valerio Kalaw
Mentor: Dr. Anthony Long

Drosophila melanogaster yellow1 mutant females do not discriminate against the poor mating behavior of their yellow1 male counterparts. The basics of the poor mating behavior of the yellow males come from their disrupted courtship behavior. In contrast, wild type stocks greatly discriminate between the yellow males and the wild type males. It has been shown that wild type males tend to copulate quicker than yellow mutant males. Based on these findings, I used behavioral assays to find out whether yellow females could also discriminate on other males that have characteristically poor mating behavior. These behavioral assays have shown that yellow1 females do have the capability to discriminate between males with poor mating behavior. Even though the results are preliminary, they seem to be promising and should be explored in more detail in order to provide a better understanding of the theory of "gene coupling" and the genes that are involved in behavior.

Jenna Keeps it Kosher
Jenna Kantor
Mentor: Dr. Myrona Delaney

Jenna Keeps It Kosher is a Vegas-style, comedy based variety show that showcased Jenna Kantor along with an ensemble of dancers and singers. It was produced, directed and choreographed by Jenna Kantor, stage managed by John-Paul Fine, and had an assistant director, James Below. The project was suggested by Jennaís mentor, Myrona Delaney, during the summer of 2002. At the time, Jenna was working on numerous dialects that are commonly used in musical theatre songs. For instance, "Love of My Life" is in the Scottish dialect, "America" is in the Puerto Rican dialect, "Adelaideís Lament" is in the Brooklynese dialect, and "Speaking French" is in the French dialect. Jenna put numerous songs together with different dialects and shared stories that connected her personal life to each song. Jenna Keeps It Kosher was an explosion of Jennaís five years of study in the dance and drama departments at UCI.

Interactive Effects of Manganese and Methamphetamine
Bhumika Kapadia
Mentor: Dr. Michael Kleinman

Manganese (Mn) is a widespread chemical toxin and methamphetamine (Meth) is an increasingly abused drug. Although past studies have demonstrated the effects of manganese and methamphetamine on dopaminergic neurons, the focus in the past has mainly been on the effects of one or the other toxin. This study attempts to analyze the interactive effect of simultaneous exposure to manganese and methamphetamine using rats as experimental subjects. Three areas of the rat brain, the striatum, the substantial nigra, and the globus pallidus, are chosen for analysis based upon past studies that have indicated them to be possible targets of the two toxins. Prenatal manganese exposed and postnatal methamphetamine exposed rats are organized to form the following four groups: control, pre-Mn, post-Meth, and pre-Mn/post-Meth. After sacrificing the rats, the brain of each rat is extracted and cut coronally. Slices incorporating the three areas under analysis are then micro-sliced and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Current efforts are focused on histological variations in the striatum as can be seen using a microscope. In the near future, immunohistochemistry techniques will be used in order to determine the degree of damage if any, using a 3-nitrotysosin (3-NT) antibody. 3-NT, being a byproduct of oxidative stress, may reveal the presence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in dopaminergic neurons. Such efforts all eventually attempt to aid in revealing whether or not simultaneous exposure to both toxins is beneficial or harmful to the organism.

The Shoot Signals Necessary for Nodulation are Present in Small Regenerating Shoots Derived from Embryonic Lotus Super Roots
Jamie Kaya
Mentor: Dr. Franz Hoffmann

Nitrogen fixation in living systems is the second most important biochemical event (after photosynthesis) in connection with food production. The symbiotic legume/Rhizobium process takes place in nodules that develop on legume roots following bacterial infection. To better study the mechanism of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, we used a simple and efficient in vitro-filter paper method for the mass nodulation of in vitro-grown super-root isolates of Lotus corniculatus. We found that nodulation occurred only on new roots in the presence of shoots. The smallest shoot able to initiate the signals necessary for nodulation was 6 mm in length. Furthermore, we found that a root signal may be one of the limiting factors in nodulation. Lastly, we made comparisons between the nodules on normal roots and those on super roots and found differences that suggest autoregulation may be muted in the super roots.

Supplemental Summer Studies for Collegiate Pre-Professional Dancers
Kurt Kikuchi
Mentor: Dr. Donald McKayle

For aspiring professional dancers in a college setting it is difficult to improve your physical and artistic expression during the academic year. During the school year you have to focus on your academics, your dancing, and your health. It is difficult for dancers to grow technically and artistically. This is why the summer months are a great time to supplement and enforce what you are working on during the school year. Attending a summer dance festival or working on your body by taking Pilates and yoga can be very beneficial to a student. The dance festivals can give you the time to focus on your own dancing and also to explore your own movement. They also expose you to many different genres of dance and open your eyes to what is out there to explore. They allow the dancer to take control and be artistic in a positive and beneficial setting. Everybody at the dance festival has the same agenda; to dance and express their art. By attending Pilates and yoga, you can strengthen yourself physically and mentally. The stronger you are in those two areas the easier it will be to prepare yourself for the difficulty of a career in dance. It allows the dancer to take whatever comes their way and fly with it. It makes the dancer available to more opportunities. The advantages of very focused summer work can be very advantageous to a young pre-professional collegiate dancer.

South Korean Nationalism
Christina Kim
Mentor: Dr. Liisa Malkki

South Korea is a recently established nation. After the Korean War, the formally known Korea was split into two separate states, the North and the South. This study examines the status of nationalism among South Koreans through qualitative research. The working definition of nationalism used in this study mainly refers to the devotion a group of people have toward its culture and its nation. Ten Koreans and Korean American students at UCI volunteered to participate in the study. Six Korean Extension students, originally from a university in Korea, and 4 Korean American students who grew up in the U.S. were involved in interviews. The interviews focus on issues of South Korean nationalism among younger generations and how the interviewees define South Korea in comparison to other nations. Analysis of acquired information is currently under way, and the findings of this study will provide a better understanding toward the younger generations of Korean descents and their sentiments toward South Korea.

Female Leadership in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements
Maya Kinatukara
Mentor: Dr. Claire Kim

When examining the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, the predominant theme of male leadership is evident. Pre-eminent and globally known figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X well characterize the two movementsí tumultuous periods of social activism and upheaval. The few publicly recognizable female activists, such as Rosa Parks and Angela Davis, are part of a large contingent of female leaders and activists that led and contributed to both protest movements. The leadership of the Civil Rights movement is often characterized by indigenous, grass-roots efforts and community activism that was said to be amenable to female participation. The Black Power Movement, on the other hand, had rigid, centralized leadership and organizational hierarchies that were said to hinder leadership by women. However, this view of women in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements might be too simplistic. This research study is a comparative look at female leadership within the two movements. By examining ideology and areas of informal and formal leadership, this study will address how the characteristic themes of each movement allowed for differences in types and capacity of female activism. The findings are expected to improve understanding of the conditions under which female leadership thrives and flourishes.

Temperature Dependent Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in Fe/Cr Layers on MgO(100)
Jeffrey Klug
Mentor: Dr. Herbert Hopster

There is currently a great deal of interest in studying the properties of thin films of magnetic materials and interfaces between magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. In particular, multilayered films of alternating ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) material are widely studied because they have been shown to exhibit useful magnetic properties including giant magnetoresistance (GMR) which has already exponentially increased the capabilities of magnetic data storage. The present study has examined magnetic properties of Fe/Cr/Fe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Hysteresis curves were measured at temperatures between T=109 K and T=400 K by the magneto-optical Kerr effect. Fe films on a Cr(100) substrate have previously been shown to have unusual temperature dependent magnetic properties especially near the Cr spin flip transition temperature TSF=123 K, so it is of interest to examine the temperature dependence of Fe films (~100A) separated by a thin (~10A) layer of Cr. Data analysis is currently underway. We are looking for a large change in the coercive field HC, or the external magnetic field required to reduce the magnetization of the sample to zero, over a small change in temperature, or any other unusual effect of temperature on the shape of the hysteresis curve.

Attachment Style and Stress Appraisal
Sarah Kobata
Mentor: Dr. Roxane Silver

Bowlby described attachment styles as "working models" of the world that serve as guides for behavior, affect, and perceptions of relationships. Bowlby also suggested that the attachment system would be especially activated during times of stress, and differences in attachment style should be most apparent at that time. Thus, individuals with different attachment styles are hypothesized to appraise the same stressful situation in different ways. Mikulincer and Florian (1998) found that individuals with a secure attachment viewed stressful situations as more positive. On the other hand, they found that individuals with an anxious-ambivalent attachment style tended to view themselves as less confident in coping with a stressful situation. This study was designed to examine the relationship between attachment style and stress appraisal. Fifty female undergraduates were placed in a stressful situation (i.e., they were asked to prepare to deliver a speech that was to be videotaped), and they were then surveyed about how they were feeling about the upcoming task. These subjects also completed a measure that assessed their attachment style. The subjectís interaction with a friend was videotaped after the subject was told about the stressful task. Results will examine how the subject appraised the impending stressor, how she handled the situation, and whether her behavior was related to her attachment style.

Persistent Global Activation of the Aplysia Serotonergic System After Sensitizing Stimuli
Kristine Kolkman
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Carew

The marine mollusk Aplysia responds to noxious stimulation with a stereotyped arousal reaction that includes escape locomotion, increased heart rate and sensitization of defensive reflexes. Although previous studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) is important for most of these behavioral responses, it is still unclear how the 5-HT system is activated in response to noxious stimuli. To address this question, I used a specific staining of the 5-HT neurons in the living central nervous system (CNS) that allowed me to (1) systematically record their electrical activity following a noxious stimulus, and (2) trace their projections using the neuronal tracer Neurobiotin. I found that in response to tail-nerve shock, a procedure known to mimic a noxious tail stimulus, the vast majority of 5-HT neurons increased their firing rate for several minutes and became more excitable. 5-HT neurons were found to project toward various peripheral targets such as the gill, heart, body wall, tail, siphon, head, and tentacles as well as to other ganglia in the CNS. This study shows that the Aplysia 5-HT system is globally and persistently activated after a noxious stimulus. Such an activation might serve to synchronize the different aspects of the arousal reaction in Aplysia.

Musical Computer Keyboard
Jeffrey Konshak
Mentor: Dr. Cristina Lopes

In defining the field of ubiquitous computing, Mark Weiser predicted that computers will integrate themselves into our environment and actively take part in our lives. These many computers will need a way to communicate with each other. In todayís desktop and palmtop world, typical methods of data transfer include radio waves such as the Bluetooth wireless standard, infrared light ports, or standard connection cables (parallel, serial, USB). This project seeks to exploit pleasing, audible sound as another effective means of data transfer in an ubiquitous computing context. The advantages of sound are that it is pervasive, cheap, secure, and intuitive. The challenges to be met in the use of sound are aesthetics, transmission speed, and robustness. The operation of the musical computer keyboard from the userís view is simple: the user enters a short text message on a PDA, a bird song plays, and receiving computers display the message. From the more complex developerís view, we first assign each letter a unique frequency shift and divide the bird song into time segments. We re-sample the sound (i.e., insert or remove samples) to achieve the frequency shifts and then store the samples on both the sending and receiving machines. The encoder and decoder access the stored samples to carry out their respective functions. The musical computer keyboard project demonstrates the viability of transferring data between computers via frequency-modulated birdcalls and suggests that in an ubiquitous computing world pleasing, audible sound is a plausible means of inter-device communication.

Pharmacological Enhancement of Rat Skin Flap Survival With Topical Oleic Acid
Taline Kotchounian
Mentor: Dr. Gregory Evans

Topically administered Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) has shown mixed results in increasing skin flap viability. The inconsistency of topical results may be due to the technical difficulty of delivering an adequate dose of dimethylsulfoxide across rat skin. Hence, oleic acid was combined with dimethylsulfoxide to test if co-administration of a topical penetration enhancer might facilitate the delivery of an adequate dose by overcoming some resistance to penetration. Forty skin flaps were elevated and the epigastric vein was occluded by a microvascular clamp for 8 hours. Following removal of the clamps and re-suturing of the flaps to the adjacent skin, the 40 flaps were randomized into four groups. Group 1 was topically treated with 100% saline, Group 2 with 50% DMSO, Group 3 with 10% oleic acid, and Group 4 with 50% DMSO and 10% oleic acid (by volume). DMSO did not increase percent flap survival in a statistically significant manner when given topically, either by itself (Group 2, DMSO: 14.67% ± 2.17%) compared with controls (Group 1, Saline: 7.20% ± 2.55%), or with oleic acid (Group 4, DMSO and oleic acid: 9.90% ± 3.44%); however, surprisingly, oleic acid by itself did increase percent flap survival (Group 3, oleic acid: 23.60% ± 4.19%) when compared to controls (P < 0.01) by Least Squares Difference pairwise comparison. However, the surprising increase in percent flap survival seen with topical oleic acid alone may have clinical significance in the salvage of rotational skin flaps.

Generation of BxPC3 Smad4 Clones Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth Caused by TGFß-1
Zhanna Kovaleva
Mentor: Dr. Murray Korc

The increased biological aggressiveness in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is due to numerous molecular alterations, including the presence of Smad4 mutations and overexpression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) isoforms. This is best evidenced by the fact that the overexpression of TGF-ßs in PDAC is associated with decreased patient survival. In our studies, we wanted to test the hypothesis that it is possible to abrogate this TGF-ß-Smad4 pathway. Accordingly, we established BxPC3 clones expressing wild-type Smad4 using the Smad4-null BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cell line. Using techniques such as immunoblotting, Northern blot analysis, and nude mouse tumor formation assays, we showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in BxPC3 cells expressing Smad4 clones in comparison to BxPC3 devoid of Smad4. We therefore believe that restoring Smad4 functions will lead to the suppression of pancreatic cancer cell growth in vivo, and that this approach could ultimately represent novel therapeutic strategy in PDAC.

The Changing Role of NATO: Perceptions of the Trans-Atlantic Military Alliance in the Wake of 9/11
Robert Krupica
Mentors: Dr. Bojan Petrovic & Dr. Caesar Sereseres

The end the Cold War brought on endless debate regarding the future of NATO and the trans-Atlantic relationship. Groups who advocated a U.S. withdrawal from Europe primarily argued that the implications of a "New World Order" detailed by the Bush administration would inherently have negative impacts on NATO. The fundamental basis this school of thought focused on was the cessation of NATO as a military alliance due to the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and the fall of the Soviet Union. In addition, scholars loyal to this school augmented their central argument on the notion that NATO without a Soviet Union threat has no basis into the global security environment. However, as we have witnessed at the commencement of the 21st century, NATO is not only alive, but also active in redefining its mission. This period of NATO redefinition has witnessed the first alliance expansion into former Warsaw Pact territory by adding Hungary, Czech Republic, and Poland to its ranks in 1999. Recently (this past November), the Prague Summit convened and has been labeled the "Transformation Summit." In addition to the three members invited in 1999, NATO has invited seven new members including the three Baltic States of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia (all former republics of the Soviet Union) at the Prague Summit. The magnitude of the activity surrounding NATO would actually lead many to believe that NATO has clear intention of remaining a strong institutional knot in U.S.-European relations. This secures a fundamental question on the line for anyone interested in Trans-Atlantic relations: Should NATO remain the cornerstone of U.S.-European relations in the future? Undoubtedly at first, one would clearly link this question to the assumption that the September 11th terrorist attacks in the United States have created an innovative legitimacy for NATO to adapt in order to battle international terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). However, much political disunity exists between the United States, on one wing of NATO, and several European States on the other wing. Thus the question, though slightly altered, still remains: Should NATO remain the cornerstone of U.S.-European relations in the wake of 9/11? The goal of this project was to locate empirical evidence supporting a hypothesis that NATO is truly a "relic" of the Cold War even in the Post-September 11th global security environment. The focus will be on perceptions of NATO in the United States and Europe after 9/11 and compare them to perceptions before 9/11. This paper challenges many commonly accepted views about the nature of NATO in the Post-Cold War world and what has been and will be done to "transform" the alliance to meet the "security needs" of Europe in a new era.

South Asiaís Nuclear Policy: The India-Pakistan Conflict
Kanika Kumar
Mentor: Dr. Alison Brysk

"Indiaís relations with all of her neighbors have been marked by occasional tension, but it is her conflict with Pakistan that gives specific character to the state of war and peace in South Asia," (Mitra, 2001, p. 361). India and Pakistan have had a relationship grounded in conflict since the end of British colonization, based on their religious differences. It can be argued that the situation has been worsened through nuclear arsenals retained by both countries. This study serves to ask a couple questions regarding India and Pakistanís nuclear policy. Is nuclear war inevitable? Is a peaceful coexistence possible? These questions lead to an evaluation of the nature of India and Pakistanís relationship in the twenty-first century. The tension could be lessened if the conflict in Kashmir was defused. But Kashmir is just one element contributing to instability in India and Pakistan. These decisions will impact the growing population of India, which is expected to surpass Chinaís by the year 2050. These factors need to be considered when evaluating the regionís nuclear policy. Nuclear deterrence is a plausible theory, but not as likely as nuclear war by way of nuclear proliferation. The aim of this study is to evaluate arguments for and against the maintenance of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan through conducting interviews with lead researchers and gathering information on UN resolutions to come to a conclusion about the tenuous situation. The decisions made by India and Pakistan today will have a large impact on the people of South Asia, as well as the rest of the world.

Reducing the T Lymphocyte Response Decreases Secondary Degeneration and Reduces Apoptosis While Increasing Neovascularization in Microarray Analysis Following Spinal Cord Injury
Joshua Kunellis
Mentor: Dr. Hans Keirstead

Injury to the spinal cord is followed by degeneration, which leads to progressive tissue loss and usually cystic cavitation. Cellular and humoral immune responses have been implicated as mediators of secondary degeneration, and the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants has been shown to precede immune cell influx. However, the relationship between the increased expression of chemoattractants, the invasion of lymphocytes, the overall lesion evolution and the genes involved are poorly understood. Here we show that the T lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL10 is upregulated after dorsal hemisection injury to the adult mammalian spinal cord (C57/BL6 mice), and that antibody neutralization of CXCL10 prior to injury dramatically reduces the T lymphocyte invasion that normally occurs after trauma. Notably, this treatment resulted in a significant reduction of secondary tissue loss. Preliminary data of microarray analysis indicates that antiCXCL10 treatment increased 5 neovascularization genes, 3 anti-apoptotic genes and decreased 5 pro-apoptotic genes following dorsal hemisection injury to the spinal cord. We conclude that CXCL10 plays a critical role in recruitment of T lymphocytes and that a reduction of T lymphocyte recruitment significantly enhances tissue preservation. Furthermore, microarray analysis indicates that antiCXCL10 treatment increases neovascularization and decreases apoptosis following injury to the spinal cord.

Taiwanese-American Influence on U.S.-China Foreign Policy
Allen Kuo
Mentor: Dr. Yang Su

The political atmosphere that governs Taiwan and China cross-strait relations has been an issue that has been with the U.S. since the fall of the KMT shortly after World War II. Since the nationalist defeat, the communist mainland has continually stressed the importance of Taiwan reuniting with China. It is oftentimes cited as a rogue province that the mainland will take back, by force if necessary. In the early 1970ís Richard Nixon changed former U.S. and therefore U.N. policy of recognizing the KMT as the rightful government to represent China to that of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Since then there have been weapon sales and a general U.S. foreign relations policy to favor Taiwan as not only a democratic entity, but also as an early military deterrence to China. In the past 10-15 years there has been a growing trend amongst the Taiwanese population for an independent Taiwan. Since then, Taiwan natives and, recently, Taiwanese Americans, have become more active in establishing an independent Taiwan. From the grass roots level to high-end politics, my research investigates exactly how much influence the Taiwanese factor has in shaping U.S. foreign policy toward China.

Immunomodulatory Properties of Docetaxel
Jennifer Kwok
Mentor: Dr. David Imagawa

Docetaxel is an anti-neoplastic taxoid that interferes with microtubule polymerization dynamics and is used clinically to treat advanced cancers. Because microtubules play a significant role in T lymphocyte activation and function, we characterized the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of docetaxel in T lymphocyte cells. The effects of docetaxel on lectin induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay after incubation at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL of docetaxel under simulated physiological conditions. In addition, apoptosis was measured by annexin V staining and intracellular calcium kinetics in lectin activated Jurkat T lymphocytes, exposed to various concentrations of docetaxel, was investigated using FACS flow cytometry. Our results showed that docetaxel significantly inhibited PBMC proliferation by approximately 130-150% at all concentrations tested and promoted apoptosis of lectin activated PBMCís. Furthermore, our results showed that docetaxel altered intracellular calcium homeostasis by increasing intracellular calcium baseline concentrations in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion we demonstrated that docetaxel, although exerting significant anti-proliferative effects on lymphocytes, only partially affects lymphocyte activation. These results suggest maintenance of lymphocyte functions important for host tumor surveillance and suggest that this compound may have a role in the treatment of cancer arising organ transplant recipients.

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The Neglect of the Sami Minority within the Context of Swedish History and Cultural Studies in Swedish Public Education
Anders Larsson
Mentor: Dr. Douglas White

The research analyzes the neglect of the Sami minority within the context of Swedish history and cultural studies in Swedish public education. Regarding the limited role of the Sami in education, the importance of local and national education plans will be discussed. Historical factors that have determined the specifics of education plans and discrepancies between national and local perspectives will be examined. Regarding the future of the Sami in education, the research investigates possible modifications in course plans and changes in attitudes within local school environments. Finally, the Sami relationship to local Swedish schools and the Swedish government will be discussed.

The Regulation of Ovarian Follicle Glutathione (GSH) Synthesis by Pituitary Gonadotropin Hormones
Jennifer Lavorin
Mentor: Dr. Ulrike Luderer

Glutathione (GSH) is an essential tripeptide antioxidant that is expressed in mammlian ovaries and other tissues. Its detoxifying role is an integral part of preventing ovarian toxicity from endogenous and exogenous chemical agents. Previous studies suggested pituitary gonadotropin hormones regulate GSH synthesis. We hypothesized that gonadotropins regulate ovarian GSH synthesis by increasing protein and mRNA expression of its rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase, GLCL, in ovaries. GSH tissue content, GCL-catalytic (GCLc) and GCL-regulatory (GCLm) subunit mRNA, and protein levels were examined 4, 8, and 24 hr following subcutaneous injections of 10IU of pregnant mareís serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in saline, or saline alone, in 25-day-old immature rats. PMSG was used to provide exogenous pituitary gonadotropin hormones, which stimulate development of a synchronized cohort of follicles in the immature rats. GSH tissue content was measured by enzymatic assay, GCL subunit protein levels by Western Blot analysis, GCL subunit mRNA expression by Northern blot analysis, and Estradiol levels by radioimmunoassay. PMSG stimulation showed a significant effect on ovarian GSH tissue content when compared to saline control group in the 24-hr group, but not in the 4 or 8 hr groups. Upon Northern blot analysis GCLc and GCLm mRNA expression normalized with GADPH mRNA levels exhibited no increase at any time period. GCLc subunit protein levels increased at the 24-hr time point. GCLm protein levels increased at 8 hr and significantly increased at 24 hr. Estradiol levels increased significantly at the 24-hr time point. The data supports the hypothesis that ovarian GSH synthesis is regulated by gonadotropin hormones acting to increase GCL subunit translation.

Predictors of High School Studentsí Vocational Aspirations
Wing Shuen Law
Mentor: Dr. Jutta Heckhausen

The senior year in high school is a critical period when students make the transition from school to work or higher education. It is expected that most students at this stage have formed their occupational aspirations, which will be of significance to their career development in the future. Research has shown that students with higher occupational aspirations tend to have greater adult occupational success (Cooksey & Rindfuss, 2001). Therefore, it is important to investigate the predictors of occupational aspirations in order to understand the pathway to future occupational success. Past studies have identified several variables, including academic achievement, parental expectation, parental education, and self-esteem, as predictors of occupational aspirations. Besides investigating the predictive power of these variables, the present study also seeks to uncover the relationship between adolescentsí occupational aspirations and the social prestige of their very important nonparental adultsí (VIPs) occupations. Research has shown that adolescent-VIP relationship is a normative component of adolescent development (Beam, Chen & Greenberger, 2002). In regards to the significant influence of VIPs on adolescent development, this study examines their influence on adolescentsí occupational aspirations. Based on a survey of 1,190 seniors from four high schools in the Los Angeles School District, the present study addresses the following hypothesis: Academic achievement, self-esteem, parentsí education, and VIPsí occupational success are predictors of studentsí occupational aspirations. Furthermore, the study controls for the effects of gender and ethnicity because of their potential effects on studentsí level of occupational aspirations. Analysis will be performed by using regression procedures.

Creation of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Lines With Conditional Expression of LMO-4
Duy Le
Mentor: Dr. Bogi Andersen

LIM-only factors (LMOs) are nuclear proteins that are involved in transcriptional regulation. However, they indirectly bind to DNA by associating with DNA-binding proteins and recruit transcriptional co-regulators called Co-factors of LIMs (Clims). Two of the three LMOs that were initially discovered (LMO-1 and LMO-2) are oncogenic; their overexpression in lymphocytes leads to acute lymphocytic leukemia. The fourth member (LMO-4) is highly expressed in proliferating epithelial cell of the pregnant mammary gland and has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer. However, it remains to be tested whether LMO-4, like two of its family relatives, is an oncoprotein. We predict that its overexpression leads to the activation of target genes associated with cellular proliferation, thus providing evidence toward its classification as a tumor promoting protein. These experiments intend to create stable, MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines for the eventual goal of determining the target genes of LMO-4. We employed a Tet-On gene expression system, which would allow us to regulate the expression of LMO-4 as we so desire. This controlled expression permitted us to select for clones with low background and high LMO-4 expression when induced. However, through Western Blot analysis, we found that LMO-4 was relatively highly expressed in the un-induced state, creating an unacceptably high background activity. This finding has led us to proceed with alternative methods, such as the Tet-Off system, to create conditionally expressed cell lines with a low expression of LMO-4 under un-induced conditions. These experiments are currently in progress.

Autonomous Adaptable Networking Applications Using Concepts from Evolutionary Biology
Michael Le
Mentors: Dr. Tatsuya Suda & Dr. Junichi Suzuki

With the recent advent of high-speed wireless and computing technology, the push toward ubiquitous computing is ever stronger. A key to the success of ubiquitous computing, and a central issue of this research, is the requirement that the underlying network technology allow for applications to dynamically and autonomously adapt to changing network topology, user demands and locations, and survive major network failures. To handle such complex networks, we propose the Bio-Networking Architecture, an autonomous adaptable mobile network using concepts from evolutionary biology. It has been observed that autonomous adaptability, a key to ubiquitous computing, has already been successfully realized in biological systems, such as an ant or bee colony. Modeling after these biological systems, a network application (ant colony) is implemented as a decentralized collection of autonomous objects called cyber-entities (ants). The research focuses on the abilities of these cyber-entities to adapt to the changing network topology, user demands and locations, and to survive massive network failures. Cyber-entities have biological behaviors such as reproduction, replication, and migration. Cyber-entities evolve, thus adapt, to the changes in the network by tuning the policies (genes) that control these behaviors to match current network conditions. Evolution of cyber-entities, and thus the network application, requires generating behavioral diversity through mutation and crossover during reproduction and replication, and death of cyber-entities, and executing natural selection through the concept of energy conservation. Empirical analysis of the adaptability of cyber-entities is underway and will be discussed along with design and implementation of evolutionary mechanisms and services.

Comparison of Water Quality in Two Urban Rivers in Southern California: The Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers
Daniel Lee
Mentor: Dr. Sunny Jiang

Closures and postings of beaches due to microbial contaminants are a concern in water quality management. This study examined urban runoff from the Los Angeles River (LAR) and San Gabriel River (SGR) affecting recreational beaches. Water samples from 3 sites along the LAR and 2 sites from the SGR were collected to measure fecal bacteria and human viruses, which includes total coliform, fecal coliform, enterococcuss, somatic and f-specific coliphage, and adenovirus. Enumeration of fecal bacteria was determined by membrane filtration methods. Phages were determined from concentrated samples using the top agar overlay method. F-specific coliphage were present at 88% of SGR sites and at 100% of LAR sites; somatic coliphage were found at all sites. Results also indicated that bacteria and phage concentrations increased after rainfall. Fecal bacteria concentrations exceeded standards set by the U.S. EPA at the LAR but none at the SGR. Moreover, adenovirus was prevalent in both rivers as determined by nested PCR. Results indicate that runoff coming from the LAR and SGR may directly impact Southern Californiaís beaches.

The Nature of U.S.-Tibet Policy
Daniel Lee
Mentor: Dr. Dorothy Solinger

The Tibetan Policy Act of 2001 represents the most comprehensive piece of U.S.-Tibet legislation since the Chinese invaded Tibet in 1959. Its provisions and declarations that have been designed to safeguard the cultural, religious, linguistic and ethnic identity of the Tibetan people reveal a U.S.-Tibet policy that has shifted from "free Tibet" to "save Tibet." It is this studyís intent to analyze the evolution of this bill in order to examine the present nature of the U.S.-Tibet policy and determine whether Tibet is treated more as a moral issue of human rights rather than a political question of sovereignty in the U.S. government. Ultimately, through an exploration of Tibetís unique history with China, a deconstruction of Tibetís mythological appeal in the West and an investigation into the sponsorship of the Tibetan Policy Act, this study illustrates an indecisive, uncommitted and ambiguous U.S.-Tibet policy that dangerously blurs the issues of human rights and sovereignty. This inability to delineate a consistent Tibet policy undermines the effectiveness and purpose of the Tibetan Policy Act of 2001.

The Process of Producing a Professional Quality Music Album
James Lee
Mentor: Dr. Kei Akagi

More often than not, students who choose to major in the arts, more specifically the instrumental performing arts, graduate their programs without any real experience of how to pursue a career in their discipline. The years spent in undergraduate studies are focused on developing ability and technical proficiency. It is all too common to find an outstanding young musician just out of college without a clue as to where to begin a career, let alone how to market his abilities to the masses. This study focuses on one direction an aspiring musician may take. It examines the process of producing a professional quality music album, which would be an invaluable medium to market a musicianís ability. The results of this study are expected to provide other young musicians with an idea of how to begin, follow through, and complete a similar type of project. This knowledge is vital for all musicians who plan to make a career in their discipline. It will be an experience they will make reference to time and time again as they take on new album projects throughout their careers.

Pricing and Differentiated Services in Internet and ATM
Kevin Lee
Mentor: Dr. Scott Jordon

The Internet was created by the Department of Defense as a simple communication network, which focused on its survival even when one of the links malfunctioned. Today, the Internet has grown to accommodate everything from E-mail and the World Wide Web to high capacity media contents. Currently, however, the network protocol in place does not discriminate among the types of data flowing across each network link. This research project concerns creation of a protocol that differentiates between various types of data packets and provides different delays and losses according to the needs of each application. Each data packet is categorized into four distinct categories depending on their loss and delay needs. For example, a streaming multimedia application requires lower delay but some loss of packets is trivial; an E-mail packet is allowed to have some delay but requires fewer losses of packets. The protocol would take the incoming packets in a buffer and send them out according a pre-chosen algorithm, depending on the type of the packet. It would be able to determine type of packet will be serviced more often and type of packets will be experiencing less drop when the buffer is full. Two different protocols are currently under experiment. The first protocol takes a user variable to determine the service ratio; with the second protocol, the service ratio is automatically calculated by the ratio of the number of packets inside the buffer. The research will analyze different combinations of service and drop ratios, under various environments such as heavy incoming traffic, various incoming traffic portions, and different transmission rates.

Farnesyl Transferase Inhibition as a Method of Immunomodulation
Michael Lee
Mentor: Dr. David Imagawa

The immunomodulatory properties of A-228839, a potent FTI, were investigated to assess its function in vitro. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIís) are anticancer compounds that inhibit Ras GTPases. Since Ras GTPases play key roles in T cell activation and function, we hypothesized that FTIís could be potential anti-rejection agents. We tested the FTIís effect on lymphocyte proliferation assays, T cell polarity, intracellular calcium kinetics, and apoptosis assays. It has been shown that this agent successfully inhibits T cell activation by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton and causing apoptosis. The mechanisms of the FTI are different from current anti-rejection agents, and the FTI seems to be a novel method for immunomodulation that can be used in the clinical setting.

Calibration of 1 Kilo-ton Tank
Francisco LePort
Mentor: Dr. Hank Sobel

K2K is a pioneering experiment in the field of neutrino physics. Its goal is to confirm and study neutrino oscillations, not predicted by the Standard Model. To do this, a beam of neutrinos is created, the neutrino flux and energy at the creation point is measured using a one kilo-ton water cherenkov detector (1 kt, part of the near detector), and finally the measurements are taken again with the same detector technology 250 km away (Super-Kamiokande, far detector). A difference in flux, or distortion of the energy spectrum, from expected values at the far detector is evidence for neutrino oscillations. For this reason, the precise energy calibration of the 1 kt is essential. To calibrate the tank, I used decay electrons from cosmic-ray stopping muons to measure the relative gain of the 680 PMTís, which line the inside of the tank. I constructed and used scintillation counters and trigger logic (both hardware and software) to ensure that each muon decayed into an electron while inside the fiducial volume. The average momentum of electrons which decayed toward each of several regions of the tank (top, upper-barrel, lower-barrel, and bottom) was recorded and used to detect any asymmetry in the tank. After subtracting the effects of muon polarization and detector geometry, theory predicts an isotropic momentum distribution for the decay electrons. Any deviation from theory is evidence for some asymmetry in the gain of the PMTís. In the end, I found evidence for such asymmetry, though further study is required.

Achieving Spiroannulation by Reductive Alkylation of Nitrile in Cyanocyclohexane
Wen-Hao Leu
Mentor: Dr. Scott Rychnovsky

Organic chemistry as a discipline emphasizes searching for efficient and simple methods to construct complex molecules. The hypothesis of this project is that the reaction of cyclohexane nitrile system with LiDBB and the internal electrophile will be feasible in generating a spirocycle motif. A simple cyclohexane system with a single cyano functional group has first been synthesized. As of now, an efficient way to alkylate µ-carbon with a side-chain that contains an electrophilic site is being searched. Then upon treatment with LiDBB, an electron transfer reagent, an organolithium intermediate should occur and subsequently attack the attached electrophilic side-chain. The resulting product constitutes a newly formed ring system and a quaternary center in common with the existing cyclohexane ring. This study can potentially reveal an efficient methodology that allows the generation of complex spirocycle scaffolds.

Directed Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Xiong Lin
Mentor: Dr. Peter Burke

One of the primary requirements for the development of molecular electronic devices is the ability to control the direction of growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Successful control of the growth process provides an important milestone toward designing the architectural foundation on which future generations of nano-electronic devices can be built. The goal of the project is to apply the techniques of microfabrication to the growth of nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). By using photolithographic, plasma, and wet etching processes, micro-arrays of posts and ridges are created on a silicon substrate to guide the nanotube growth. These microstructures are fabricated with specific distances apart to selectively grow nanotubes of desired length. To prepare for CVD, contact printing technique using a pre-molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp is used to selectively deposit a thin layer of iron based catalyst on top of the microstructures. Once the catalyst is deposited at the desired locations, CVD is used to grow the nanotubes. The growth of nanotubes suspended across the top of the microscale posts and ridges is demonstrated. Single-walled nanotubes that grow in an ordered pattern can be utilized as precursors to future experiments involving the design of nano-electronic, nano-mechanical, or nano-biosensory devices.

A New Technique to Denude Arterial Endothelium
Carlos Linares
Mentor: Dr. Ghassan Kassab

The endothelial lining of the lumen of blood vessels is extremely important for their normal function. In order to understand the role of the endothelium, it is important to develop animal models where the endothelium is removed. Our objective is to develop a new method to induce arterial endothelial injury. Previous endothelial injury models have used balloons to induce injury through over-distension. However, this technique has the side effect of damaging medial and intimal smooth muscle tissue (Clowes 1983 and Jamal 1992). Our approach was to move a catheter back and forth inside the vessel lumen after inducing vessel contraction around the catheter. We compared the acute contractile responses of femoral arteries to potassium chloride using both models. We observed that rat femoral arteries treated with the new technique underwent constriction in response to potassium chloride two days after the denudation whereas the arteries treated with the classic balloon model did not. This suggests that the new method effectively removes the endothelial cells with little injury to the media. This was confirmed with the circumferential stretch ratios and opening-angles of vessel wall sections at zero-stress state. Using this new technique will allow researchers to study the functions of the epithelium lining of blood vessels without the added artifacts that are inherent in a model that include smooth muscle damage.

Sexual Dimorphism in Phoradendron densum
Jenny Liou
Mentor: Dr. Peter Bowler

Most flowering plants produce both male and female flowers (hemaphrodites). This is called moneocy. These plants must devote large nutritional stores to the formation of reproductive parts. In order to lower the nutritional/energetic costs of reproduction, some species of flowering plants have evolved into dioecy, that is, male and female reproductive parts occurring on separate plants. Female reproductive parts are more costly for a plant to produce than are male reproductive parts, so dioecious plants may display sexual dimorphism. Some examples of sexual dimorphism include differences in size, shape or heartiness. My study examined the role of dioecy in determining the sex, size and distribution patterns of dense mistletoe, Phoradendron densum, an epiparasite of Juniperus californica, the California juniper. P. densum is a dioecious plant and J. californica is thought to be dioecious in California (Jepson 1993), although I did observe monecious junipers during my study. This dual-dioecy provides an interesting basis for a study of the effects of host and parasite dioecy on the size and distribution of male and female P. densum plants located upon male, female and monecious J. californica hosts. Data analysis is in progress. I am using two way t-tests to compare a series of potentially sexually dimorphic traits.

Youíve Got IM: Instantaneous Communication Among University Students
Sophia Liu
Mentor: Dr. Michael Scavio

Instant Messaging (IM) is a recent example of communication enabled by computer technology that provides an opportunity to investigate the possible impact of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on interpersonal communication. The goal of this exploratory study is to point out the explicit as well as the implicit motivations for using IM based on empirical evidence from seven IM users at University of California, Irvine. Five interviews were conducted face-to-face while the other two interviews were conducted through IM. In my analysis, IM is discussed at the intersection of three areas of discipline (social science, computer science, and the arts) in order to understand how IM has been integrated into our society. Particularly in this study, the following questions are addressed: Why are university students using IM as a communication medium? What types of people are users IMing? Under what circumstances are they using IM as compared to other forms of communication? Where else is IM showing up? Based on my analysis, five categories emerged highlighting the particular concerns as an IM user: communication, awareness, self-expression, managing availability, and managing activities. A unique aspect of this study was having the opportunity to interview an IM user who is hearing impaired. Exploring this facet of IM use also provides a better understanding of the diverse use of IM among its diverse users. Ultimately, the depth and richness of the IM medium has allowed oneís electronic persona to emerge.

Temperature Control for High Throughput Experimentation
Rodolfo Loza
Mentor: Dr. Mark Bachman

Miniaturization technology is enabling the development of the next generation of life-science instruments. These instruments will utilize high throughput micro-experiments to perform large numbers of biological and chemical experiments while using micro-volumes of reagents and sample. The result is faster, cheaper, safer experimental work leading to new advancements in the life sciences. One of the most important variables in biological and chemical experiments is temperature, and one of the key engineering challenges of new instrumentation is to provide precise, stable temperature control over many micro-experiments simultaneously. Furthermore, this must be accomplished in a manner that keeps costs low and manufacturability high. We are designing low cost, computer-controlled electronic circuits that can multiplex up to hundreds of heaters and sensors to provide fast, accurate and stable temperature control on miniaturized high-throughput platforms.

A Mutagenic Analysis of Short and Twisted Gastrulation
Kurt Lundberg
Mentor: Dr. J. Lawrence Marsh

Formation of the dorsal-ventral region of the Drosophila embryo is dependent upon a small group of genes, the key gene being decapentaplegic (dpp). Dpp activity is at peak levels in the amnioserosa ectoderm but is antagonized in the dorsal ectoderm by two other zygotically acting genes, short gastrulation (sog) and twisted gastrulation (tsg). The sog gene encodes an extracellular protein (SOG) whose antagonistic activity can be increased by the protein twisted gastrulation (TSG). This Dpp/Sog/Tsg interaction and how it determines pattern formation in the embryo is not fully understood. To find how these proteins interact, a mutagenesis experiment was used to obtain sog and tsg loss-of-function mutants which could be analyzed to find structural information about the proteins. Using the ptc>Gal4 and UAS promoter systems to drive the expression of the genes, tsg and sog were mutated with EMS. Mutations that led to the desired loss-of-function of either SOG or TSG should allow the embryo to survive to adulthood. The experiment yielded one positive result that was determined to be a mutation in the sog gene. The DNA was extracted, sequenced, and analyzed in comparison to the cDNA sequence found on Flybase. There were 15 discrepancies between the two sequences, most notably a stop mutation in one of the cysteine repeats. Further analysis of this data is needed to understand the structure and activity of Sog along with continuing mutagenesis experiments to obtain more loss-of-function alleles of sog and tsg.

The Acquisition, Retention, and Generalization of Motor Skills in Alzheimerís and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Linh Luu
Mentor: Dr. Malcolm Dick

The acquisition, retention, and generalization of motor skills in Alzheimerís disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) will be studied using tests of fine motor skill. The 90 total participants will learn the rotary pursuit task utilizing the circle pattern and a transfer test utilizing a triangle pattern. Previous research has focused little on motor control and the research that was conducted did not study the long-term retention of motor skills. Results have shown that not all types of learning and memory are impaired in AD; those concerned with perceptual-motor control may be spared. AD patients may retain motor information in short-term memory for considerably longer periods of time than they can retain verbal information. Learning and retention of memory is even less understood in MCI. Therefore, the major drive of this study is to suggest that the previous research on learning with AD and MCI is lacking on several dimensions and that long-term retention of motor skills is still present for AD patients.

Ethnic Identity Among Second-Generation Vietnamese Americans
Lisa Ly
Mentor: Dr. Ruben Rumbaut

The new immigration to the United States, particularly from Vietnam is unprecedented in their diverse ethnicity, culture, and class. In the past few decades, these new immigrants have been transforming the racial and ethnic composition of the American population. They are defining the social meanings of race and ethnicity as well as what it means to possess an American identity. On the one hand, Vietnamese immigrants struggle to adopt American values and culture in hopes of successfully assimilating into the host country. On the other hand, they strive to reject the American ways in order to preserve their ethnic heritage. Over time, the success and fate of the Vietnamese community lies not within the immigrant generation, but rather it is determined by the acculturation and assimilation process of their children: the second-generation. The purpose of this study is to examine how family, education, religion, and language affects the construction of second-generation Vietnamese-Americansí ethnic identity. In absolute numbers and relative terms, Vietnamese students are the second largest Asian ethnic group, accounting for 17.20 percent of the Asian undergraduates at UCI. Ten undergraduate UCI students were interviewed for the study. Findings indicate that most respondents identify as Vietnamese American. However, it is not a static identity as many respondents recognized that ethnic identity is a dialectical process. Moreover, respondents revealed that their ethnic-identity varies, depending on the context in which their race or ethnicity is inquired. Consequently, ethnic identity is a complex and contextual topic, one that cannot be reduced to rigid categories. Instead, ethnic identity is continuously constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed for second-generation Vietnamese Americans as they strive to make sense of what it means to be Vietnamese and live in the United States.

Characterization of Unique Antibody Against Breast Cancer in Multiparous Women
Nina Ly
Mentor: Dr. Donald Forthal

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified breast cancer as the second leading cause of death in women today, and a cure remains elusive. Epidemiological studies have revealed that breast cancer occurred less often in multiparous women than in nulliparous women. Previously published data indicates that approximately 95% of multiparous women have antibodies that react with at least one of three breast cancer cell lines in vitro. The reactive antibody apparently recognized a breast cancer protein of approximately 55 kilodaltons (kD) molecular weight. In this study, we attempt to isolate the specific protein that is reactive against the multiparous womenís sera. To do this, serum from multiparous women was tested for the presence of antibodies capable of lysing a breast cancer cell line in the presence of lymphocytes from healthy donors. Positive serum samples were then used to screen a breast cancer phage display library and to recover specifically reactive phages. DNA from selected phages, containing the sequence coding for serum-reactive peptides, was extracted, amplified, and digested. This yielded fragments of around 150 base pairs. The inserts were then subcloned into a vector, pBSK II, and amplified. Inserts will be sequenced and subcloned into an expression vector, pET32b. Multiparous womenís serum will be used to verify the reactivity of peptides derived from our clones and the peptides will be used to immunize rabbits. The findings of this research will help provide the basis for a preventative vaccine against breast cancer.

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Mechanical Consequences and Short Range Stiffness on Soleus Muscle Fibers of Hindlimb Suspended Rats
Kasra Maasumi
Mentor: Dr. Vincent Caiozzo

The point at which skeletal muscle fibers cannot withstand the stretch exerted on them is called short-range stiffness. Our muscles contain contractile proteins known as myosin heavy chains (MHC), which are responsible for the speed of contraction. There are multiple isoforms of MHC, categorized into either slow or fast contracting. Thus, expression of MHC is thought to have an effect on the speed of muscle contraction. The animal model used in this study is known as hindlimb suspension, in which rats are suspended from their tails so that they cannot use their hindlimbs for a period of four weeks. This causes atrophy in the muscles of the hindlimbs. More importantly, after four weeks we found that in these muscles slow MHC isoform expression decreased and fast MHC isoform expression increased. We also observed a decrease in muscle fiber cross-sectional area that corresponded to less force. A decrease in short-range stiffness of these muscles was seen in fibers whose MHC isoform expression has shifted from slow to fast. Eventually, SDS-PAGE will be used to isolate MHC, to see if there is any correlation between the MHC expression and short-range stiffness.

Spectrographic Characteristics of Oral Tissue
Marcos Magar
Mentor: Dr. Petra Wilder-Smith

The prognosis for oral cancer is poor, mainly because existing diagnostic techniques are extremely limited. The aim of this project is to develop a technique to map multi-wavelength excitation/emission spectra of healthy, dysplastic, and malignant human oral mucosa to identify potential spectral characteristics of healthy vs. pathological oral tissues. Ten µm cryosections from human biopsy tissues were spectrally analyzed using a spectrograph system and fluorescence was imaged/quantified using a confocal Zeiss 410 inverted microscope equipped with a CCD camera. Full spectral excitation/emission curves, fluorescence images were generated at specific tissue sites selected according to location and pathology. Using the H & E-stained serial section adjacent to the one undergoing spectral analysis assisted site selection. A blinded second investigator performed histological diagnosis on a semi-quantitative scale of 0-6. Spectral signatures showed characteristic changes associated with dysplasia and malignancy at specific wavelengths related to changes in tissue (i) extracellular matrix, (ii) vasculature, and (iii) metabolic status. An effective technique was developed for multi-wavelength spectral mapping and fluorescence imaging in healthy, premalignant and malignant human oral tissue. Characteristic signatures for each histopathological diagnosis were identified. This research was supported by SURP, CRFA27722, CRFA 30003, CRP 2110235, NIH R21 CA-87527-01, NIH RR-01192 and NIH CA-62203.

Scientific Evidence, Social Conflict, and Public Judgments about Contaminated Closed Military Bases
Edward Magee
Mentor: Dr. Elaine Vaughan

As a result of the change in national security needs following the end of the Cold War, many active military bases in the United States were closed in the 1990ís. Although several states were affected by this Congressional decision, California was impacted more than any other state. The closure of these sites will make available substantial amounts of land for commercial, residential and civilian uses. However, due to elevated public health risk concerns stimulated by the identification of extensive contaminated areas on most bases, conversion efforts are confronted with social, economic and environmental challenges. Previous attempts to inform communities of possible risks associated with closed military bases have often resulted in increased social conflict and dissatisfaction. This study is a formal content analysis of archival records of conflict and public meetings in communities located in close proximity to closed military bases that are targeted for reuse. The analysis of discourse between communities and regulatory agencies will examine two questions: Does the public weigh scientific evidence when judging risk, and do individuals utilize a hypothesis-testing strategy where scientific risk information is used to confirm previous beliefs about on-site contamination? The findings of this study are expected to increase our understanding of the role of scientific evidence in public judgments about hazardous exposures and the basis of social conflict about the military base conversion process.

The Relation between Friendsí and Adolescentsí Educational Aspirations: A Cross-Sectional Study
Sherry Mao
Mentor: Dr. Ellen Greenberger

After high school, adolescents may pursue different academic aspirations and educational plans, such as going to a two-year college, a four-year college, or graduate school. Previous studies have investigated peer influence on friends by focusing on factors such as race and ethnicity, gender, and the closeness of the relationship. In acknowledging the previous findings, the present cross-sectional study explores the potential association and interaction between friendsí variables and the studentsí academic plans. In the Los Angeles School District, 1,190 seniors from four high schools completed questionnaires addressing different variables, such as social networks and occupational and educational goals, during the end of their school year. The first hypothesis states that there is an association between peer variables and respondent variables. The second hypothesis states that the strength of the association is moderated by the frequency of contact with close friends, grades, and the respondentsí perception of peer warmth and understanding. The results supported the first hypothesis but not the second hypothesis. Planned analyses will address the possibility of selection effects, reasons as to why the second hypothesis was not supported, and a discussion of potential factors that may play a role in determining why students strive for particular educational aspirations. The findings of this study may increase our understanding of why adolescents pursue varying degrees of higher education after graduating from high school.

Feasibility Study in Evaluating Morphological Changes in Hamster Cheek Pouches Using Optical Coherence Tomography
Erin Matheny
Mentor: Dr. Matthew Brenner

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a method that provides potential capability for real-time high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissues. Hamster cheek pouches with various degrees of dimethyl benzanthracene induced dysplasia and malignancies were imaged with OCT in-vivo and in-vitro to assess the potential for real time detection and localization of airway malignancy. To examine the optical resolution capabilities of OCT on malignant hamster cheek pouch tumors and compare them to corresponding histological sections of the same tissue, 5 Golden Syrian Hamsters had 0.5% DMBA in mineral oil applied to the right cheek pouches and mineral oil alone (control) to the left side three times every other week for 10 weeks using a standard protocol for dysplasia/malignancy induction. The hamsters were euthanized 8-10 weeks after development of dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. The cheek pouches were imaged in-vitro after excision, and in-vivo using a prototype 1300 nm broad-band super-luminescent diode based device. Histological stains of the tissue were obtained and imaged for comparison with OCT. The OCT imaging offered exceptional resolution of the hamster cheek pouches and ability to detect malignancy and closely matched histologic images. OCT uses NIR interferometric methods to enable near histologic level imaging to depths of 1-3 mm with the potential for Ďoptical biopsyí capabilities in the future. High-resolution imaging and feasibility were demonstrated in this hamster cheek pouch tumor model. OCT can be adapted to use small diameter flexible fiberoptic catheter probes that can be employed in the working channels of bronchoscopes for future use in airway diagnostics.

Latino College Studentsí Attitudes Toward Mental Health Care
Melissa Mayorga
Mentor: Dr. Jeanett Castellanos

Latinos are growing in numbers at a rapid rate, and by 2015 Latinos will be the largest minority group in America. Although the numbers are large they are disproportionate to the usage of mental health. Research has well documented the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos. Literature suggests that Latinos prefer counselors who address the issue of culture and are culturally competent (Atkinson, Casas, & Abreu, 1992). The field of Counseling Psychology is further challenged to service this population considering that there are a limited number of culturally competent and Spanish speaking therapists (Kanel, 2002). The current study focuses on the attitudes of mental health services among Latino college students. More specifically, the study will investigate numerous variables that affect the Latino usage of mental health. The variables that are addressed in this study include acculturation and educational fit (which is comprised of the cultural congruity and university environment scale), while the criterion variable is attitudes toward mental health care. Sixty Latino college students from a four-year university participated in this study. Findings will provide direction for practical application and future research.

Superplastic Behavior in a Nanostructured Metal
David McDougall
Mentor: Dr. Farghalli Mohamed

Superplasticity is the ability of fine-grained alloys to undergo extensive, neck-free, tensile deformation prior to fracture and is characterized by elongation ranging from 300 to 3000%. Superplasticity has led to many commercial applications utilizing a variety of alloys that offer superior performance compared to traditional methods. The problem of conducting superplasticity tests on pure metals has led to the loss of superplasticity due to grain growth during testing at elevated temperatures required for superplastic flow. One solution now available is to use nanostructred materials that, because of their very fine grain size of less than 100 nm, allow for slight grain growth while still maintaining an average grain size of less than 10-15 µm. In the present investigation, the mechanical properties of nanostructured nickel were analyzed at elevated temperatures and at various strain rates.

New York Dance Instruction Evaluation and Assessment for the New York Satellite Program
Genoa McDowell
Mentor: Dr. Myrona Delaney

The students attending the New York Satellite Program this April are required to take dance classes at Broadway Dance Center. As most of the participants of the program are drama majors that do not have extensive dance experience, taking dance classes at a new school can be very intimidating. Finding a class at an appropriate level and that one feels comfortable in can be difficult. My research should help the students attending the program to quickly and easily find classes that will suit their needs. My research required that I participate in several hours of dance classes from different instructors, evaluate my experiences and assess their suitability for the students on the program. I used a standardized form of evaluation to analyze the classes in terms of style, structure and depth of instruction. I compared the level of the New York classes to the levels of UCI dance technique classes. Before leaving for New York I surveyed the students to become familiar with each studentís level of dance experience. At the end of my research I gave each student in the program a packet that included the following: a summary of my experiences in each dance class that I participated in, a breakdown of which students would be comfortable in the classes that I took, and a copy of my evaluations of each class. The findings of this research will serve as a reference for the students so that they can choose dance classes to attend with some background knowledge of the teachers.

Surface Variability of 14C in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in the Sargasso Sea
Kelsey McDuffee
Mentor: Dr. Ellen Druffel

Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the largest exchangeable carbon pool on Earth. It is essential to study the turnover time of DIC in the ocean because excess carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels and forests will eventually become part of this DIC pool. However, the rate that carbon dioxide is produced far exceeds the ability of the ocean to absorb that carbon dioxide, so the concentration rises in the atmosphere and is one of the main causes of global warming. Significant changes in surface DIC 14C values with time give us an estimate of how fast excess carbon dioxide is being absorbed by the surface ocean. Variability of 14C values at the surface is important for determining the 14C values at depth; however, the range of this variability has not, until now, been discussed. I will present dissolved inorganic carbon 14C analyses for surface seawater samples collected from the Sargasso Sea (31o N, 63o W) in June 2000, along with their correlation with other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, total CO2, and alkalinity. Implications for the carbon cycle and the role that the oceans serve as a sink for excess carbon dioxide are apparent and will be discussed.

Basolateral Amygdala Lesions and Systemic ß-adrenoceptor Antagonist Injections Block Glucocorticoid-Induced Working Memory Deficits
Jayme McReynolds
Mentor: Dr. Benno Roozendaal

Adrenocortical stress hormones have multiple effects on cognition. Previous findings have indicated that glucocorticoid administration enhances memory consolidation but impairs retrieval of previously stored information. Both glucocorticoid effects depend upon an intact basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and noradrenergic activity within the BLA. In human subjects, glucocorticoids have also been shown to impair working memory, a function dependent upon the prefrontal cortex. The present study examined whether glucocorticoid administration influences working memory performance in rats and whether this effect depends upon the integrity of the BLA and the noradrenergic system. Rats with either bilateral sham- or BLA lesions received systemic injections of either corticosterone (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before testing on a delayed alternation task in a T-maze, a task of spatial working memory. Corticosterone produced a dose-dependent impairment in the sham-lesioned controls. BLA lesions did not affect working memory performance by themselves but blocked the impairing effect of corticosterone. Likewise, systemic injections of the centrally acting ß-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min prior to testing prevented the corticosterone-induced working memory impairment. These findings indicate that glucocorticoids impair working memory and that these effects depend upon the integrity of the BLA and the noradrenergic system and suggest that the BLA interacts with the prefrontal cortex in mediating stress hormone effects on working memory. This research was supported by UROP and SURP grants and NIMH grant MH12526 (Dr. James L. McGaugh).

Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation as a Potential Therapy for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury
Charles Mendoza
Mentor: Dr. Hans Keirstead

Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OEC) surround olfactory neurons and have been shown to be one of the factors involved in the ability of these neurons to regenerate following injury. Previous experiments using rat OEC transplantations showed dramatic functional recovery and axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats. Thus, we decided to determine the regenerative ability of human OECís when transplanted into the rat SCI model. Human OECís were acquired through biopsies from nasal epithelial tissue, and were expanded in vitro. Animals were injured using the Infinite Horizons contusion device, in order to model human SCI. One week following injury, the cultured human OECís were transplanted into experimental animals while control animals did not receive the human OECís. Three different analyses were conducted on both groups. First, we analyzed the behavior of all animal groups over a six-week period by using the BBB scale. Results indicated a significant improvement in locomotor function in the transplanted animals as compared to the non-transplanted animals. Corticospinal tract regeneration was assessed via BDA injection into the motor cortex. Results showed greater axonal extension around the cavity area in transplanted animals as compared to the controls. Finally, we observed that human OECís survived for a period of 10 weeks (the latest time point analyzed) following transplantation, and migrated away from the injury site and into the adjacent normal tissue. Together these results indicate human OECís are a potential therapy for human SCI.

Hybridity (Multiracial American Portraits)
Lisa Michaelis
Mentors: Dr. Miles Coolidge & Dr. William Roberts

A portrait can often tell a story about a person, a certain time, or even place. I would like to visually illustrate a group of people that is like a minority within a minority but rapidly growing. My research involved taking portraits of multiracial adults (18 years and older). My interest in this subject matter began when I noticed there were many multiracial families, including mine, and wondering how my children would respond to growing up as a person of mixed race. Also, recent debates over how multiracial people should be considered in the Census have brought this issue into light. I specifically chose adults because they have struggled with issues of cultural identity and made decisions to embrace one culture over another or both cultures, or to separate from them completely. They may have also dealt with racism, prejudice or other scrutiny because they didnít belong to one specific race and realized that society utilizes culture, color and class to identify and divide people. These portraits also show unique physical characteristics of multiracial adults. I believe this project photographically addresses a stimulating and relevant subject and will provoke intellectual discussions among the students and faculty here at UCI about culture, identity, racism, stereotypes, and more.

Beyond Conventional Medicine: The Medical Profession in Transition
Susan Milden
Mentor: Dr. Daniel Stokols

Americans are changing the way they manage their health and well being. When confronted with illness, they are no longer satisfied to be merely diagnosed, medicated and exposed to potentially unnecessary surgery. Patients have chosen to look outside conventional medicine and supplement or replace traditional treatments with healing modalities which include century old health systems such as acupuncture and traditional oriental medicine, meditation, hypnosis and prayer, herbs and special diet, and chiropractic, massage, and energy therapies. In 1993, David M. Eisenberg identified these treatments as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), being "interventions neither taught widely in medical schools, or generally available in U.S. hospitals." Americans now spend in excess of $27 billion dollars out-of-pocket each year for CAM treatments. Although sometimes helpful, there are times when CAM treatments are contraindicated whether used alone or in conjunction with traditional medical treatments, placing patients at risk. Two hundred California M.D.ís were randomly selected to participate in a four-part survey questionnaire designed to assess biomedical physician attitudes toward the use of CAM. This study examines how physicians make patient treatment decisions when presented with non-conventional modalities. This research further inquires as to what levels of perceived empirical validation, education and institutional support are necessary for physicians to feel confident advising for (or against) CAM. Results of this research will be helpful in suggesting public policies pertaining to medical research, treatment, insurance reimbursement, health promotion, and governing organizations.

Involvement of Nuclei of NO Producing Neurons of Hypothalamus in Cardiac Sympathoexitatory Reflex in Cat
Ali Moazzami
Mentor: Dr. Zhi-Ling Guo

Previous studies have suggested the involvement of hypothalamus in afferent cardiac cardiovascular reflex pathway. However, in order to truly understand the regulatory role of the hypothalamus in this pathway, identification of specific neurons involved in this process is necessary. Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in regulation of cardiac-cardiovascular sympathoexcitatory reflexes have also been shown in previous projects, thus making NO-production. This projectís goal is to locate NO producing neurons of hypothalamus, which are activated by afferent cardiac sympathetic inputs; these will show co-localization of c-Fos and NO. C-Fos expression is an indicator of neuronal activation. After performing bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy in anesthetized cats, their epicardium was exposed and in one group bradykinin (BK) was repeatedly applied to the anterior surface of the left ventricle. As the result an increase in the blood pressure was observed, while the group with the vehicle of BK produced no responses. The BK group showed significant increase (p<0.05) of c-Fos expression in some nuclei of hypothalamus: paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus and the dorsal hypothalamic area (HAD). The co-localization of c-Fos with NO and NO with c-Fos was seen respectively in 7-8% and 7% of the cells in the PVN and HDA. Our result shows that a specific number of nuclei are involved in the cardiac sympathoexcitatory reflexes, and that NO may be one of the neurotransmitters used in PVN and HAD during activation of this reflex.

Agrin Affects the Localization of Calcium Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II in Cortical Neurons
Pooya Mobasseri
Mentor: Dr. Lutz Hilgenberg

Agrin is an extracellular matrix protein responsible for motor neuron-induced differentiation of the postsynaptic site of the neuromuscular junction. Agrin is also expressed in the brain but its role in the central nervous system is still unclear. Cultured neurons of agrin-deficient mice have shown a reduced sensitivity to neurotransmitters which suggests that Ca2+-homeostasis is altered in agrin-deficient neurons. A mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that differences in abundance and/or subcellular localization of calcium dependent proteins play a role in the agrin-deficient phenotype. To address this issue immunochemical procedures were conducted to look for differences in calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, calmodulin). My results indicate that there is no significant difference in the amount of calcium binding proteins in agrin-deficient and wild-type cultured neurons. Interestingly, I observed a difference in the staining pattern of calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) that is agrin genotype-dependent. CaMKII appears as a discrete puncta on the neurites of agrin-deficient neurons compared to a diffused staining pattern in agrin wild-type neurons. The application of exogenous agrin to the agrin-deficient cultures reverts CaMKII staining back to a wild-type staining pattern, which suggests that this change is agrin specific. Of particular importance is that the activation of CaMKII is crucial for the execution of Ca2+ signal transduction by agrin (Hilgenberg unpublished observations) as well as neuronal function responsible for learning and memory (Hudmon et al., 2002).

Simulated Microgravity and its Effect on Src and P38 MAP Kinase in Femoral Arteries
Morassa Mohseni
Mentor: Dr. Ralph Purdy

Upon return to Earth, microgravity adapted astronauts exhibit a number of cardiovascular deconditioning effects. These effects are thought to be triggered by redistribution of body fluids and abolishment of the standing pressure gradient. These hemodynamic changes that occur through space flight cause impairment in the ability to elevate systemic vascular resistance. A significant clinical problem faced by astronauts because of this cardiovascular deconditioning, is post-flight orthostatic intolerance. Previous studies have shown that simulated microgravity in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rodents induces a generalized reduction of arterial smooth muscle contractility in response to norepinephrine (NE). The reduction in vascular contractility to NE has been studied and significant evidence shows that it is a result of several alterations in specific second messenger pathways. Earlier studies have explored the effects of HU treatment in larger vessels; however, little information has been gathered on the effects of HU treatment in smaller conduction vessels located in the lower extremities. My study focused on the effects of simulated microgravity in the femoral artery and the deficits that occur in vascular smooth muscle signaling proteins. Through the use of tissue bath experiments and Western Blot analysis, I have found an HU-induced down regulation in Src, an upstream signaling protein that mediates vascular smooth muscle contraction. I have also found a decrease in P38 MAP Kinase, a downstream signaling protein that also mediated vascular smooth muscle contraction. The decrease in P38 MAPK is found in other vessels after treatment indicating that it may be independent of hemodynamic forces.

Alterations in the MAP-Kinase Pathways in High Pressure Vessels Subjected to Simulated Microgravity
Morvarid Mohseni
Mentor: Dr. Ralph Purdy

Microgravity causes a redistribution of tissue fluids leading to adverse cardiovascular affects such as orthostatic intolerance. These hemodynamic changes cause an acute increase but long term decrease in central venous pressure, as well as the impairment in the ability to increase systemic vascular resistance. Previous studies in centrally located vessels subjected to simulated microgravity show a decrease in vascular contractility to NE. This is possibly due to signaling deficits in calcium and second messenger pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as other structural, molecular and cellular alterations. Studies on high-pressure resistance vessels have also shown a degree of vascular hyporesponsiveness to NE, also thought to be due to alterations in cell signaling pathways. To test the effects of microgravity on the cardiovascular system, the hind-limb unloading (HU) treatment of rats is used. Two sets of rats that are age matched are used as a control and HU group. Rats are then euthanized after 20 days and the carotid arteries and vascular tissues are dissected and subsequently prepared for tissue bath experiments and Western blot analysis. The Western blot method has shown that Src, an upstream protein involved in smooth muscle contraction, is significantly increased in carotid arteries, but P-38MAP-Kinase, a down-stream protein, is down regulated. This suggests that P-38MAP-Kinase is independent of hemodynamic factors.

The Utility of Propofol as an Induction Agent for Rapid Sequence Intubation in the Emergency Department
Julieta Moran
Mentor: Dr. Federico Vaca

Rapid Sequence Intubation (RSI) is routinely used in the emergency department (ED) for patients requiring airway protection or ventilatory support and is also used in the operating room for patients who will undergo general anesthesia. Three drug states need to be induced in patients who undergo RSI: a sedative to reduce anxiety, an induction agent to produce unconsciousness, and a muscular paralytic before the intubation. Similar drugs for RSI are not always used between anesthesiologists and emergency physicians, even though both physicians perform RSI. Propofol is a specific drug that fulfills the first two stages of RSI: sedation and induction of unconsciousness. Its short half-life allows for rapid onset and offset. However, Propofol is not routinely used in the ED setting, but is often used by anesthesiologists. The use of this drug has not been studied for RSI in the ED setting. The purpose of this study is to introduce Propofol into the ED by conducting a retrospective chart review that will allow tracking of all non-traumatic patients who undergo RSI in the ED. Propofol is anticipated to be beneficial in the ED because of its onset/offset time, lower cost compared to continuous sedation by IV drip, and its double role in the first two stages of RSI. Analysis will include various factors taken from the data collection: diagnosis, reason for RSI, any adverse reactions to Propofol, length of stay in hospital, and emergency MD assessment of RSI. Patient enrollment in this study is currently underway and results are pending.

Evaluating the Impact of the Humanities Out There Program on SAUSD Student Writing Skills
Elisa Moskowitz
Mentor: Dr. Julia Lupton

The Humanities Out There (HOT) outreach program provides Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD) students with writing exercises to help them practice grade level composition skills. Studies show that HOT workshops help students to score higher on standardized written exams. However, these studies do not pinpoint what skills HOT has helped the students to develop. Such information is necessary for HOTís assessment goals. Various types of rubrics, or writing scoring guides, were examined, and the analytic rubric, which provides scores for different writing traits, was chosen as the best type of rubric to meet these assessment goals. Since HOT operates according to the California Content Standards for grade level writing, it needs rubrics for different grade levels. Prompts given in workshops were compared to content standards for corresponding and previous grades. Skills needed to complete the exercises were categorized under the traits Content, Voice, Organization, and Word Choice. Levels of skills that contribute to four scores for each trait were noted. In total, four writing rubrics were designed for grades 3-12. Researchers can use the rubrics to trace the development of writing traits and skills practiced in HOT workshops. Workshop leaders can use the rubrics to determine the skills that students in their workshops should practice. Lastly, HOT tutors and editors can use the rubrics to respond to writing done in the workshops.

Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Tamils vs. Sinhalese
Nikhil Moturi
Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

Sri Lanka, formerly called Ceylon, is known as an island of serendipity. Following independence, Sri Lanka moved toward a white-hall type of democracy patterned after the British model and it followed an agrarian based economy. Since 1970, the country has experienced a series of internal strife contributed in the first instance by the leftist oriented youth which led an insurgency movement in 1971-72, and later by a separatist movement led by militant rebels. For more than a decade, the government has been engaged in fighting the Tamil movement and to date, 60,000 lives have been claimed, a tragedy described by a Sri Lankan writer as greater than a Greek tragedy. The two sidesógovernment and the separatist movementóhave gone through various phases, including terrorists acts, counter terrorist measures, occupation, administration of territories, peace talks, breakdown of peace talks and so forth. For its part, the government removed the ban on the party known as the Tamil Tigers Liberation Eelam (LTTE), or Tamil Tigers, who were seeking the formation of a separate state for their own Tamil homeland. As of now, the LTTE has given up its claim for a Tamil homeland and instead settled for a new demand that allows greater autonomy to Tamils in the administration of the Northern region within the overall territorial integrity of the country. This project is viewed as compromising two parts. Part I deals as a case study, with the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Part II is concerned with a more generalized model. Given that most countries have ethnic minorities what can be done to contain the conflict and how can amity be generated; what is the role of political and administration factors and what can be done to promote a decent stable society?

Seizure Induced Regulation of ß3 Integrins in the Rat Brain
Sawrav Mukherji
Mentor: Dr. Christine Gall

My research experiment studied the effects of neuronal activity on the expression of ß3 mRNA in the adult rat brain. Neuronal activity in the experimental rats was induced by seizures. Recent studies propose that certain integrin subunits in particular influence learning and memory and it was my goal to determine whether ß3 expression is induced by neuronal activity. Since the hippocampus is a region of the brain that is associated with neuronal plasticity, such as learning and memory, my experiment investigated whether seizures induced the expression of ß3 mRNA in the hilus (a specific region of the hippocampus). Experimental rats were induced to seize and were then killed according to specific time points. The rats were divided into these particular time points in order to determine the point at which ß3 mRNA expression peaked. Expression was analyzed through densitometric analysis of brain tissue after being processed for in situ hybridization. The results of my study indicated that neuronal activity failed to stimulate ß3 expression more than basal levels. Thus unlike other integrins, ß3 activity does not seem to be influenced by neuronal plasticity. My experiment lends basis that while certain integrins are associated with learning and memory, others may not be. Currently I am probing whether the TGF-ß receptor is implicated with neuronal plasticity.

The Impact of Supreme Court Cases on Campaign Finance Laws
Masato Muso
Mentor: Dr. Pamela Kelley

Campaign finance law has shaped the American political landscape for over a hundred years. Lawmakers have enacted these rules to preserve the integrity of the election process. Today, campaign finance laws are highly controversial because they place squarely into conflict two fundamental political interests: 1) the right of the government to regulate political speech and protect the integrity of the process, and 2) the citizensí First Amendment rights to speak without government interference. The U.S. Congress passed the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 and 1974óthe most stringent financial disclosure requirements applying to federal candidates, political parties and political action committees. This study undertakes a thorough analysis of the constitutionality of FECA by looking at three major Supreme Court cases: Buckley v. Valeo 424 U.S. 1 (1976), Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. FEC, 518 U.S. 604 (1996), and FEC v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life, 479 U.S. 238 (1986). These Supreme Court cases address arguments regarding contribution and expenditure limitations, political party expenditures, as well as issue and express advocacy. Understanding the debate about the constitutionality of campaign finance laws provides a better perspective of the legal reasoning for recent reforms called the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA). By balancing the two fundamental political interests as much as possible, BCRA bans large soft money contributions and increases hard money contribution limits to give ordinary citizensí an equal voice in the democratic process, thereby having campaign finance laws serve the interest of the American public.

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The Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Secreting ß-Islet Cells
Eric Naasz
Mentor: Dr. David Imagawa

Diabetes is a debilitating disease that desperately is in need of therapeutic advances. Multiple new drug therapies to treat the existing disease have come out on the market, but research in the attempt to find a cure is still struggling. With 300 million people suffering from either type 1 or type 2 diabetes worldwide many new avenues are being attempted to find a cure. Stem cell research is one of those avenues and has shown promise in the battle with diabetes. Stem cells have an inherent plasticity characteristic for differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Given the different types of stem cells available in the body to study, it seemed obvious to utilize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCís) because of their immunocapbility, pluripotency, relative ease to culture, and they are not controversial. Therefore, MSCís offer potential for differentiation into insulin-secreting ß-islet cells. Utilizing a partial pancreatectomized mouse model as a vehicle for differentiation and injecting the MSCís into the remnant pancreas, we were able to provide an environment that we hypothesized would stimulate differentiation. Preliminary results indicated that the MSCís did not respond to native cues of an injured pancreas for differentiation, and thus there was no integration of the MSCís into the pancreatic architecture. However, there are many variables to this experiment that must be attempted still. This research is in its infant stages and with time will progress toward eliminating diabetes.

Human-Computer Interaction in Medical Devices
Babak Naffas
Mentor: Dr. Bruce J. Tromberg

Graphical and menu-based interfaces allow for the development of high-level research tools, representing algorithms and control interfaces transparently to the user without requiring an understanding of the functionality of the system. In my research, I developed a menu-based interface for near infrared spectroscopy data fitting algorithms used at the Beckman Laser Institute. This created a much more efficient researching and learning experience by allowing researchers to focus more on how changing certain parameters affects the interpretation of the raw data, eliminating the necessity of users to be proficient in the MATLAB programming language. By developing different algorithms, I was able to automate the assignment of the majority of fitting parameters, which vary from one dataset to another. In automating the parameter setting procedure, the user saves a lot of time that could be better spent in analyzing the data by having to modify only a handful of settings, as opposed to the 80 found in normal script filesóover half of which change from one dataset to another and must be carefully set by hand. Some of the problems encountered on this project revolved mainly around my inexperience with both the data-fitting system, for which the interface was developed, and the MATLAB language itself. The knowledge gained in these two areas has lead to reduced learning curves in future projects, as well as ideas for new projects. These new projects will capitalize on the developments made for the interface bringing us one step closer to real-time data acquisition and fitting.

Focused Ion Beam Optimization for Submicron Milling
Kenneth Nakahara
Mentor: Dr. Roger McWilliams

This project will present experimental research on the best techniques for optimizing a focused ion beam system for milling on a sub-micron scale. As background the general layout and function of a focused ion beam with a liquid metal ion source will be described. For further background an overview of general alignment procedures for a focused ion beam column will be discussed, due to its importance in optimizing the beam. The heart of the presentation will deal with finding and setting optimum focus, as well as for finding and setting the optimum stigmation values, for two types of ion columns, those using liquid metal ion sources, and those using plasma sources. The presentation will discuss two methods for finding focus and stigmation, the pros and cons of each system, and for which each is best suited.

Optimization of in vitro NGF Release Modulation in HEK-293 Cells
Sanjay Naran
Mentor: Dr. Gregory Evans

Despite numerous cases of nerve damage each year, autografting is currently the only tested and implemented therapy for peripheral nerve repair. Although alternatives have been explored, many have failed to match the nerve regeneration over large distances like that of autografting. The ultimate goal of our project is to develop a clinically translatable tissue engineered approach for nerve repair and replacement, via the delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF), which overcomes the limitations of the current standard. It has been previously demonstrated that Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK-293) can be genetically engineered to release NGF. hNGF-EcR-293 cells, a commercially available HEK-293 cell line readily transfected using the Ecdysone-Inducible Mammalian Expression System with human NGF cDNA, were used. An analog of Ecdysone, Ponasterone A, was employed as the inducing agent. Utilizing these hNGF-EcR-293 cells, the objective of this study was to determine the amount of Ponasterone A needed in order to induce optimum NGF secretion. To determine Ponasterone dosing, hNGF-EcR-293 cells were left untreated or treated with DMEM containing Ponasterone in varying concentrations (1 µmolar to 3 µmolar). The resulting supernatant was harvested from the cells for estimation of NGF production via ELISA analysis, and NGF bioactivity determination via PC-12 cell bioassays. hNGF-EcR-293 cells were found to inducibly secrete bioactive NGF upon exposure to Ponasterone. Furthermore, a 2 µmolar concentration of Ponasterone was observed to elicit an optimum production of 2347 pg/cc of NGF; thereafter, increases in NGF secretion did not justify the increase in Ponasterone dosing.

Satellite Cell Activation is Required for Serial Sarcomerogenesis
Naiem Nassiri
Mentor: Dr. Vincent Caiozzo

The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms involved in longitudinal skeletal muscle growth, induced by tibial distraction of rodent lower limbs. The prominent nuclear domain theory of skeletal muscle requires a constant ratio of myonuclei to myofiber volume at all times. Therefore, any change in the volume of the myofiber (caused by either atrophy or hypertrophy) would require the addition or subtraction of myonuclei via activation or deletion of peripheral satellite cells. We tested this theoretical role of satellite cells by comparing weight and cross sectional area of muscles with and without disabled satellite cells. Data was collected from 64 animals randomly assigned to two time points (8 and 32 days) and four experimental groups (NC, FC, D, D + I). FC had surgical placement of fixator without distraction, while D and D + I were distracted at 0.5 mm/day for assigned time point. D + I had the left hind limb irradiated just prior to surgery to inactivate satellite cells before distraction. BrdU was administered halfway through distraction and before sacrifice to monitor the incorporation of new satellite cells. Soleus muscle weights and cross sectional areas of D and D + I varied significantly (p>0.05). Also, histological analysis showed significant discrepancy between soleus of D and D + I. These findings suggest that satellite cells may be necessary for serial sarcomerogenesis.

Systemic Administration of a ß-adrenoceptor Antagonist Blocks the Memory Retrieval Impairment Induced by Hippocampal CA3 Lesions in Rats
Sheila Nathan
Mentor: Dr. James McGaugh

Previous studies have shown that the integrity of the hippocampus is important for learning and memory. Lesions of the CA3 region of the hippocampus impair retrieval of spatial memory. Damage to the CA3 also disrupts glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms, resulting in increased basal glucocorticoid levels. Acute administration of glucocorticoids shortly before retention testing also impairs memory retrieval and this impairing effect is blocked by a ß-adrenoceptor antagonist given systemically or directly into the hippocampus. The present study examined whether ß-adrenoceptor antagonist injections block the memory retrieval impairment induced by CA3 damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats received kainic acid-induced lesions of the pyramidal cells of the CA3 subfield and were trained for two consecutive days on a water-maze spatial task. The CA3 lesion did not affect training performance, but lesioned animals were impaired on a 60-s probe-trial assessed 24 hrs after completion of training. Retention impairment was indicated by a longer initial latency to cross the platform location and decreased time spent in the training quadrant. The ß-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) administered 90 min before retention testing dose-dependently blocked the impairing effect of the lesion on memory retrieval. These findings suggest that noradrenergic activation is essential for mediating the impairing effects of CA3 damage on memory retrieval. These findings may have clinical implications as most cognitive disorders associated with aging, such as Alzheimerís disease and major depression are associated with hippocampal damage and elevated glucocorticoid levels. This research was funded by an NIMH grant MH 12526 and a UROP research grant.

Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Design
Rurico Neri
Mentor: Dr. Derek Dunn-Rankin

Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEV) are 4-wheeled vehicles that carry from two to four passengers. These vehicles are subject to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and are classified as Low Speed Vehicles, with a maximum speed of 20 to 25 miles per hour. NEVs are cost-efficient in terms of initial capital cost. Use of NEVs began primarily as general neighborhood trips, but now many federal, private and public agencies are increasingly using them for basic transportation within their installations. NEV usage decreases gasoline consumption locally since they are zero-emission vehicles, which help decrease the local air pollution to a certain extent. The objective is to design and manufacture a NEV that meets the needs of a more industrial environment vehicle, while keeping the same attributes of the lighter NEV. The design will target the specifications that the U.S. Department of Energy mandates under their Advanced Vehicle Testing Website in the category of neighborhood EV. Testing has been performed in a base model (single motor, single axle) for data gathering. This information will be implemented in the tandem vehicle to evaluate its performance and to study its output. Gear ratio and map field of the motorís currents are the parameters that are being tested to optimize the performance of the prototype vehicle.

Screen for DLG Interactors Using the Yeast Two-Hybrid System
An Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Peter Bryant

Dlg (Discs-large) is a protein required for the control of epithelial structure and cell proliferation in Drosophila. We are investigating how Dlg controls cell proliferation by analyzing the abnormalities in dlg mutants and by identifying other proteins that interact with Dlg. Because all of the domains of Dlg appear to be protein-protein interaction domains, it is therefore critically important to identify the binding partners. The aim of this project is to test the interaction of Dlg with several candidate partners, using binary tests with the Yeast Two-Hybrid (Y2H) System. The proteins to be tested include DER (Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, a likely candidate based on tests in vitro), Lin-7, and Lin-10 (identified from their homologs in the nematode Caenorhabditis, where they interact with the EGF receptor). The Y2H vectors being used are pGBKT7 and pGADT7, which contain the DNA-binding (DNA-BD) and activation (AD) domains respectively of a unique transcription factor. Usually, these two domains work synergistically to activate specific genes. In the Y2H system, they can activate selected reporter genes whenever they are brought in close proximity to each other. Since each protein of interest is fused with either the DNA-BD or AD, any interaction between two such proteins will also bring the DNA-BD and AD domains close enough to each other to activate the reporter gene. Therefore, by assessing the activity of the reporter gene, we will determine whether Dlg and the candidate partner proteins interact with one another or not.

Characterization of X4-4: A Novel Condensation-Related Protein
Christine Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Kyoko Yokomori

Condensin is a conserved multiprotein complex required for proper mitotic condensation of chromosomes in eukaryotes. Chromosome condensation is prerequisite to the proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. However, its mechanism and cell cycle-specific regulation are not well understood. To address this, we focused on identifying cellular factors that interact with, and possibly modulate the function of, condensin. We previously identified a novel nuclear protein termed X4-4 that specifically interacts with condensin in human cells. To understand the role of X4-4 in condensin function, we have begun to characterize the subcellular localization of X4-4, its interaction with condensin, and its function in the cell. We found that during interphase when condensin is sequestered in the cytoplasm, X4-4 localizes to the nucleus, which depends on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminus. In contrast, during mitosis, X4-4 specifically localizes to the metaphase chromosomes similar to condensin. We confirmed this localization using the recombinant full-length X4-4 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Consistent with the colocalization on mitotic chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins revealed that X4-4 interacts with condensin in a mitosis-specific manner. To address X4-4 function in the cell, we made a construct expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) to selectively suppress its expression in human cells and analyzed its phenotype. The results indicate that X4-4 is an essential protein in human cells. Our results suggest that X4-4 plays an important role in condensin-mediated mitotic chromosome condensation.

Mobility of Network Applications in Bio-Networking Architecture
Kevin Nguyen
Mentors: Dr. Tatsuya Suda & Dr. Junichi Suzuki

The Bio-Networking Architecture is an architecture that applies biological concepts to the design of network applications in hope that they exhibit desirable properties such as scalability, adaptability and robustness. Designed after biological concepts, in this architecture, the objects that consist of a network application have several biological behaviors such as migration, replication, reproduction, and death. The bionet platform, as a middleware platform, allows network objects to provide their functional services and perform their biological behaviors by providing a set of middleware services, called bionet services. The focus of this project is migration behavior of network objects, and it builds the bionet migration service, one of the bionet services, which allows network objects to move from one place to another in the network. The service is responsible for sending a network object to a destination network host and receiving an object from a source network host. Through extensive survey and evaluation of various techniques to design and implement efficient migration service, the bionet migration service is being implemented with some features of Java programming language such as serialization, deserialization, class loading and instantiation. This service allows network applications to scale well in large systems by spreading objects around network and to avoid collapse from failures and bottlenecks in the network. This poster presentation overviews several common design strategies for mobile network objects, shows the detailed design and implementation of the bionet migration service, and demonstrates several results of its performance measurement.

Statistical Parametric Mapping Applied to an Autoradiographic Study of Cerebral Activation, Induced by Motor Activity in Rats
Peter Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Mark Mandelkern

Autoradiographic images provide insightful data for studying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, upon physiological stimulation of the auditory, visual or sensory systems. Conventional quantitative studies of regional CBF include mapping regions of interest by intensive manual optical densitometry, using relative distributions of radioactive tracer as a proxy for cerebral activation. Often, such measurements are subject to bias and become overwhelming if large data sets are desired. In this study rats were radio-labeled with iodo[14C]antipyrine. Following sacrifice of the animal, serial brain tissue sections were cut at 20 µm thickness, digitized and calibrated to show true tracer spatial distribution. Serial sections were then registered, or realigned, and stacked into a 3D reconstructed volume. To coregister different data sets, the brains were spatially normalized into a standard space and smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. A parametric statistical model (t-test) was assumed at each voxel to determine the variability in the data in terms of motor induced cerebral activation effects. Hypotheses based upon the model parameters were then evaluated at each voxel, thus creating a statistical parametric map (SPM). The SPM approach offers the ability to perform a non-biased voxel-by-voxel based comparison of data sets, thus making it a powerful method for evaluating neuroimaging data from animals.

The Torch-Master
Quang Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. William Sirignano

Most torches sold in the market today are compressed gaseous fuel devices that have small energy storage per unit weight of the device. The torch-master will demonstrate a device that has a higher energy density, which is valuable for portable devices. The research is based upon the concept of miniature combustion in which fuel and oxidant are brought into a combustor, then mixed and burned. As a result, the torch consists of a closed cylinder containing liquid oxygen, which is gasified in another tank called the gas chamber. The gas chamber has two outlets. One outlet is through a nozzle that creates a jet of gas to entrain surrounding air into a duct. The duct leads the enriched air into the combustor to mix with fuel. The air enriched with oxidant increases the temperature of the flame in comparison to the flame with standard air. The mass flow rate of the enriched air is determined by the entrainment ratio. The higher the entrainment ratio, the less oxidant we carry in the torch. The other outlet is to create a pressure force acted on a piston to deliver fuel to the combustor. A pressure regulator will adjust the pressure to have a desired fuel flow rate. At the combustor, air and fuel are mixed at stoichiometric proportion before the flame is started. To obtain the flame, we must use an external igniter to initiate the flame.

A Theoretical Study of Polarization Effects on a Model Peptide Bond
Que-Huong "Ke" Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Douglas Tobias

Of the many interactions that govern the structure, stability, and functionality of a protein, those involving peptide bonds, which link different amino acid residues (the building blocks of a protein) together, cannot be overlooked. In order to understand the role and behavior that peptide bonds play in the overall functionality of a protein, N-Methylacetamide (NMA) has been studied from a theoretical perspective as a model of a peptide bond. Through the use of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the structure and dipole moment of NMA molecules in the gas and crystal phases were computed and will be discussed along with the corresponding properties of NMA in solution. To quantify polarization effects induced by NMA, the dipole moments of water have been analyzed. In addition, changes to the vibrational spectra of NMA in differing chemical environments were examined for comparison to available experimental data.

Targeted Mutagenesis of the Genes flin-7 and flin-10 by Homologous Recombination in Drosophila melanogaster
Sheila Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Peter Bryant

The fruit fly Drosophila is being increasingly used as a model system to study the genetic changes that occur in cancer cells. This approach has been validated by the finding of extensive homology between the genes that have important functions in cell proliferation control in Drosophila as compared to humans, and by the finding that loss of function of tumor suppressor genes in Drosophila leads to phenotypic changes similar to those seen in human cancer. These changes include loss of epithelial structure (especially loss of cell polarity and junctions), and excess cell proliferation. One of the best known tumor suppressor genes in Drosophila is lethal(1)discs large-1, encoding the Discs large (Dlg) protein, which functions in the larval brain and imaginal discs. The main hypothesis for this research project is that Flin-7 and/or Flin-10, the protein products of the genes flin-7 and flin-10, may also be required for the control of cell proliferation, and that they may function by binding to Dlg, helping it to regulate the localization and/or function of DER (the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor). To test these ideas I am producing genetic mutations of flin-7 and flin-10 using homologous recombination, a new technique that uses the organismís endogenous machinery of DNA repair and recombination to integrate exogenous DNA at a target locus, mediated by homology of DNA sequences. When I investigate the phenotypes caused by these mutations, I will discover whether the gene products have the suggested functions in controlling cell proliferation.

Auditory Cortical Potentials (N100, P200) to Temporal Gaps in Noise in Adults
Tin Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Arnold Starr

The objective of this project is to use electrophysiological methods to study cortical potentials to gaps of different durations. Auditory potentials to gaps were recorded from 12 normal subjects. Gaps of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ms in noise (60 dBnHL) were randomly presented every 2 sec. Subjects were tested in two conditions: (1) press a reaction time (RT) button to a detected gap and (2) listen without behavior. Trials to gaps were averaged and measures of peak latency and amplitude of components N100/P200 were computed. Accuracy was ~99% for 50, 20, and 10 ms gaps, 73% for 5 ms, and 17% for 2 ms gaps. RTs averaged ~292 ms to 50, 20, and 10 ms gaps, 352 ms for the 5 ms gap, and 421 ms for the 2 ms gap. N100 and P200 were identified to gaps between 50 and 5 ms. N100 and P200 amplitudes were significantly decreased when gap durations were less than 20 ms; peak latency differences among gap durations were not significant. Accuracy, RT, and N100 and P200 correlated with gap duration. These methods provide a tool to study temporal processes in hearing disorders and mechanisms of central auditory processing.

Mini-FDPM Data Acquisition Board
George Niemela
Mentor: Dr. Pai Chou

Frequency Domain Photon Migration (FDPM) is a breakthrough medical technology that non-invasively determines relative density and composition of thick tissues using near-infrared light. Its most compelling application is cancer detection, however its potential applications permeate the medical and neuroscientific fields. Recent functionality advances accompanied by reductions in cost, size, and power consumption of off-the-shelf communications components makes FDPM miniaturization possible. This mini-FDPM device strikes a careful balance between signal spectral clarity (low jitter and low phase noise) and device performance (quick frequency-locking for real-time scanning). The device generates a wide band of frequencies, requiring careful oscillator design so as to avoid spurious signals. Beyond overcoming these challenges, the primary research goal is reconfigurability. The user may program various frequency paths through the digital interface, allowing this device to accommodate a wide range of applications. This built-in flexibility will foment the applicability of FDPM technology, revolutionizing medical imaging.

Computational Simulation of Solar Sail Trajectory Using an Orbiting Photon Generator as a Power Source
Paul Nissenson
Mentor: Dr. Gregory Benford

The high cost and weight of conventional rocket fuels is a major inhibiting factor for space exploration. Solar sails, large gossamer sheets of material that are propelled through space by photon pressure, offer a relatively low-cost method of sending payloads from an earth orbit to anywhere in the solar system. While photon pressure is very small, a large sail could intercept great numbers of photons (from the sun or any photon source) and be slowly accelerated through space up to very high velocities over long periods of time. Although most solar sail research has focused on using only solar photons to propel the sail, this study looks at the dynamics of using a photon generator in an earth orbit as the only source of photons. A generator, producing a much denser stream of photons than the sun, can greatly reduce a solar sailís escape time from earthís gravity. The generator can impart on the sail a certain energy that will make both orbits "resonate"óthat is, the generator and the solar sail will meet at the same point in space after a certain amount of time. At resonance the generator will be able to "push" the sail again. Simulations of solar sail trajectories are made and estimations of escape times are calculated.

Analysis of Binary Stars Using Photometry and Spectroscopy
Charlotte Nix
Mentor: Dr. Roger McWilliams

Most stars are found in groups of stars that are gravitationally bound to each other. Most of these stars are in a binary system. Binary stars appear as a single star even through a telescope. They are too close in proximity to each other and too far from earth to be seen separately, but they can be distinguished using the periodic Doppler shift of the wavelengths seen in the spectrum as they orbit around their common center of mass. Using these spectroscopic as well as photometric results, the velocities of the individual stars, their radii, mass, densities, temperatures, orbits, and their period can be determined. All data will be observed and collected using the UCI observatory, which houses a computer-controlled telescope with a 24-inch primary mirror and 8.5-inch secondary mirror. The spectrograph detector is an SBIG ST-8E CCD with 5.7 angstrom resolution and a wavelength coverage of ~600 angstrom. The imaging camera has an SBIG ST-9E CCD with a field-of-view of 7 arcmin x 7 arcmin.

One in a Million: The Art of Auditioning
Sarah Novotny
Mentor: Dr. Myrona Delaney

Performers attempting to create a career in theatre are judged before they even open their mouths. It is important for the performerís career and his or her potential for casting to make the best impression possible and most importantly, to be prepared. What is it that the auditors are looking for? How do I know my type or how to prepare for specific auditions? What should my headshots and resumes look like? Answering these questions has been a job in itself for actors. Many students of theatre do not get a seminar on auditioning early enough in their careers, if at all. This can be a detriment to their performance abilities as a whole. Getting a callback is the foot in the door to really showcase a performerís talents. New York City has the highest standard of theatre in the world, thus the highest expectations for their performer. Research will be done to reveal what it is that the working, casting professionals desire to see and recommend for the aspiring performer. The findings of this study are expected to increase the knowledge of young performers and prepare them for the professional world of auditioning.

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