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Prevailing Descriptors of Black and White Males
Deinde Odubela
Mentor: Dr. Duran Bell

Most studies of racial stereotypes are focused on white American students’ attitudes toward other minority groups. There is little research testing other ethnic groups’ attitudes toward white Americans. Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly at Princeton University led the first research conducted to investigate racial stereotypes of college students in 1933. They created a list of 84 descriptors and presented them to 100 Princeton University students. The students had the task of selecting 10 adjectives to characterize each of 10 minority groups, including Blacks, Jews, and Italians, among others. The current study builds on the 1933 work, but adds additional variables. Samples of black and white UCI students were asked to characterize both black and white males using the original list of 84 descriptors from 1933. Additional samples of black and white UCI students were asked to characterize both black and white males using a list of 84 descriptors collected independently from a free list survey conducted at UCI in 2002. Results of the surveys are analyzed using both descriptive and multivariate statistical methods, and are compared to the 1933 research. A multidimensional visual representation in geometric space is also presented for each task group. Results indicate that there is greater stability for white male descriptors using the 1933 word list than for black male descriptors—10 of the 12 most frequently chosen descriptors for white males in 1933 are still chosen today compared to only 4 of 12 for black males. Other similarities and differences between groups are also presented.

A Blending of Cultures: The Experience of Korean-Brazilian Immigrants in the U.S.
Bona Oh
Mentor: Dr. Linda Vo

My essay examines the experiences of Korean immigrants currently residing in the U.S. who were either born or raised in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The existing literature on diaspora often describes these displaced populations as either victims of oppression or as successful migrants (Park, 2002), with little attention to their migratory processes and ethnic identification. My data is based on 6 ethnographic interviews of second-generation Korean-Brazilian immigrants in Los Angeles. My paper analyzes the (1) historical periods of immigration and economic reasons for migrating; (2) situational factors and symbolic meanings that differentiate what it means to be Korean, Brazilian and American; (3) forms of cultural retention; and (4) the importance of personal ties to one’s homeland and community formation, focusing on religious practices and ownership of retail/merchandise businesses. More specifically, I analyze the different stages of ethnic identification as the immigrants experience segregation, integration and acceptance. I will also discuss how racially inscribed phenotypes often complicate one’s identity. The findings from my study increase our understanding of individuals from ethnically mixed backgrounds.

Civil Liberties vs. National Defense: America’s Global War on Terrorism
Kathya Oliva
Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

September 11 was a day that Americans will never forget. Thousands of innocent people were killed with our own American planes. It was no surprise then, when the issue of national security was raised. Many Americans wanted to know what was going to be done to prevent another September 11. In response, the Patriot’s Act was enacted on October 2001 and later Homeland Security. Within the Patriot’s Act enormous amount of legal power was given to domestic law enforcement and international intelligence agencies as far as obtaining information or spying on "potential terrorists." In my research I have reviewed the Patriot’s Act and Homeland Security and their effect on our civil liberties. Having lived in Washington, D.C. for 10 weeks, I also got the opinion of legislative assistants that work for Congress and heard their thoughts on the two pieces of legislation. My research suggests that there should be legislation to protect our civil liberties from the Patriot’s Act. I realize that in times of war, terrorism or other crises the government tries to operate in the public interest, but the Patriot’s Act, which has no restrictions, crosses the line and intrudes on our civil liberties. The findings of this research project are expected to promote awareness and involvement in pieces of legislation, such as the Patriot’s Act, that affect every American’s basic civil liberties.

Increasing the Toughness of Silicon Oxycarbide with Carbon Nanotubes
Kevin Olson
Mentor: Dr. Martha Mecartney

Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) glass has several desirable properties such as a high melting temperature, low thermal conductivity, and low density. However, the material, which is similar to most glasses, fractures relatively easily. This research focuses on a method to make SiOC glass less likely to fracture using the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The role of the CNTs is to arrest crack propagation, since the CNTs are difficult to break and have a fracture strength approximately 10 times higher than most glasses. The SiOC is made through a solution chemistry approach called sol-gel. A 0.5 molar solution of methyldiethoxysilane and triethoxysilane is hydrolyzed by adding 1.38 ml water. CNTs are added to this solution in 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt% amounts to form a nanocomposite. Samples are cast and air annealed at room temperature for a week after they gel. Next, they are fired to 1000 oC for one hour in an argon environment, with rates of heating and cooling of 1 oC/min. A small crack is introduced in the material, and subjected to a three-point bend test to determine the fracture toughness (K1C), a property of the material. Initial testing shows that CNTs reinforce the SiOC matrix, and the fracture toughness increases the most for the 10 wt% CNT samples.

Cortical Potentials Reflecting Motor Preparation and Stimulus Expectancy in the Oldest Old
Vahagn Ovasapyan
Mentor: Dr. Arnold Starr

This study looked at age related changes in the brain when aging approaches the century mark. The pre-stimulus brain potential in target detection is composed of two sub-components: a component associated with motor preparation generated at the anterior regions of the brain and a component reflecting stimulus expectancy produced at posterior regions. We hypothesized that the frontal component will change with increasing age by comparing three age groups (Young (19-22 yrs), Young-Old (60-70 yrs), Old-Old (>87 yrs)). Brain potentials were recorded from scalp electrodes while the subjects initiated trails by a button press, and 2.5 s later, a target or non-target stimulus appeared. In the Press condition, subjects were instructed to make a button response to targets. In the No Press condition, subjects did not to make button responses to target stimuli but had to mentally identify the stimuli as target/non-target. Accuracy and reaction time were similar (Young = Young-Old, Young-Old = Old-Old). In the Press condition, the pre-stimulus potential showed Young = Young-Old > Old-Old. In the No Press condition, Young > Young-Old = Old-Old. Findings suggest that anterior regions of the brain involved in response preparation are affected by aging even though performance did not decline.

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Identification of Chondrocyte Proliferation With the Fluorescent Activating Cell Sorter Following Laser Irradiation and Thermal and Mechanical Trauma
Nidhi Pandhoh
Mentor: Dr. Brian Wong

Laser irradiation may cause a proliferative response in cartilage leading to new, less invasive treatment modalities for diseases such as osteoarthritis. Our previous studies have shown that laser irradiation causes chondrocytes to proliferate on the periphery of the laser-irradiated region and this effect is dose dependent. In this study, flow cytometry was used for cell counting because the colorimetric assay used previously was relatively insensitive to small proliferative responses. Ex-vivo rabbit nasal septal cartilages were harvested and subjected to one of three treatments: laser irradiation, heating, or mechanical modification. Specimens were irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser, heated by immersion in saline or contact heating, and mechanically modified by scoring with a scalpel or crushing with a metal stamp. Specimens were cultured in growth media containing 10 µM Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), then chondrocytes were isolated with enzymatic digestion. Cells were incubated with fluorescein conjugated anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and counterstained with propidium iodide (PI). Fluorescent-activated cell counting was performed by flow cytometry identifying cells with emissions measured at 515 nm (anti-BrdU) and 620 nm (PI). Analysis of all treatments showed a population of cells in S-phase that had incorporated BrdU, indicating cell proliferation. Laser irradiation not only heats the tissue, but also alters the cartilage matrix, leading to micromechanical changes, and the combination of these two phenomena is what potentially leads to a proliferative response of cartilage. This provides further evidence that laser irradiation causes a proliferative response in chondrocytes and may lead to new treatments for degenerative articular diseases and disorders.

The Odds of Conviction: Jurors’ "Use" of Probabilistic DNA Evidence
Justin Partridge
Mentor: Dr. William Thompson

This study exposed whether crime severity (homicide vs. assault) and attorneys’ arguments (strong vs. weak defense attacks) influenced jurors’ evaluations of DNA evidence. A criminal case was presented in which probabilistic DNA evidence (RMP = 0.001) implicated the defendant. Undergraduate mock jurors (N = 154) evaluated the probability of guilt of a defendant, and determined the appropriate verdict at three points; before receiving DNA evidence, after receiving DNA evidence, and after deliberation. No significant effects of crime severity or attorney arguments were detected. Furthermore, jurors’ judgments did not significantly change after the introduction of DNA evidence. Compared to Bayesian statistical norms, jurors significantly undervalued the DNA evidence in all conditions, as well as both before and after deliberation. The results suggest that jurors in this study ignored or assigned no value to most of the scientific evidence presented, seeing as the presentation of the DNA evidence took the majority of the criminal trial. Variations in the regret jurors experienced after having made incorrect decisions, for instance convicting an innocent person, were also detected. Possible explanations and implications of these findings will be discussed.

Protest at Political Conventions: A Look at the Evolution of Issues and Political Tactics
Annie Peshkam
Mentor: Dr. David Meyer

Protest has become a staple tactic in the United States, most commonly employed by groups who feel excluded from more conventional means of political influence. The national conventions of the Democratic and Republican parties, held every four years during a presidential campaign, provide a good window to use in looking at the evolution of protest politics. The conventions provide a target and a site for committed groups to lodge claims. I examined the protests at both Republican and Democratic conventions from 1948 to 2000, to learn how protests had changed over time, and how they compared between the two parties. I find that a) the number of issues and constituencies represented by protest at the conventions has increased substantially, particularly since 1968-1972; b) that less disruptive forms of protest have become more common; c) that the issues represented at the Republican and Democratic conventions have grown more similar over time. I speculate on what these changes reflect about the American political system.

Synergistic Anti-Tumor Effects Against an Established Intracranial Rat Glioma by Using Anti-Angiogenic Drugs With a Genetically Engineered T9 Tumor Vaccine
Animesh Petkar
Mentor: Dr. Edward Jeffes

Gliomas have continued to claim many lives by virtue of their lethal nature and their precarious position in the body. Currently, immunotherapy is being used to explore how an individual’s immune system can be used to cure gliomas. Angiogenesis is a strategy employed by the tumor to grow and spread by means of gaining new blood supply. As a result, our study has targeted angiogenesis and we have been able to arrest blood vascularization to the tumor (T9) through injection of anti-angiogenic drugs, Oxindole (VEGF inhibitor) and DMBI (PDGF/FGF inhibitor). In addition to the drugs, we have used membrane macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF) transduced T9 cloned cells (T9-C2) in order to establish specific immunity against the T9 glioma. Together, these two therapies have provided a 1-2 punch to the tumor through prophylaxis from the T9-C2 cell line and vascular inhibition from anti-angiogenic drugs. T9 gliomas were surgically implanted into rat brains and were allowed to grow for 7 days. Afterward, we began a vaccination regimen that consisted of 8 injections with T9-C2 cells over a three-week period. In addition to this we also daily injected (i.p.) anti-angiogenic drugs, Oxindole and DMBI. Animals that were treated with either DMBI (50%) or Oxindole (23%) alone showed improved survival when compared to non-treated animals (0%), but rats given only the tumor vaccine (T9-C2) (0%) didn’t survive. When both therapies were combined there was a synergistic effect where 92% of the animals survived long term. A major limitation of anti-angiogenesis therapy alone is that once the tumor is controlled, the hosts are not cured, since the tumor is still present in a small avascular state, and it will regrow and spread again once the angiogenesis inhibitor is withdrawn. Our study indicates that a combination therapy of anti-angiogenic inhibitors with a tumor vaccine may improve the survival of patients with glioma.

Analysis and Design of Distributed Amplifier
Nhi Pham
Mentor: Dr. Franco De Flaviis

Nowadays, the demand in wireless communication is rapidly growing. We now see more and more people using cellular phones for business and personal needs. Advanced systems in transmitting and receiving signals in broad bandwidth have been developed at high tech research centers. Amplifiers are the most important components in microwave circuits. Many different types of amplifiers have been studied, developed and invented so that high gain can be achieved in the broadest bandwidth. Broadband distributed amplifiers is a technique to have the very high gain bandwidth product with a flat, low pass response in the broad bandwidth up to very high frequency. The research mainly focuses on the analysis and design of a broadband distributed amplifier using available commercial devices with the considerations of package effects to achieve high gain as well as others requirements in microwave systems.

Combination of Emergency Physician Compression Ultrasound, D-Dimer, and Pretest Probability as a Tool to Diagnose Deep Venous Thrombosis
Phuong Pham
Mentors: Dr. John Fox & Dr. Federico Vaca

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the combination of emergency physician bedside ultrasound, D-Dimer, and pretest probability as a tool to diagnose Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). Patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of leg pain, leg swelling or leg redness for less than one week were consented for the study. Once consented, the patients had a bedside ultrasound performed by a technically (sonographically) eligible emergency physician. Based on the bedside ultrasound results, D-Dimer and pretest probability, the emergency physician made a decision about the likelihood of the presence of a DVT in the study subject. Thereafter, subjects underwent a formal ultrasound. The diagnoses made by the emergency physician were compared to the formal ultrasound results. Seventy-three patients were enrolled in the study. Fifty emergency physician bedside ultrasound diagnoses were negative for a DVT and all (100%) of these were confirmed as negative by formal radiology results. Twelve emergency physician diagnoses were positive for a DVT, of which 11 (91.6%) were confirmed by radiology. Eleven remaining studies were equivocal per the emergency physician. Emergency physician bedside ultrasound was found to be 98.2% sensitive in non-equivocal studies. Our data suggests that the use of emergency physician bedside ultrasound along with D-Dimer and pretest probability is a viable tool to diagnose acute DVT in emergency department patients. Further development and investigation of this intervention protocol may prove to expedite patient evaluation for DVT and subsequently provide cost savings.

The Role of Attachment Theory in Religious Beliefs and Perceptions
Jennifer Puebla
Mentor: Dr. Roxane Silver

Attachment Theory, developed as a result of Bowlby and Ainsworth’s research on infant bonding, suggests that primary caregivers function as a secure base for exploration and provide support during times of stress. Interactions with the caregiver lead to the development of a specific attachment style, which later studies have demonstrated carry forward into adult relationships. In 1992, Lee Kirkpatrick suggested that a religious deity is very much like a secure attachment figure, in that it also provides a secure base to explore the environment and can be utilized for emotional support during times of stress. Kirkpatrick further hypothesized that attachment styles might also correspond to an individual’s perceptions of God, much like they do to the perceptions of other individuals. Kirkpatrick’s research suggests there might be a connection, but calls for further exploration. This study seeks to build upon his hypothesis. University students (N=111) completed an attachment questionnaire that identified their most prominent attachment style. Additionally, they completed measures regarding personal beliefs about God, and if applicable, their perceived relationship and description of God. Analysis will address whether attachment styles are associated with perceptions of a religious deity in a similar manner to human relationships.

The Uniform Generation of Molten Metal Droplets for Application to Net-Form Manufacturing
Tyler Pugh
Mentor: Dr. Melissa Orme

Precision droplet manufacturing (PDM) is a procedure that can fabricate metal objects with controlled deposition of molten metal droplets. The success of this process depends on the ability to fuse the initially distinct droplets into a solid component. PDM is a process similar to rapid prototyping. A significant characteristic of both rapid prototyping and PDM is that they generally use an additive process. An experimental investigation of the solidification process associated with PDM was conducted to further understand the critical factors required to achieve strong inter-droplet bonding. The role of substrate temperature on component strength was investigated both experimentally and optically.

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Kashmir at the Crossroads: Conflict Analysis and Possible Resolutions
Eidy Qazi
Mentors: Dr. Samuel Gilmore & Dr. Robin Williams

Now in its 55th year, the Kashmir conflict continues to threaten peace in South Asia. This rivalry between India and Pakistan has lasted over five decades, and prevented both countries from realizing their full economic and political potential. There have been two full-scale wars in 1948 and 1965, unending artillery duels, not to mention a tragic 12-year insurgency within Kashmir. Most Kashmiris are now disillusioned by the violence that has accounted for 75,000 lives and injured many more. Some fear this could turn out to be India’s version of the Vietnam War, where soldiers and guerrillas fight amid terrified civilians. But to India, it is a "proxy war" fought by Pakistan to destabilize India in revenge for partition in 1947. One day those skirmishes could escalate into a full-scale battle, and either side may choose to unleash nuclear weapons. Currently the conflict looks set to drag on, killing some 10 to 15 people everyday. When examining the cause of the conflict there are many factors that play a key role. The rise of economic globalization and construction of new democracies are all posing a strain on ethnic conflicts around the world. The change of power within a nation also poses a threat to ethnic conflict. It causes a shift in political power that can lead to ethnic and religious discrimination, which often leads to resentment and oppression of the ethnic minority. When one ethnic group is dominating over the minority, this fuels the fire for violence (Williams, 1994). The purpose of this research is to determine the causes of ethnic conflicts within the region of Kashmir, analyze the strained relationship between ethnic minorities and majorities, and examine the possible resolutions in this conflict.

Spanish Society Viewed Through Cultural Performances of Music and Dance
Jennifer Quirin
Mentor: Dr. Leo Chavez

The world-over, artistic manifestations such as music, performance and dance operate as composed channels of societal transmission through which ideologies, beliefs, life-style, ethnicity and culture persevere. To see performance as culturally declarative is to look beyond the superficial levels of the "entertainment" value of art and gain access into the dramatization of the account of the life-story it tells. Ethnomusicology, the study of music as an expression of culture, describes music as an elaborate display of cultural identity. Accordingly, music and dance can be viewed as cognizant and symbolic tools that are utilized in the enactment of telling or conveying a cultural story. Not surprisingly, some of the most compelling compositions of cultural art, as social commentary, are born of oppression. The Andalusian tradition of flamenco is no exception. It is said that through the conduit of flamenco music, the oppressed gypsy populations of southern Spain have articulated their plight of poverty and prejudice. Orchestrating the medium of music as a tool of societal resistance, the performers of flamenco have for years created an outlet and escape from ethnic subjugation. Regarding flamenco performances as an attempt to explain what it is to be a gypsy in Spain, this project draws on various perspectives in order to bring together a cohesive understanding of this cultural enactment.

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Telomere Gene Silencing in Drosophila melanogaster
Oscar Ramirez
Mentors: Dr. Harald Biessmann & Dr. Peter Bryant

Most eukaryotes compensate for the loss of DNA sequences and genetic information during DNA replication with the enzyme telomerase, which extends the telomeres with short tandem repeat sequences. Drosophila melanogaster does not use telomerase, but instead elongates its telomeres with retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART, which transpose from telomere to telomere, forming head-to-tail arrangements. Proximal to these HeT-A and TART arrays lies a stretch of satellite repeats, called Telomere Associated Sequence (TAS), which is heterochromatic and silences genes. The purpose of my project was to determine whether the telomeric HeT-A array is also heterochromatic, and if not, at what distance a gene no longer experiences a silencing effect due to TAS. To answer these questions, the P-element SUPor-P, which contains a white and a yellow reporter gene, was randomly inserted into the Drosophila genome. Strains with an insertion into a telomere were selected by screening the sequences of the flanking regions with HeT-A and TART. The genomic region flanking the P-element insertion in the KG01591 strain was cloned, mapped and sequenced. Results showed that the SUPor-P had inserted into a HeT-A element about 5 kb distal from TAS at the 3R telomere. The reporter genes did not experience a silencing effect, demonstrating that the HeT-A array is euchromatic and that TAS does not silence over this distance.

The Influence of DNA and Confession Evidence on Mock Juror Decision Making
Erin Ramsey
Mentor: Dr. Richard Leo

In recent years, several studies have examined the degree to which the use of confession evidence biases the jurors’ verdict. However, studies have yet to compare confession evidence to other evidence, despite some legal scholars claiming that confessions may be the most influential form of evidence. The present study is designed to address whether jurors correctly evaluate and evenly weight this DNA and confession evidence presented during trial. In the study, 160 college undergraduates (57 male) were randomly assigned to read one of nine trial transcripts that varied in their inclusion of confession and DNA evidence. The study conformed to a 3 (no confession, coerced confession, non-coerced confession) x 3 (no DNA, exonerating DNA, convicting DNA) between subjects experimental design. Results indicate that participants tended to consider DNA evidence and some circumstantial evidence (e.g., time frame and motive for the alleged crime) as more influential in their verdict than confession evidence, whether or not the confession was coercive. Furthermore, participants were more confident when they rendered a guilty verdict than when they rendered a not guilty verdict. Both the prosecution and defense used circumstantial evidence to support more concrete evidence like DNA and confession evidence, and this circumstantial evidence was used by participants to support their decisions. This is the first study to compare directly the relative influence of both DNA and confession evidence on participants’ judgments. The results have implications for our understanding of how and when jurors are (or are not) influenced by different forms of evidence in criminal trials.

Female Cere Color as a Motivational Factor for Male Imitation in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)
Naomi Raymundo
Mentor: Dr. Georg Striedter

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a social bird species of the parrot family in which each individual has a personal repertoire of contact calls. When budgerigars are paired, the courting male will imitate one or more of the female’s contact calls. We sought to determine what factors motivate males to imitate. One such factor may be a female’s sexual maturity: males may be motivated by female sexual maturity, defined as a female’s ability to breed and lay a clutch, because he would be able to mate with her and have offspring. The color of the female cere, the fleshy, non-feathered area between the eyes, is interesting because it is pale when young but turns dark brown when sexually mature. We randomly paired male budgerigars with females who had pale or brown ceres, and hypothesized that males paired with brown cered females would imitate faster than males paired with pale cered females. Pairs were recorded twice a week and calls were analyzed; imitation was defined as the male vocalizing a call that was 75% similar to the female’s, based on computer analysis. The males paired with brown cered females imitated faster than males paired with pale cered females, and this difference between groups was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p = .021, z = -2.309). These data support the hypothesis that males imitate females as part of the courtship process, and we conclude that they are more motivated to imitate sexually mature females than immature females.

AutoSeC: An Integrated Middleware Framework for Dynamic Service Brokering
Sarvesh Regmi
Mentor: Dr. Nalini Venkatasubramanian

Traditional network management software manages network resources by monitoring and analyzing network status and activities. In the future, network complexity will increase as the connectivity between service providers and clients requesting services increases; data, resources and services on the network are replicated; and applications have minimum Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to be met. To deal with increasing network complexity, more attention must be paid to providing system designers and system administrators with tools to securely and dynamically manage an adaptable network infrastructure while ensuring QoS requirements. Fundamental to all the issues in providing these services is the need for information collection mechanisms that allow applications to obtain real-time information about system structure and state, and use that information to make resource provisioning decisions. We propose an integrated middleware management framework, named AutoSeC (Automatic Service Composition), that can dynamically select an appropriate combination of information collection and resource provisioning policies based on current system conditions and QoS requirements. AutoSeC’s objective is to relieve the application developers and system administrators from the tedious selection among the set of policies. We evaluate the impact by combining existing information collection and resource provisioning algorithms and techniques with varying network and server conditions and under different application workload scenarios. Based on the interaction of these algorithms, we will develop a set of dynamic service component composition rules that AutoSeC will follow.


Race Relations in Kern County, CA, from 1850-1900
Jana Remy
Mentor: Dr. Dickson Bruce

In 1850 the southern San Joaquin Valley of central California (later named Kern County) was home to Mexicans, miners, and a handful of explorers. The next few decades brought an influx of Chinese workers from the mining industry and railroad construction. In 1884 Carr & Haggin, a prominent land company, enticed hundreds of African Americans to Bakersfield, Kern County’s largest city, to work as contract laborers. My research details the histories of these three minority groups in Kern County: African American, Chinese, and Mexican American. In the course of this paper, I outline the history of each of these racial groups, give anecdotal information about the lifestyle of Kern County minorities, and provide accounts from local newspapers that evidence racism. I show that racial discrimination in Kern County was based on economic factors rather than on blanket prejudice against a particular racial group. This assertion is based on news accounts that show the vacillation of public opinion toward African Americans, Chinese, and Mexicans as ideal laborers.

Immigration Policy in the Post-9/11 Era: Operation Gatekeeper to the Department of Homeland Security
Andrea Reyna
Mentor: Dr. Louis Desipio

In the post-9/11 world, change has permeated most facets of life. Government has created certain measures aimed at calming the fears of Americans as well as reinforcing previously unseen security risks. To combat the criticism that government has not done enough to protect its citizens, the Department of Homeland Security was developed to consolidate several governmental agencies. This large-scale consolidation and downsizing has brought together many agencies that under pre-9/11 circumstances would never work together, let alone partake in intense inter-agency communication. Before 9/11, the primary focus of immigration policy centered around appeasing economic and political interests. Immigration policy has been an area of substantial reform under the Department in that there is a larger national security element of policy. Examining the changes in immigration policy at the regional level beginning with the implementation of Operation Gatekeeper in 1996 along the San Diego Corridor sheds light on the discrepancies of policy objectives and outcomes. These issues have only been exacerbated by the development of Homeland Security. Questions of jurisdiction and cooperation arise with the unprecedented nature of the Department’s creation. Planned analysis will show the evolution of immigration policy along the San Diego Corridor from Operation Gatekeeper to the present day and highlight immigration policy’s inherent nature of political appeasement.

Investigating Orangutan Menstrual Cycles through Cytology to Aid and Encourage Eventual Artificial Insemination
Brian Rezac

Mentor: Dr. Leo Chavez

The Orangutan Pongo pygneaus abelii is currently listed on the endangered species list of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. In their current state, the Orangutan could become extinct in less than 20 years. Although Orangutans currently breed well in captivity, their gene pool is still limited. Essential to their healthy survival in captivity is a genetically diverse population. In the current research, the menstrual cycles of two Orangutans at the Chaffee Zoological Gardens (Fresno, CA) are under analysis. They have been, and continue to be, examined through oral and vaginal cytological screening. Daily samples taken from the Orangutans are transferred to slides; the specimens are stained for viewing purposes and observed under a microscope. Cell changes that occur such as the dominance of superficial cells indicating higher levels of estrogen and presence of high levels of intermediate cells which indicate higher levels of progesterone are measured. Depending on the quantity present of each cell type, it can be determined what period of the menstrual cycle the Orangutan is in. By collecting this data over the course of several months, the complete menstrual cycle can be mapped. When statistical analysis is done, the results are expected to indicate the ovulation period for this endangered species, thus aiding in identifying the optimal time to artificially inseminate. Eventually, when approved by the Chaffee Zoo and Species Survival Plan (SSP), attempts at artificial insemination will begin.

The Effect of Racial Identity and Social Support on African-American Students’ Attitudes Toward the Utilization of Mental Health Care Services
Shannon Robertson
Mentor: Dr. Jeanett Castellanos

Research has indicated that a number of factors affect African Americans’ attitudes toward counseling. Namely, cultural practices, social support networks, and misdiagnosis rates are variables that researchers have investigated in an attempt to understand the utilization patterns within this population. This study will attempt to add to prior research by measuring the effect of racial identity and social support on African-American students’ attitudes toward utilizing mental health care services. One hundred African-American undergraduates attending Southern California universities will be assessed using the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Perceived Social Support Inventory-Family and Friends, and The Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services Scale. It is predicted that more ethnically identified participants will have less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health services, while less ethnically identified participants will have more positive attitudes. In addition, it is predicted that those individuals who perceive themselves as having support from family and friends will have less positive attitudes toward utilizing services, while those who indicate that they lack social support will have more positive attitudes.

The Role of Vitamin K and SXR in Bone Homeostasis
Kimberly Romero
Mentor: Dr. Bruce Blumberg

Nuclear hormone receptors are regulatory proteins that are members of the steroid receptor super family. These nuclear receptors are ligand regulated transcription factors that regulate important events during embryonic development and adult physiology. The Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR), is a nuclear receptor activated by various ligands including xenobiotic compounds, circulating steroids and bioactive dietary compounds. SXR intern activates transcription of cytochrome P450 genes. The P450 enzymes then mediate metabolism of the SXR activators. Degradation of bioactive compounds is required to maintain physiological homeostasis. Vitamin K2 is also a known activator of SXR. Currently in Japan, Vitamin K2 is being used to treat the degenerative bone disease osteoporosis. However, the mechanism of Vitamin K2 action in bone is unknown. Identifying the mechanism could provide new methods of treatment for this disease. We propose that Vitamin K2 activates SXR to initiate transcription of target genes important for bone formation and stabilization. To test this hypothesis, human bone cells were treated with various ligands including Vitamin K2 and known SXR activators. Total RNA was isolated from treated cells and converted to cDNA via reverse transcription. This cDNA was used as a template for real time reverse transcriptase mediated polymerase chain reaction (Real Time-RT-PCR) to amplify target genes involved in bone formation. Results indicate that cells treated with Vitamin K2 show an increase in target gene expression and give similar results to cells treated with known SXR activators. In conclusion these data suggest that Vitamin K2 functions through SXR to promote expression of genes involved in bone formation and stabilization.

Formal Software Specifications Based Testing
Jose Romero-Mariona
Mentor: Dr. Debra Richardson

The use of mathematical notations to describe in a precise way the properties of an information system is often referred to as formal specifications in the Software Engineering field. The concept of formal specifications is older than 35 years, but the initiative on how to test them is younger than 10 years; this is a relatively new field of research. Most of the development in the software industry is currently done through specifying systems informally. This informal specification lacks a mathematical basis, and uses a natural language instead; a natural language is like English, for example. The problem is that these natural languages reflect multiple deficiencies for specifying a system correctly. For example, natural languages can be ambiguous, imprecise, incomplete, etc. All of these deficiencies are then reflected in the software produced. The most appropriate way to battle these deficiencies is by employing formal specifications instead of informal ones. The goal of this research project is to be able to create a definite framework that will enable us to compare and evaluate different formal specifications as well as different testing techniques, and then reaffirm and support the best approaches found by assembling a set of guidelines on how to correctly test formal specifications.

Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Advertisements on Youth, an Analysis of "Evil Tobacco Company" Ads
Michael Romney
Mentor: Dr. Connie Pechmann

More than 20 U.S. states, including California, fund mass media antismoking campaigns aimed at youth. One approach used is to illustrate the coercive nature and techniques of the tobacco industry; this method has shown both positive and negative results. The aim of this research project is to identify characteristics and ascertain dynamics within published television ads that are most effective. Jack Brehm’s highly regarded theory of Psychological Reactance is being used as the theoretical construct in which advertisements are categorized. According to this theory, the tobacco company’s coercive techniques, when exposed through antismoking advertising, will cause a realization among youth that their freedom to not smoke has been hindered. Psychological Reactance theory then states that youth will be more willing to abstain from smoking once they learn that they have been manipulated. The 3 sets of variables within the Psychological Reactance theory that are to be tested are whether the advertisement is realistic vs. exaggerated, death/severe health effects vs. no death/no mention of health effects, and portrayal of overt manipulation by tobacco companies vs. youth reactance against the tobacco industry. We will therefore have 8 ad categories and one control group. By cross analyzing these variables we hope to deduce the most effective combination for marketing anti-smoking messages to youth. One-hundred and fourty-five university undergraduates viewed a group of these ads to double check that our categories correctly represented the constructs we had created. Data collection and analysis is currently underway. The next step is to show the ads to high school freshmen, followed by a survey measuring reaction to the specific advertisements.

The Meeting Place: Group Interaction in AA
Kimberley Rossall
Mentor: Dr. Sanjoy Mazumdar

This paper is based on a study of social interaction and decision-making in a group, as well as the impact of social influence techniques on group members. An Alcoholics Anonymous group was studied. Extended observation and in-depth, open-ended interview questions were used to understand group culture, cultural values, group beliefs, social norms, and group hierarchy in this AA organization. The study revealed that members routinely agreed to perform tasks at future meetings, and a cohort effect appeared as members made commitments consistent with their peer group. The findings from this naturalistic field research shed some light on Robert Cialdini’s ideas about social influence. Cialdini’s book, Principles of Influence, was used to understand how the members’ decision-making process is influenced by secondary social factors. Three of Cialdini’s principles, commitment and consistency, liking, and social proof, seem to be supported by this study. The analysis of the data supports the claim that sobriety is the goal of AA meetings and implies that members believe people outside of AA do not understand their struggle for sobriety. Further, AA members are motivated to consistently attend meetings through the acceptance, caring and understanding they cannot find outside the culture of AA. While Cialdini’s principles of commitment and consistency, social proof, and liking should increase the motivation of group members to attend meetings and conform to social norms, these principles of influence do not always operate as Cialdini predicts when applied to self-help groups.

Cristina Peri Rossi: The Postmodern Transgressions of Parody and Ambiguity
Eduardo Ruiz
Mentor: Dr. Lucia Guerra-Cunningham

Uruguayan writer Cristina Peri Rossi’s first book, El libro de mis primos (The Book of My Cousins, 1969), is compared with her later novel, La nave de los locos (The Ship of Fools, 1984), to suggest how an authoritarian society can be criticized through parody and then rebuilt on the foundations of a philosophy of ambiguity, similar to Lyotard’s vision of the postmodern. Dissatisfaction with the power structures of tradition and validation of marginality are characteristics of such vision, which inscribe Peri Rossi in the postmodern current of Latin-American literature. The postmodern condition agrees with the major conclusions drawn from both works. First, tradition is viewed as a decadent state of affairs that needs to be brushed aside, for it does not respond to genuine human concerns and, in fact, has frustrated and destroyed them. Parody is the tool used to dispose of tradition. Secondly, there has to be an acceptance of the margins, of the other. This presupposes a tolerant ambiguity of inclusion that is capable of rebuilding instead of destroying, and does so by using the very materials of the other. What El Libro destroys La nave rebuilds. El Libro’s mission is to do away with the atrophied waste of patriarchal order, while La nave seeks to fill up the resulting void with one possible solution: the conciliation of opposing forces by a tolerant philosophy of inclusion.

Creation and Testing the Function of a Dominant Negative LMO-4
Rachel Ruiz
Mentor: Dr. Bogi Andersen

Due to the high resistance in the p-GaN layer, GaN based LEDs require a current spreading layer (CSL) in order to achieve uniform luminescence. The CSL must exhibit low sheet resistance, low contact resistance with p-GaN, and low optical transparency. A good CSL is difficult to obtain because of the high hole concentration in p-GaN. In recent reports, both oxidized Ni/Au (NiO/Au) and indium tin oxide (ITO) contacts offer new improvements on CSLs. The NiO/Au contact is formed by oxidizing a thin bilayer of Ni/Au under air or water vapor, which can reduce contact resistance with p-GaN. The NiO/Au layer must be thin to acquire a good optical transparency. However, a thin NiO/Au layer cannot accommodate high current density for high power applications. Conversely, ITO films have shown good current spreading and excellent optical transparency, but suffer from high contact resistance with p-GaN. A new method that we developed is to combine the NiO/Au and ITO layers. We first create an 8 nm thick NiO/Au on the p-GaN surface, then overcoat with a 200 nm ITO film. The results of using NiO/Au/ITO are comparable to LEDs fabricated with conventional Ni/Au and a dramatic improvement over the previous ITO data. Process optimization is expected to further lower the operating voltage. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using NiO/Au/ITO as a CSL for high performance GaN LEDs.

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Social Stratification in the Private and Public Sector of Criminal Law
Jemie Sae Koo
Mentor: Dr. Calvin Morrill

There has been a recent trend among scholars working on the sociology of culture and of inequality to investigate the influence of social stratification systems through the ways that people culturally categorize themselves in comparison to others. To date, this approach has not been used to study a profession, but the legal profession seems imminently suited to this kind of research because of the sociologically documented concern among lawyers for markers of status. In 1992, Michele Lamont researched the differentiation between worthy and less worthy persons within the culture of the French and American upper-middle class. She draws on categorizations that are symbolic boundaries and status signals within those social groups. Within the private and public sector of criminal law, there is a sharing of valued cultural style that may include social inequality within a professional setting, whether there is a bias toward gender, political belief, or new attorneys. As a part of my current investigation, I draw a sample of both private and public attorneys and explore particular symbolic boundaries among them. Currently, interviews are being conducted with the incorporation of empirical questions composed of basic background information, occupational characteristics, and professional stratification. Planned analyses will address markers of status such as morals, socioeconomic status, cultural boundaries, and valued resources. Data analysis is currently underway. The findings of this study are expected to increase the understanding of lawyers’ conceptions of their roles and others as well as indicators of symbolic boundaries and status signals that exists between them.

Activation of MAPK in Long-Lasting Forms of Memory for Sensitization in Aplysia: A Pathway Under Investigation
Judy Samattasribootr
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Carew

In Aplysia, serotonin application leads to sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in sensory neurons, and MAPK activity is necessary for long-lasting forms of memory for sensitization induced by multiple tail-shocks. Recent studies demonstrate that like serotonin pulses also induce sustained MAPK activation. However, the mechanisms responsible for MAPK activation are not fully understood. In this research project, I will use a pharmacological approach to identify the molecular cascades that contribute to MAPK activation. In particular, I will explore the interesting possibility that MAPK activation has distinct mechanistic phases. Preliminary evidence using repeated tail-nerve shocks suggests that persistent MAPK activation (1 hr) is translationally sensitive, whereas the immediate activation (5 min) does not require the synthesis of new proteins.

Humanities Out There Stakeholder Evaluation Project
Sithel Sar
Mentor: Dr. Vicki Ruiz

This study evaluated the ways in which program participants interact within the context of a University/K-12 collaborative—that concerning the Humanities Out There (HOT) outreach program and the Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD). The central aim was to better understand the relationships between various groups and individuals that are brought together and who have a stake in the program’s effectiveness. It is the interrelationships between various stakeholders—university staff and administrators, faculty, graduate student leaders, undergraduate student tutors, and especially the SAUSD teachers—that were the central focus of this study. Interviews comprised the main portions of this research. For each stakeholder group, a set of core interview questions were developed and aligned with the specific intent of this study, which was to understand stakeholder relationships and the ways in which the HOT program fosters such relationships. Furthermore, interview questions raised issues concerning the level of each stakeholder’s interaction with other participants, the extent to their interaction, and the nature of their interaction. The interviews were then transcribed and coded in order to allow the researcher to detect any trends that may have arisen from the responses given by the participants. This study was supplemented with archival records in order to determine the historical beginnings of HOT and how the program has changed over time as a result of stakeholder interaction and collaboration. The results from this research will be used to suggest ways in which a productive and interactive collaboration can be used to promote richer learning environments for HOT stakeholders.

Performance Metrics for Light-Based Motion Tracking Systems
Lianne Sasaki
Mentor: Dr. Tara Hutchinson

The objective of this project is to develop a methodology for testing and analyzing a light-based motion tracking system in the context of capturing seismic motions imparted on scale structures mounted on a shake table. The high speed, high resolution camera system, consisting of four 1-megapixel resolution charged-couple device cameras, is coupled with light emitting diodes and positioned to illuminate a structural model mounted on our department’s small Quanser shake table. I will evaluate the performance of the light-based system using both a one-story model, which responds to varying degrees of torsion, and a shear beam, two-story model. Small spherical markers, which can be detected by the cameras, are placed on the structural models. Different ground motions will be used for input into the shake table through a controller computer, causing the model to undergo a range of motions. Using triangulation of the cameras and ‘blob’ detection of the spherical markers on the structural models, 3-dimensional, time varying displacement data can be directly obtained for each marker point. To acquire acceleration-time histories, this data can be differentiated twice and compared to the data collected using more conventional accelerometers discretely mounted on the structural model. By running multiple trials, the reliability of the camera system and the repeatability of the results can be tested. The advantages of using this light-based system include its non-intrusive nature, ease of capture, and the high-speed, high-resolution potential.

HIV Nef Libraries Leading to a CD4-Binding Nef Supermutant
Christopher Scarborough
Mentor: Dr. Greg Weiss

The HIV protein Nef binds various intracellular targets with relatively low affinity. Among these targets is CD4, a membrane-bound protein involved in immune response. Due to the low affinity of Nef for CD4 and its critical role in HIV infection, the interaction is an attractive target to block with drugs. However, the difficulty of studying membrane-bound proteins in vitro and the weak interaction of Nef with CD4 make drug design difficult due to a low understanding of that interaction. Bax et al. have identified the amino acid residues of Nef critical for CD4 binding. By creating a library of Nef mutants with mutations in the regions described by Bax, a CD4-binding Nef supermutant may be found. The mutations in the supermutant could be engineered into wild-type HIV, allowing for a collaborator to study the interaction between Nef and CD4 in vivo. The binding would be strong enough that developing drugs to block the interaction could be more thoroughly explored than previously, in hopes of leading to a new treatment for HIV. A Nef supermutant has not yet been isolated, however new approaches to the experiment are giving promising results. It appears that if a supermutant can be created, we will be able to detect and isolate it.

Walls of Jericho: Identity, Youth Protest, and the Irish Rock Movement
Brett Schmitt
Mentor: Dr. Bill Maurer

Walls of Jericho is a multi-pronged understanding of the environment and influence within the confines of "Lypton Village," a band of Dublin schoolboys who created, through a direct rejection of the ideals of what it meant to be Irish, a subculture that has helped shift the very definition of Irish. The research seeks to conclude that the subversive punk ideals that were used as the basis of much of this group’s beliefs in fact meshed quite neatly with the paradox of being Irish in the 1970s. Through lyrical, musical, interview, and video sources I plan to create in the model of Dick Hebdige’s Subculture: The Meaning of Style a work that will more fully help us understand how subculture can become an active part of the mainstream culture in the "New Ireland."

Looking for Dance in the United States
Greta Schroeder
Mentor: Dr. Donald McKayle

Last summer I realized that, for all of my dance training at UCI, I knew very little about what exactly I wanted to do after I graduated. This curiosity drove me to want to research what types of companies and opportunities are available in the dance meccas of the United States. I discussed with Mr. Donald McKayle, my faculty advisor, what the best plan of attack would be. We both agreed that participating in the 75th anniversary of the acclaimed dance festival, Jacob’s Pillow, in Lee, Massachusetts would be highly informative, as would exploring the dance scenes in San Francisco, Chicago, and New York. I found various styles and forms of dance in each city; I found that the ins and outs of dance are sometimes rewarding and sometimes disappointing. I also discovered that as soon as I found the answer to one question about the dance world, another question arose. My findings, however, will be guidelines and brief summaries of the best, worst, and most realistic elements of what being a professional dancer actually requires.

Finding Dance in the Pilates Method
Greta Schroeder
Mentor: Dr. Janice Plastino

As a dancer I have always had a fascination with the way the body works. Not only have I found the actual musculature interesting, but I have found that the way the mind and the body work as a unit is also overwhelmingly profound. I started taking yoga as a means to develop this sort of mind/body connection, which transferred positively to my dance classes as well. My question became "If yoga benefits dance, what benefits yoga?" I found my answers in pilates. Pilates’ key philosophies involve body strength, coordination, breath, balance, and control. These philosophies are not only effective for dancers and yogis, but for the average human being as well. I decided to enroll in Marie Jose Blom Lawrence’s teacher-training course to research these philosophies’ effects on the body. This intensive process guided me through all of the exercises, modifications, benefits, and inner workings of the basic mobile structures in the body: namely the spine, pelvis, knee, foot intrinsics, and shoulder girdle. I was required to complete hours of observation, self-integration, assisted teaching, workshops, and supervised teaching. What surprised me was not only the effects of the method on the body, but that these philosophies began to surface in my day-to-day life as well. Pilates not only helped my yoga and my dancing, but it helped me develop as a human being, as well.

Dependence of Human Interaction with Virtual Avatars
Marina Segal
Mentor: Dr. Thomas D’Zmura

By and large, computer interfaces rely on a desktop from which a single user accesses software through a window graphical user interface (GUI). By placing a desktop in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment, one preserves the ability to access computer function through software, but gains the advantages of a 3D GUI. These advantages include interaction among multiple users, visible through 3D computer-graphic models of the users. Interaction among users of a virtual environment is a standard feature of 3D game software and prior research has focused on presenting desktops, with a window GUI, that are visible within environments controlled by 3D game engines. Producing models of the users of such environments was the aim of the present work. Creating the models occurs in several phases. A static model is first constructed using software like 3D Studio Max. Model shape is specified by polygons, which describe the model’s surface, and by a skeleton. Minimizing the number of polygons is important, because models with too many polygons are rendered prohibitively slowly by the game engine. Polygon appearance is determined by texture-mapped images. Image-processing software, such as Photoshop, is used to create detailed textures for face, skin and clothing. Model animations are created using either motion capture data or, in the case of the present work, through key-frame animation applied to model skeletons. The models have several standard actions, including running, walking, pointing, sitting down, standing up, etc. and are an important part of using computers through a shared 3D GUI.

Repositioning the Renaissance: An Analysis of Tasso’s Crusade Narrative, Jerusalem Liberated
Alana Shilling
Mentor: Dr. Jane Newman

Reflections on the Renaissance often conjure up images of fairs and Italian city-states. Moreover, we imagine the Renaissance unfolding from roughly 1450 to 1650. However, the dates imposed upon this period are not so stable as we would like to imagine them. To demonstrate this epochal instability, one must first consider the history of a discipline. Although textbooks might encourage us to imagine disciplinary histories as limpid, this is hardly the case. The tale of disciplinary histories is a tangled one, filled with missteps and mistranslations. This uncertainty is not limited to disciplinary histories. Indeed, despite familiarity with the "Renaissance," the period is itself embedded in a dense network of misapprehension and false stability. The fragility of Renaissance Studies is emblematized by a symposium held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art at the height of the Cold War (1951-1952), in which the focus was not on cultural, but rather military, achievement. The unity of the period entitled "the Renaissance" is shattered by two other signifiers that are sometimes applied to the same period. The Renaissance might double as the early modern and even the Baroque on occasion. However, these labels function not as synonyms but as completely different approaches to the same historical period. Torquato Tasso’s crusade narrative, Jerusalem Delivered, was published in 1581, a date well within the confines of "the Renaissance." An investigation of the tradition of Tasso reception from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries exemplifies the protean historiography of Renaissance studies. Tasso’s epic illustrates not simply the instability of periodization, but also the incredible powers that it exercises over interpretation.

Producing a Deletion in the Syndecan Gene in Drosophila Using Male-Recombination and Gamma Irradiation
Anthony Silpanone
Mentor: Dr. J. Lawrence Marsh

Secreted signaling molecules are known to play critical roles in tissue development and regeneration. However, the factors that affect and regulate their activity are not well understood. A class of cell-membrane proteoglycans in Drosophila, called syndecan (SDC), is theorized to interact with the wingless (WG) protein. Interestingly, sdc is also conserved in mammals (Baed and Perrimon, 2001; Rapraeger and Ott, 1998). SDC appears to play an important role in modulating cell differentiation by interacting with WG, however its exact mechanisms are still unknown. Furthermore, WG is a homologue of the known proto-oncogene INT-1 in mammals. Knowing the mechanisms of how SDC interacts with WG may usher a new understanding of the genetics of cancer in mammals. Two experiments have been implemented to obtain true null alleles and deletions of the sdc gene, which would shed light on the exact mechanisms of interaction between sdc and wg: 1) illegitimate male recombination with a p-element and 2) gamma-ray mutagenesis. Male recombination experiments produced mutants that were molecularly analyzed using PCR. This method was unsuccessful in producing large deletions and the desired null allele of sdc. The data for gamma irradiation experiments are still being collected; currently there are 22 putative mutants out of approximately 43,000 screened flies. Molecular analysis will be performed to determine if these mutants are sdc null alleles.

Mapping of the Interaction Domains in Relation to the Nuclear Export Factor TAP/NXF1 and the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27
Lindsey Silva
Mentor: Dr. Rozanne Sandri-Goldin

Infected Cell Protein 27 (ICP27), a viral shuttling protein in the Herpes Simplex virus, is necessary for viral DNA replication during lytic cycle infection. ICP27 exports viral RNA by shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Previous immunofluorescence assays indicate that ICP27 utilizes the cellular TAP nuclear export factor mediated pathway for nuclear export, as visualized by protein co-localization at late stages of viral infection. A mutant version of TAP, through the deletion of the C-terminus, inhibits ICP27 export probably by sequestering ICP27 in the nucleus. Even though previous studies have shown that ICP27 interacts with TAP, the specific interaction domains of TAP and ICP27 remain unclear. To determine domain interactions, two clone constructs were designed to contain the truncated N-terminus or C-terminus domain of TAP and a FLAG site for antibody recognition. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays were inconclusive in determining what regions of TAP interact with ICP27 because the mutant TAP constructs were unstable and subsequently degraded in tissue culture.

Expression and Purification of Recombinant CD93 Extracellular Domains
Richard Silva
Mentor: Dr. Andrea Tenner

CD93 (previously known as C1qRp) is a cell surface receptor predominantly expressed on monocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells, and early stem cells. Previously, in phagocytic cells, it had been characterized as contributing to the C1q-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. However, recent data suggest that CD93 is not required for this enhancement of phagocytosis, but rather may function to modulate this activity via regulation of adhesion and/or membrane redistribution. Identification of a CD93 ligand is an essential step in understanding the biology of CD93. The present study describes the expression and purification of recombinant CD93 domains, which will be used to establish a high throughput assay to screen for the CD93 ligand on endothelial cells. Gatewayä cloning technology was used to clone the CRD and CRD-EGF5 extracellular domains of CD93 into both bacterial and mammalian expression vectors. The recombinant fusion proteins were tagged with six tandem histadine residues at the C-terminal to aid in downstream purification utilizing nickel affinity chromatography. Lysates from bacteria expressing the recombinant extracellular domains were not reactive with anti-CD93 monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the proteins were not properly modified. Lysates from HEK293T cells (mammalian) transfected with CRD and CRD-EGF5 were reactive with the anti-CD93 monoclonal antibodies. Initial isolation attempts using nickel affinity chromatography demonstrated that these protein domains could be successfully purified. Current studies are aimed at optimizing the purification strategy for maximum protein yield. These purified domains can then be tested for effects on monocyte phagocytic activity and adhesion properties.

The Languages of Images: A Comparative Study of African-American Representation in Advertisements
Courtney Sincosky
Mentor: Dr. Leo Chavez

Language is the unique way in which humans represent their thoughts and ideas. Representation of thoughts and ideas is achieved through the use of signs. Signs are words, sounds, or images that carry meaning. The way in which our ideas are represented through signs is important to the production of meaning. An important carrier of signs and an integral part of contemporary society is the mass media. The mass media can be thought of as a language system because it uses text, sounds and images to represent ideas and produces meaning. The mass media has the power to influence our behavior and attitudes by affecting the way we think, by governing our actions, and providing information about important social and cultural issues. An important component of the mass media is advertisements. Advertisements create a discourse, or a way of thinking and talking, about what is pictured, whether it be fashion, current events, or people. What we think we know about a people, place or issue justifies our attitudes and behaviors. This research will examine the process through which meaning is constructed by analyzing the representation of African Americans in advertisements from the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. I will explain how representation reproduces and circulates ideas about African Americans, which govern how people think and respond to them. The goal of this research is to discover how the representation in past and contemporary advertisements has influenced society’s understanding and knowledge of African Americans.

ASEAN Crossroads: Transitional Transnationalism
Antonio Siordia
Mentor: Dr. R. Bin Wong

Modern international affairs can be described as an era of regionalism. The demise of nation-based empires resulted in the rise of a wide array of regional organizations. These include the European Union (EU), the North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), among many others. This essay brings to the forefront the importance of ASEAN in today’s international arena. The article will use a series of evaluators to determine how successful ASEAN has been in representing its member nations both intra- and extra-regionally. These indicators include economic, political, and social policy decisions that will be evaluated by their relative success in comparison to other regional organizations as well as their opportunity cost to other policy options. The overall scope of the article will date from the post-Cold War era up to today. Specific areas of research will be the impact that free-trade agreements have had in ASEAN, an assessment of ASEAN’s membership and mandate expansion, and a policy examination of ASEAN’s representation of its members. The preliminary conclusions show that ASEAN has risen from a much-scoffed regional organization in the 1970s and 1980s to a modern and very relevant member in the international scene. It will be shown that its policy decisions have proven time and time again that ASEAN is beneficial to its members both in raw economic terms and as the catalyst for long-term development. And in comparison to other regional organizations, ASEAN compares favorably in a number of key aspects.

Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Its Role in Awareness and Notification
Max Slabyak
Mentor: Dr. David Redmiles

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) refers to computer users collaborating together on a task. A building, a city, or even a continent can separate these users. CSCW provides the tools and technology that bring users together, in some instances recreating virtually the same effect as working side by side. This technology sets a context for research in the design and use of an event notification server and a tool called Portholes. The event notification server is tied into sources of events (such as a certain computer going down) and transmits notices of these events to interested subscribers to the events. Subscribers might be human end users or other software tools, such as Portholes. A notification server is sometimes called an "awareness" server, since it enables people to become aware of an event. The server design researched in this project follows the CSCW framework, as it supports its users being in a virtual group, regardless of location, and using various devices and platforms: A person on a cell phone across the state may be in the same group of users as a person using a desktop computer, and may very well collaborate with the rest of the group. Portholes, in a nutshell, is a collaboration tool that displays webcam images of its users, making them aware of each other’s statuses, whether they are behind the desk, occupied, or outside their office. Knowing whether a person is in or out of the office is beneficial, as it lets a user know whether the user can participate in a live, real-time collaboration, or if s/he is unavailable to collaborate. The server is more of a collaboration platform that identifies and unites the users together into groups, whereas Portholes is an actual collaboration tool that is employed by these groups.

Early Childhood Gender Differences Along Various Dimensions of Social Behaviors
Emily Slusser
Mentor: Dr. Virginia Mann

Do young boys really misbehave more often than young girls? Of particular interest to this study are gender differences in the frequency of antisocial behaviors shown by preschool children when those behaviors are classified along two dimensions: 1) overt versus covert and 2) verbal versus nonverbal. Observers, blind to the purpose of this study, collected data by recording social behaviors of 21 male and 18 female children from various Orange County preschools during outdoor playtime over a 2-week period. It was observed that girls are more likely to display prosocial behaviors while boys are more likely to display antisocial behaviors on the playground. Using z-statistics and an analysis of variance to analyze the data, results confirm the hypotheses that female antisocial behaviors tend to be covert and verbal in nature, while male antisocial behaviors tend to be overt and nonverbal in nature. The statistical analyses further reveal that while children’s antisocial behaviors are significantly different in nature, their prosocial behaviors are more evenly distributed across all investigated classification dimensions. Taken as a whole, the outcome of this study reveals that both the prevalence and the nature of antisocial behaviors differ systematically between genders. This information may prove useful by helping teachers and childcare workers to predict and remedy conduct problems displayed by either gender.

Modes of Presentation
Chris Smith
Mentor: Dr. Keith Fowler

As artists, we are forever challenged to use all techniques and styles that we have learned and create new techniques and styles that fit our generation. The 1960s were a time when many old codes of theater were being questioned and adapted to the new generation of audience and performers. The Serpent, by Jean Claude van Italie, was created during this time of exploration and experimentation. What I set out to create, as a director, is to take a script that is experimental and actors that have been trained in traditional theater technique and introduce a new mode of performance. We added movement into transitions, put a light board on stage, created a story that isn’t apparent in the text, and adapted music that requires multiple musical instruments into music created only by the actors’ voice and body. We wanted to try many different ways of presenting text and action by changing the mode of presentation we are used to. What we found is that as long as there is shared passion behind the work, there will be passion in performance; any style can work, old or new, if the presenters understand the mode of presentation and love to perform it.

Investigation of the Runway Illusion
Jennifer Soeda
Mentor: Dr. George Sperling

For a pilot approaching a runway, the ability to accurately judge distance and interpret depth is essential. In visual perception, however, illusions may occur when the visual system’s interpretation of a scene is inconsistent with reality. Thus, understanding the higher order processes and/or calculations being utilized by the visual system is important. Investigating these processes, a previous experiment employed a tilting trapezoid outline, a figure with two, horizontally oriented, parallel lines, joined together by two converging lines at 45 degree base angles. The short side could appear either at the top or bottom, and observers were asked to determine which side of the trapezoid (long or short) appeared closer to them in depth. Results found a strong tendency to perceive the bottom of the figure as closer in depth, named the "runway effect" by Gobell et al. Continuing upon this experiment, the current study attempted to examine the source for such a perceptual bias. Mamassian and Landy (1998), among others, have proposed a bias to view objects as if looking down from an above position. To test the applicability of this theory to the "runway effect," the trapezoid display was projected onto the ceiling, with observers lying on the floor looking upward. With such strong proprioceptive cues suggesting viewing from below, it was hypothesized that the "runway effect" would diminish, in accordance with the theory. This, however, was not the case, as most observers continued to show evidence of the bias. Thus, the theory of viewing from above was not supported by this experiment.

Factors That Influence Immune Functioning in Infants
Mariel Solares
Mentor: Dr. Curt Sandman

The physiological association between stress and immunity in infants has been suggested by previous studies, but the direction of this effect is unclear. Stress hormones such as glucocorticoids (cortisol) and catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) alter immunity by binding to specific receptors on the membrane or cytoplasm of cells involved in antibody production. This study will examine the interaction between regulation of stress physiology and immunity during development by analyzing cortisol and an immune antibody, secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), in human infants. In an attempt to explain conflicting findings in the past, other developmental and environmental factors that have been shown to affect the development of the immune system will be examined. Infant feeding habits will also be considered as it is known that breast milk provides both antibodies and cortisol to the infant and may affect immunity. Secretory IgA and cortisol concentrations were determined in saliva from healthy infants at 2 months. Length, weight and head circumference at birth and at 2 months were assessed to determine growth patterns. In addition, mothers completed a series of questionnaires that addressed issues such as demographical data and feeding habits. Data analysis is currently underway. Results of this study may help to increase our understanding of (1) the influence of glucocorticoids on antibody production, (2) the role of breastfeeding on production of IgA and cortisol in the infant, and (3) the possibility of other developmental and environmental factors that may influence IgA and cortisol levels.

Intestinal Carriage of Chlamydia pneumoniae
Joo-Yon (Julia) Song
Mentor: Dr. Ellena Peterson

The goal of this study was to determine whether the intestine might serve as a reservoir for Chlamydia pneumoniae. To achieve this aim, 7-8 week old female C57/BL6 mice were infected in parallel with Chlamydia trachomatis, MoPn, and C. pneumoniae. After infection, at days 5, 14, 28, 56, 94 and 117, mice from each group were sacrificed and the lungs and intestine were examined by culture, PCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). C. trachomatis, MoPn, was cultured from the intestine through day 94, while MoPn was recovered from lungs up to day 56. In contrast, C. pneumoniae was recovered up to day 28 only from the lung. PCR results detected DNA from both organisms in the intestine through day 117. In addition, IHC results show C. trachomatis in the intestine of mice on day 5. To determine whether the results with C. pneumoniae would be the same in another mouse strain, 7-8 week old female BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with C. pneumoniae. On days 7, 14, 28, 56, and 112 after inoculation, mice were sacrificed and lungs, spleen, heart, and intestines were examined by culture, PCR, and IHC. C. pneumoniae was recovered from the lungs, the heart, and the spleen through day 7 while the intestine was negative. On days 14, 28, 56, and 112, all cultures were negative for C. pneumoniae. PCR and IHC studies are in progress. In conclusion, these preliminary findings suggest that the intestine may serve as a reservoir for C. pneumoniae.

Social Support Seekers: Extraverted or Comfortable?
Melissa Stevens
Mentor: Dr. Roxane Silver

Whenever we are in a time of need or emotional crisis, one of the best methods we have for coping is through social support. It is through our close relationships with friends that we seek and give counsel, and talk about problems. When confronted with a stressful situation, there are several variables that may influence whether or not someone will ask for help, or actively seek social support. In this research, two friends, one of whom was soon to encounter a stressful circumstance (i.e., delivering a speech that would be videotaped) were observed to examine what factors might be associated with the soliciting of social support. In particular, the intimacy levels between the friends, perceived acceptance of one friend from another, and levels of extraversion in each of the individuals were examined. It is expected that friends who are more intimate, and who confide in one another, would feel more supported during this interaction. In particular, I will examine the roles of the following factors in the support process: a) how long the friends have known each other; b) how much they discuss the stressful event (and how outgoing they seem to be); c) how much support one friend seeks from another; and d) how much support they feel they get from their friend.

Modesty in the New Millennium: Muslim-American Women and the Hijab
Rania Sweis
Mentor: Dr. Leo Chavez

The Islamic practice of veiling has remained a major focus in discussions revolving around Muslim female identity. Veiling has also remained one of the most highly misunderstood Islamic practices, with Western mass media and disciplines such as Women’s Studies linking the veil to direct forms of female oppression. Little attention is paid to regional or ethnographic data addressing the multiple factors involved in veiling traditions, or the socio-cultural significance connected to the practice, or even the many variations to veiling that exist around the globe today. This study examines veiling from the perspective of first and second generation Arab-American females interviewed at UCI, and places the hijab (head scarf) within a local context. It aims to counter popular misconceptions on Muslim female stereotypes and diverts attention from the veil itself toward notions related to womanhood, femininity, and the public expression of modesty. Research consists of personal accounts made by women on topics such as why hijab is practiced and how the act of covering influences female subjectivity. Findings, when compared to popular discourse, illuminate the need to increase public awareness of Islam and its complexities, as well as heighten sensitivity toward the nearly four million Muslim women currently living in the United States today. Larger implications address issues related to gender, power and agency, and highlight disparities between dominant and minority women’s lived experiences.

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Synthesis of Functional Monomers in Developing a Sensor for Brevetoxin
Masooma Tamim
Mentor: Dr. Ken Shea

Brevetoxin B is a marine neurotoxin associated with massive killings of fishes and other marine life along coastal areas around the world. We wished to explore if molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be developed for detecting this neurotoxin such that levels could be detected in the field. To achieve this goal, we are developing a new strategy for creating stimuli responsive binding sites in MIPs. An approach in reaching this goal would be to use a fluorescent sensor within the imprinted polymer that would register a characteristic change upon the binding of brevetoxin to the imprinted polymer. Because of brevetoxin’s expense, we are using a surrogate steroid, cholesterol, as a template to develop this chemistry because of its similarity in structural rigidity to brevetoxin. This plan is being carried out through design, synthesis and evaluation of new tri-functional monomers that covalently link the steroid template (S), the fluorescent probe (F), and the polymerizable olefin. My research is focused on the synthesis of one of these monomers and analysis of the corresponding polymers.

Do Serotonin and Dopamine Act Antagonistically to Modulate Olfactory Behavior?
Takahiro Tanabe
Mentor: Dr. Ji Ying Sze

Serotonin and dopamine act as neural modulators to mediate behavioral plasticity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been shown that exogenous serotonin modulates olfactory adaptation behavior in C. elegans (Colbert and Bargmann, Leaning and Memory 4 179, 1997). To understand serotonin inputs into olfactory behavioral plasticity, we have assayed the olfactory behavior of serotonin deficient mutants, tph-1 (mg280) and cat-1. Because cat-1 is required for transmission of both serotonin and dopamine, we used the dopamine deficient mutant cat-2 as a control to differentiate the effect of serotonin and dopamine. We found tph-1 mutants are defective in responding to odor attractants detected by both the AWA and AWC olfactory neurons. Interestingly, tph-1 mutants display more severe defects in responding to AWC-detected odorants than to AWA-detected odorants. Because serotonin is not produced in either AWC or AWA, this suggests that serotonin signaling differentially regulates AWA and AWC synaptic efficacy. Alternatively, serotonin may modulate the activity of the target of AWA and AWC. Consistent with the observation of exogenous serotonin slowing down olfactory adaptation of briefly starved wild-type animals (Colbert and Bargmann, Leaning and Memory 4 179, 1997), well-fed tph-1 mutant animals appear to have accelerated olfactory adaptation behavior. Surprisingly, our preliminary result indicates that cat-2 animals adapt less efficiently than wild-type animals do. This raises the possibility that serotonin inhibits but dopamine promotes olfactory adaptation. We are now testing the olfactory adaptation behavior of cat-4, which has no serotonin and dopamine.

Self-Adaptive Evolution and Diversity in the Bio-Networking Architecture
Chung Cheng Tang
Mentor: Dr. Tatsuya Suda

The Bio-Networking Architecture is a biologically inspired network architecture where some of the biological principles are applied to develop scalable network applications. The goal is to create a decentralized network that is adaptable, scalable, and secure. Network applications constructed on top of the Bio-Networking Architecture are composed of mutually interacting autonomous individuals called cyber-entities. Each cyber-entity is given a unique set of biological behaviors (e.g., reproduction, migration, death), performs a certain task based on its own decision, and collectively provides application services. This work concentrates on finding algorithms that allow cyber-entities to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This adaptation is achieved through selection (natural selection and sexual selection) and diversity generation (mutation). This research focuses on adaptive diversity generation. The goal is to find a way for the cyber-entities to reach an optimal performance level while maintaining the diversity to adapt quickly to any changes. Performance is measured by three criteria: resource consumption, hop count, and response time. The mutation algorithm is implemented using a variation of Evolutionary Strategies that takes into account three conflicting performance measures. Diversity is maintained through careful alteration of the mutation rate. However, finding the optimal mutation rate is somewhat difficult given the complexity of the system. Extensive use of a simulator provides some information on the effectiveness of the algorithm and what improvements might be made.

The Influence of Background Genes on Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology in Murine Models
Patrick Theofanis
Mentors: Dr. Andrea Tenner & Dr. Jun Zhou

Current in vivo models for Alzheimer’s disease utilize the C57Bl6/SJL (abbreviated B6) strain of mice containing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgene. These mice develop many of the neuropathological characteristics of human Alzheimer’s disease, but do not demonstrate the degree of neuronal loss and learning deficiencies seen in humans. The complement system, a component of the immune system that triggers inflammatory reactions, has been implicated as influencing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Previous research has shown most laboratory strains of mice have low serum hemolytic complement activity while the BUB strain of mice has been shown to have hemolytic complement activity several fold higher than the B6 strain. As a result, the BUB strain may serve as a better model for Alzheimer’s disease. To test this hypothesis, we backcrossed our APP/B6 strain of mice with wild type BUB mice for two generations (APP/BUB N2). Mice were allowed to age, and were sacrificed at 12 and 16 months. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brains from these mice show that APP/BUB N2 mice have greater amounts of microglia and astrocytes and significantly more plaque formation at 12 and 16-month ages than the APP/B6 mice of the same age. These experiments show that the severity of pathology is greatly affected by background genes, and is consistent with the role of complement in the progression of inflammation and neuropathology in response to the overproduction of APP. This study also suggests that the BUB strain of mice may be a better mouse model for Alzheimer’s disease research.

Criminal Activity of Gangs in Hollenbeck
Heidi Thielman
Mentor: Dr. Cheryl Maxson

Criminologists recognized soon after the field’s inception that crime occurs within certain areas and not in others. This phenomenon has been explained through an array of criminological theories, several of which are addressed in this project: social disorganization, disorder, routine activities, and neighborhood-effects theories, such as collective efficacy, social ties, and social capital, with a focus on routine activities theory. Of particular interest was the explanatory relationship between these theories and the incidences of gang crimes. The purpose of this research was to determine whether a relationship exists between levels of disorganization, disorder, and collective efficacy and gang crime rates in Hollenbeck, a division of the Los Angeles Police Department located in East Los Angeles, using a combination of community survey data collected by Dr. Cheryl Maxson, instances of gang crimes collected Dr. George Tita, and government census data.

Genetic and Biochemical Analyses of the Transcription Factor Met-4
Rachna Tiwari
Mentor: Dr. Peter Kaiser

The yeast transcription factor Met4 assembles a multiprotein transcription complex consisting of the following proteins: Met4, Cbfl, Met28, Met3 1, Met32. This transcription complex regulates expression of more than 70 genes (our unpublished results). The Met4 complex is important in regulation of genes involved in sulfur uptake, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine synthesis. We have recently discovered that Met4 is also required for biosynthesis of adenine because met4 mutants require adenine supplemented growth media for growth. Scanning of the promoter regions of genes involved in adenine biosynthesis revealed two candidate genes that show regulatory elements characteristic for Met4-regulated genes. These genes are ADE3 (formate tetrahydrofolate ligase) and ADE 12 (adenylosuccinate synthetase). Preliminary experiments in our laboratory indicate that ADE3 is regulated by Met4. To obtain further insight into regulation of adenine biosynthesis genes, we plan to study the role of the Met4-transcription complex (Met4, Cbfl, Met28, Met3l, Met32) in the regulation of ADE3 and ADE12. This will involve analysis of ADE3 and ADE12 expression under different growth conditions by RT-PCR as well as the effect of mutations in components of the Met4-transcription complex on ADE3 and ADE 12 expression. In addition, to analyze whether ADE3 and ADE12 are the only Met4 regulated genes important for adenine biosynthesis, we will ectopically express ADE3 and ADE12 in met4 mutants. Adenine prototrophy of met4 mutants ectopically expressing ADE3 and ADE12 would indicate that these two genes are the only important targets of Met4 in the adenine biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, this study will extend our understanding of the important Met4-transcription complex and the complex regulatory pathways that govern adenine biosynthesis.

Self Injurious Behavior: Is There a Link Between Psychiatric Diagnosis and SIB?
Danielle Todaro
Mentor: Dr. Curt Sandman

Self injurious behavior (SIB), affects between 7-30% of individuals with mental retardation. It is defined as any behavior that involves harm to one’s self resulting in tissue damage. SIB is also associated with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, including autistic and bipolar disorders. Individuals with mental retardation are four times as likely to develop a mental illness than individuals who are not developmentally disabled. The focus of this investigation is to distinguish behavioral phenotypes in individuals with mental retardation who carry a diagnosis of autistic or bipolar disorder. With the aid of hand-held computer devices, observations were made of subjects (n=12) engaging in SIB in their natural environment. Individual SIB events were recorded with each key press. Preliminary data indicates that both the autistic (n=6) and bipolar groups (n=6) engage in similar amounts of SIB activities. Statistical analysis reveals the sum of all SIB within the autistic (mean=270.0; std. error mean=179.1) and bipolar (mean=297.5; std. error mean=129.3) groups are quite similar. The rate of SIB per hour for autistic (mean=10.1; std. error mean=6.70) and bipolar (mean=10.8; std. error mean=4.70) subjects reports the same finding. With the use of these preliminary data, further analysis will focus on distinguishing the most prevalent SIB activities between groups, rates of each behavioral phenotype, stereotypy, severity levels of SIB and contagious nature of SIB events. The findings of this study are believed to support the hypothesis that autistic subjects engage in a larger variety of SIB phenotypes because of their predisposition to repetitive behaviors. Severity levels are expected to be highest in bipolar subjects, whose deep depression is believed to be the driving factor of SIB behavior within that group.

HIV Project
Maria Tokuyama
Mentor: Dr. Donald Forthal

Experiments on human immunodificiency virus (HIV) have been carried out for many years in an effort to find an effective vaccine. Since the functional antibody activity is directed against either of the two envelope proteins, gp120 or gp41, the immune responses against these proteins have been a key area of investigation. The experiments done in this study tested the hypothesis that the configuration of gp120 on viral particles is not the same as its configuration when expressed on the surface of the cell. Rabbits were immunized with either CEM cells, which do not express gp120, or CEM213 cells, which expresses gp120. Serum was then collected from these rabbits to test for the production of antibodies against gp120. The experiments done in the past several weeks, after complete immunization of rabbits, show that the serum from the rabbits immunized with CEM213 cells recognizes a variety of proteins from CEM and CEM213 cells. However, the development of anti-gp120 specific antibodies remains uncertain. At this point, additional experiments are necessary to show that the rabbit serum clearly recognizes gp120 specifically. Furthermore, experiments will be done to determine if the antibodies neutralize or inhibit virus yield from infected cells. Finally, attempts will be made to characterize specific epitopes of gp120 or other interesting proteins that the antibodies are detecting. The results of these experiments will likely lead to further studies that may possibly result in a cure or a discovery of an effective vaccine against HIV.

Acculturation and Bulimia Nervosa Symptoms Among Mexican-American College Women
Jeanette Torres
Mentor: Dr. Barton Blinder

Limited research exists on the epidemiology of eating disorders in Latina women. Few studies indicate that abnormal eating patterns are prevalent in this ethnic minority group. Acculturation, the adoption of the beliefs and customs of the majority culture, has been identified as a variable that influences an individual’s eating patterns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of acculturation on the development of bulimia nervosa symptoms in Mexican-American college women. Participants included 82 Mexican-American undergraduate women from a four-year research-type I university. The women were surveyed using a demographic sheet, the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Four participants exhibited bulimic symptoms. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant association between level of acculturation and bulimia nervosa symptoms. Findings can be attributed to the relatively small sample size composed primarily of first generation women ages 20-24.

Development of a Device for the Preconcentration of Methane Gas in Whole Air
Exequiel Tostado
Mentor: Dr. Stanley Tyler

Mid-IR laser technology has advanced to the point where it is now possible to do laser spectroscopic measurements for carbon dioxide (13C and 18O) and methane (13C, D) (McManus et al., 2002). Although the laser technique is not as precise or accurate as continuous flow mass spectrometry (cf-IRMS) (Rice et al., 2001, McManus et al., 2000), one advantage of the laser system is that it is portable and may be used to measure isotopic ratios in situ. However, it is much more difficult to measure isotopic methane using the laser than it is to make similar isotopic measurements of carbon dioxide. Methane is a trace gas that exists at approximately 200 times less concentration in air than carbon dioxide (~1.6 ppmv, parts per million methane by volume in air). Therefore, the laser system must have a way to look at concentrated methane before it is deemed useful as a portable device to measure methane at the source site. My research objective is to develop a method to preconcentrate methane to a detectable concentration and deliver it to the laser system to measure isotope ratios. Some of the tests needed for its successful development are setting up a chemical trap with suitable configuration and such that easily obtainable temperature can either trap or drive off the methane for recovery and measurement. Recovered gas must not only be deliverable to the laser system for its measurement, but to our cf/IRMS system as well.

Impact of Physics Outreach on Students, Teachers, and Prospective Teachers
Caroline Tran
Mentor: Dr. William Heidbrink

Physics Outreach is a program designed to motivate student interest in science and math. The program strives to stimulate underrepresented students in math and science through entertaining Physics demonstrations that bring physical concepts and mathematical skills to life. These Physics assemblies are performed in K-8 schools in Santa Ana. Typically, three UCI Physics students are trained each quarter to present one of the six assemblies: energy, momentum, waves, electricity, sound, and rotation. This study plans to research the impact of Physics Outreach on both the students and the teachers by administering a survey to each group. The surveys administered will be the means of assessment to evaluate the efficacy of Physics Outreach. From the data collected in the surveys, this study will show how Physics Outreach has helped students; such as whether Physics Outreach has sparked interest in science, how Physics Outreach has changed students’ views on science, and what students have gained from the outreach. The data collected in the survey administered to teachers will show whether Physics Outreach aids them in teaching, what teachers have gained from the assemblies, and how Physics Outreach will help teachers in the teaching of science. This study will also assess the impact of Physics Outreach on the undergraduate presenters.

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Women & Their Friends
Yagnesh Vadgama
Mentor: Dr. Roxane Silver

Over the course of our lives, we are likely to experience both chronic and acute stressors. When experiencing these stressors, we often look to our friends for comfort and relief. How and whether individuals seek support from others may be influenced by the attachment style they exhibit in their friendships. Bender (1999) examined the role of attachment styles in college students’ friendships and found that securely attached students were more intimate with their friends than insecurely attached students, especially regarding communication and affection. The current study seeks to expand on Bender’s study by examining whether attachment style is related to how friends actually interact when one of them is confronted with a potentially stressful situation. In the study, one member of 115 female friend dyads was told that she was to give a speech in front of graduate student that was to be video recorded and later reviewed by a professor, which was expected to induce stress. Afterward, the subject completed a questionnaire that rated how helpful her partner was during the stressful time. Data analyses examine the role of attachment styles in explaining behavior during this interaction. Results are expected to further our understanding of how women react with affection and communication with a peer in a stressful situation.

Expression of GAGAr1 Receptors in Insect Cells in Culture
Conrad Valdez
Mentor: Dr. Ricardo Miledi

The GABAC receptor is the least characterized member of the GABA receptor family. A study of the r1 subunit, a major component of the GABAC receptor, helps to identify the structure and function of the receptor. High yields in r1 subunit protein are required to make valuable assessments. High five cells (insect cell line) are a potential propagation machine for expressing high levels of the protein. In Xenopus oocytes a green fluorescence protein (GFP) tag provides a mechanism by which membrane expressed proteins are visualized under a fluorescence scope. The effectiveness of insect cells in expressing r1 subunits tagged with GFP protein within the membrane of the cell, was tested with a liposome mediated transfection. Cells recovered 72 and 96 hr post-transfection demonstrated fluorescent activity, however hyperflourescence was observed in the negative control for the 96 hr sample. An unidentifiable band for the r1 subunit GFP fusion protein in a Western Blot demonstrated a lack of true protein expression.

Let Them Come: A Look at the Positive Side of the Nineteenth Century "Chinese Problem"
Jennifer Vaughn
Mentor: Dr. Kenneth Chew

During the late nineteenth century, arguments for and against Chinese labor immigration to the United States were thrown at a panicked public in the midst of industrialism and Populist politics. Most studies of the Exclusion Era focus on the anti-Chinese position and how the Exclusion Act came about out of racism and union power. However, an examination of the written records of that era—political and religious tracts, boycott posters, and magazine and newspaper articles—reveals a strong pro-Chinese or indifferent presence in the debate. This report considers the economic and sociological arguments used in support of the Chinese and why they ultimately failed to sway the American working classes.

Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Genes: A Novel Interacting Protein With the DNA Mismatch Repair Gene Pms2
Jonathan Velasquez
Mentor: Dr. Steven Lipkin

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), the most common known genetic cancer susceptibility syndrome. We are investigating protein interactions between the DNA MMR protein PMS2 and Clone PMS2-Interactor 1 to explain the dominant negative (DN) mechanism of DNA MMR failure. The N-terminus of PMS2 is known to react with other proteins, and expression of the truncated N-terminus of PMS2 exhibits a dominant negative phenotype and microsatellite instability (MSI). Mutated PMS2 does not inhibit initial steps of MMR but interacts with and inhibits a downstream component of the MMR pathway. We hypothesize that the clone construct interacts with and is inhibited by DN-mutated PMS2 resulting in increased levels of MSI and loss of DNA MMR function. We cloned Clone PMS2-Interactor 1 through its interaction in the yeast two hybrid cloning assay with the N-terminus of PMS2, and it is known to confer DN-MSI. Our initial study focused on expressing PMS2-Interactor 1 protein in bacteria and the development of reactive antisera. Preliminary data and results show successful expression and western analysis of the antisera against the construct in bacteria demonstrates reactivity against both GST and PMS2-Interactor 1, as well as probable reactivity against thrombin. Our continued investigation using our developed antisera in immuno-precipitation assays and western analysis with different mice tissue will characterize the tissues in which the protein is expressed.

Tracking and Targeting Lymphocytes in Spinal Cord Injury
Michael Velez
Mentor: Dr. Hans Keirstead

During the response to spinal cord injury, the immune system plays a vital role. Ion channels within the immune system are being examined to further understand their role in immune dysfunction following injury. The function of ion channels is to serve as a passage for molecules and ions to enter and exit cells. These molecules and ions control cellular communication and aspects of the cell’s overall health. By blocking potassium ion channels found in T-lymphocytes, the immune response can be regulated. Specifically, the potassium channels Kv1.3 and IKCa1, which are expressed almost exclusively in T-lymphocytes, have been found to control T-lymphocyte membrane potential. Charybdotoxin, a 31 amino acid polypeptide, and ShK, a 35 amino acid sea anemone peptide, have been found to block the channel Kv1.3. TRAM-34 (1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole) along with charybdotoxin have been found to block the potassium channel IKCa1. In recent studies, these potassium channel blockers were proven effective in treating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the rat model for multiple sclerosis. It is hypothesized that potassium channel blockers may also have a beneficial effect in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

The Evolution of the American Musical
Selah Victor
Mentor: Dr. Dennis Castellano

The American musical has been the voice of America for over a century. It is the one art form that we can claim as our own while watching its success and attraction worldwide. Throughout the last century, we have seen it evolve from silly operettas and low forms of entertainment to dramatic and moving works of art that allow the world an emotional release. The American musical has been the threshold of political propaganda, social statement, and cultural commentary. My research has been dedicated to discovering the depth of the history of American musical theater. I have chosen one song from each decade that showcases the change in the art form during that time period. For example, "Out of my Dreams" from Oklahoma! represents the Rodgers and Hammerstein era of the 1940s in which songs began to develop character and story rather than serve only as entertainment. Some of my songs will also illustrate how the American musical has been an arena for the atmosphere of our country. For example, I have chosen "I Feel Pretty" from West Side Story, which represents the cultural changes that took place in our country during the 1950s. Thus, I will record smaller versions of one key song from each decade from the 1900s until the current time on a CD, and I will also provide historical commentary after each song. This project will represent how the American musical has evolved throughout history to become one of the most exciting art forms of today.

Existential Ideology and its Impact on Coping with Bereavement
Daniel Villa
Mentor: Dr. Salvatore Maddi

Implementing adaptive coping mechanisms while transitioning through the bereavement process can be an emotionally exhausting process to endure. Coming to terms with adverse circumstances—more specifically, when dealing with either the forewarned or sudden passing of a loved one—is dependent on how one interprets it. Consequently, individuals are more likely to work through the process of grief through a variety of coping devices, which can serve to facilitate and/or impede effective coping. Bringing personal meaning to the loss of a relative, partner, or friend, therefore, involves the assessment of individual personality characteristics in one’s ultimate resolution of the grieving process. The objective of this research project is to provide both a qualitative and quantitative approach to identifying hardy-related attitudes (a set of traits aimed at buffering stress-induced anxiety) in juxtaposition to how five selected case study participants individually dealt with the grief process. The three moderators utilized involve commitment (increasing interest in activities by becoming deeply involved with them), control (having influence over individual circumstances), and challenge (making life worthwhile by learning from both positive and negative experiences, Maddi & Khoshaba, 2001). Overall, the intent of this study is to determine how combined levels of hardiness contribute to how subjects ultimately cope with their circumstances, as well as provide prospective implications on future means of coping.

Fabrication of MEMS Microchannels for Biological Applications
Mark Villamor
Mentors: Dr. John LaRue & Dr. Richard Nelson

The Coulter counter is a technique for particle counting based on the resistance change that occurs when a particle in an electrically conducting fluid passes through a small opening or a channel. By using an approach in the construction of a microchannel utilizing fabrication processes that are compatible with other MEMS technologies, the microchannel can be readily adapted to a range of biological applications such as impedance spectroscopy or cell detection and sorting. The present approach involves having the chrome electrodes across the bottom of the channel using an E-Beam evaporation and a lift off or etching process for defining the electrodes. The electrode dimensions are 50 microns wide with a 100 micron pitch. The channel is constructed on top of the electrodes with a two-spin process of AZ 4620, a thick photoresist. A channel with a width of 45 µm and walls with a height of 30 µm is then formed. As the project progresses, electrodes and a channel with smaller dimensions will be produced to detect smaller particles with improved sensitivity. A thin 2.7 µm layer of Shipley 1827 photoresist on a 1 in-by-1 in glass slide placed on top of the AZ 4620 photoresist will seal the completed channel. The fluidic I/O will be used for continuous flow and will employ micro tubing and fittings associated with gas chromatography.

Spectroscopy and Predissociation of Iodine Under High Pressure
Jouko Virtanen
Mentor: Dr. Vartkees Apkarian

I will study the effect of pressure on the wavelength of the fluorescence of the spin-flip transition of molecular iodine, from the doubly spin-excited state (I*I*) to the singly excited state (I*I), in CS2 and in CCl4. CS2 was chosen because it has a particularly intense I*I* to I*I fluorescence. When I2 is exited to I*I* in the gas phase, it dissociates. However, if confined in a solid, the surrounding cage atoms will prevent the separation of atoms. In the solid state, I*I* will relax through emission to I*I. The radius at which the I*I* to I*I transition occurs determines the energy change of the transition and therefore the wavelength of the fluorescence. If pressure on the solid is greatly increased, the solid will be compressed, and the size of the cage will shrink; accordingly, the wavelength of fluorescence will shift. I will adjust the pressure on the iodine and its surroundings using a Merrill-Basset diamond anvil cell. I will also study the probability of predissociation of I2 in the solid state, as a function of pressure and temperature, through pump-probe experiments. In the gas phase, the electonically excited B-state of I2 does not predissociate (change electronic states that have the same energy). However, this state is known to undergo collision-induced predissociation. In a dense solid, collective collisions occur, the effect of which on predissociation is not understood. My pressure and temperature dependence measurements should clarify the effect of collective collisions.

GFAP Expression in Transgenically Labeled Zebrafish
Christine Vo
Mentor: Dr. Oswald Steward

The two fundamental cell types of the nervous system, neurons and glia, are specified early in embryogenesis. How they arise in the correct spatial and temporal pattern has been the subject of intense study, especially for the generation of neurons. This project was conducted to study the early embryonic specification and patterning of glial cells, and in particular astrocytes, in zebrafish. The primary approach was to construct reporter genes to transgenically label glial cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We isolated the promoter region of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) gene, which is expressed specifically in glial cells, by screening a zebrafish genomic DNA library via PCR. Resulting from the library screening, positive clones were successfully identified. Subsequent restriction mapping and Southern hybridization were used to localize the promoter region of GFAP within the positive clones. The isolated promoter was fused to the GFP gene, and assayed for transient expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos. Parallel experiments using whole-mount in-situ hybridization showed that GFAP gene was restricted to the spinal cord in late embryogenesis. While 2.1 kb of genomic sequence directed expression in many embryonic tissues, 10.5 KB apparently recapitulated GFAP expression in both the brain and spinal cord during the initial patterning of the nervous system. Using this GFP-GFAP fusion gene construct, transgenic zebrafish will be created to examine glial specification and patterning in living embryos.

Dichotomy Between Vowel Recognition and Speaker Identification
Michael Vongphoe
Mentors: Dr. Kaiboa Nie & Dr. Fan-Gang Zeng

Over 40,000 deaf people have received a cochlear implant (CI) and most of them can carry on a telephone conversation. However, anecdotal reports suggest that they cannot identify speakers. This study aims to document and quantify the implant users’ performance in vowel recognition and speaker identification. Three vowels spoken by 3 men, 3 women, 2 boys, and 2 girls served as stimuli. Eight normal-hearing and 6 CI listeners participated in the experiments. The normal listeners were tested with the natural vowels as well as vowels processed to contain only the amplitude modulation and both the amplitude and frequency modulations in 1-32 frequency bands. The implant listeners were tested only with the natural stimuli. Preliminary results showed that, for natural stimuli, the normal listeners achieved about 63% greater performance in identifying the speakers than implant users and about 31% greater performance than implant users for vowel recognition. When only amplitude modulation was provided, the normal listeners had a similar level of performance to the implant listeners for both tasks. However, the normal listeners’ performance increased significantly when additional frequency modulation was included. These data suggest that the current cochlear implants can recognize speech but cannot effectively identify the speaker. Frequency modulation information needs to be encoded in CI devices in order to improve the overall implant performance.

Exploring Architectures for Motion Estimation on the 8051 Microprocessor and XC4010XL FPGA
Kenny Vu
Mentor: Dr. Tony Givargis

The purpose of this research project was to explore different architectures upon which to build a motion estimation chip (a module in an MPEG-2 codec). Motion estimation attempts to compress video files by estimating where an object will move between two consecutives frames. Two main architectures were explored: one in which the entire implementation was done in software and another where the implementation was partitioned between software and hardware. The architectures were analyzed for power consumption and speed. It was hypothesized that while the software implementation would require a smaller average voltage than the partitioned implementation, its slow execution would cause it to require more energy overall. For each architecture, the results showed the difference in average voltage required was minimal. However, the faster execution of the partitioned architecture allowed it to use about 53% less energy than the software implementation. The partitioned architecture also executed about twice as fast. Future research related to this topic may include exploring similar architectures for MPEG-4.

Humanities Out There Assessment Project
Stephania Vu
Mentor: Dr. Vicki Ruiz

Humanities Out There (HOT), a program that began in 1997, was founded upon two goals: to enable students from the Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD) to attend a university, and to increase student’s literacy through the incorporation of the humanities. Assessing the students’ work, actions, and understanding of the material is crucial and since the HOT program is new, there was no definite way of measuring the students’ progress in the program. As part of the current investigation, an assessment method was produced to measure quantitatively how positively or negatively the students responded to the material and if they were becoming more interested in the university. Each week, undergraduate tutors individually record students’ responses to the material as well as if they show any interest in the university. This data will also be recorded in an Excel spreadsheet to archive the students’ responses to the coursework within the HOT program. This quantitative research was developed to illustrate how students improved during the course of each five-week workshop. Its patterns will show the effectiveness of teaching methods in the humanities context as well as show areas that need further development.

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Urban American Indian Elders at a Los Angeles Non-profit Community Agency: A Case Study on Health and Social Well-Being
Nola Wanta
Mentor: Dr. Jeanett Castellanos

Over 33,000 American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) elders live in Los Angeles County. American Indian elders (AI/AN over the age of 50) connote a positive social status among the AI/AN community. Despite their social status, elders face several health and social disparities that need to be addressed. This study will examine the role of social support of AI/AN elders, and its impact on health and well being. More specifically, the purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to investigate the coping mechanisms AI/AN elders have in place; and (2) to examine the role of the community agency on their lives (health and well being). The implementation of participant observations and informal and formal interviews will facilitate data collection. The formal interviews will be transcribed while daily field notes will be documented for data consistency. Data analysis is currently in progress. The analyses through coding and emergent themes will assist to better understand the role of community agency in the lives of the AI/AN elders, the AI/AN elder health and social needs, and their means of coping. Recommendations and implications will be provided for practical and policy implementations.

Characterization of the Solutions for Control of the Chirikov-Taylor Standard Map Generated by Various Genetic Algorithms
Patrick Warf
Mentor: Dr. Craig Martens

The Chirikov-Taylor standard map is an area-preserving map that is a non-linear system. Each point maps to another point on the map. The mapping of one point to the next is given by the following formulas: In+1 = In + Ksin(qn) and qn+1 = qn + In+1. To control the mapping, the first formula was modified to include the possibility of a kick: In+1 = In + Ksin(qn) + f0F(n). f0 is an arbitrary constant, and F(n) is either 0 or 1 depending upon the number at the nth position of a bit string. Bit strings, potential solutions to the standard map control problem, are initially generated randomly. An arbitrary number of mappings are allowed to take place, and the bit strings are evaluated for fitness based upon how close the final mapping position is to an arbitrary target. Then, a new population of bit strings is generated using a genetic algorithm. Winners, or bit strings that hit the target, are recorded. Relationships between the rate of convergence, rate of increase of average/best fitness, diversity, and K, which determines how chaotic the system is, were investigated. The effect of increasing the length of the bit strings was investigated, as will the effect of population size (number of bit strings in each generation) on all of the results. In addition, various potential improvements to common genetic algorithms were tested.

A Practical Guide for Actors Living in NY
Bonnie Wickeraad
Mentor: Dr. Myrona Delaney

New York City has always been a source of wonderment for me. For the stage actor, Broadway is the ultimate destination. Unfortunately, however, not everyone is afforded the luxury of traveling to New York City to investigate it before they decide to live there. Before I came here, all I had to go on was pictures I had seen and the romanticized versions of New York City in all the Hollywood films. While New York City is glittering lights and big Broadway shows, it is also dirty, loud, expensive, and many other things that you would never know if you didn’t actually live here. I have not yet found a book that gives a practical description of how to survive in New York City as an actor, and "surviving" is exactly what actors do. I got the opportunity to live in New York City for a month not only to study theatre extensively but to experience living, auditioning and surviving in the city as well. I am using my own experiences over this month as well as those of my faculty here in New York City to form a practical guide for young drama students living in the city as an actor. I will present this guide to the drama students of my high school next fall.

Soil Nitrogen Does Not Limit Early Growth of a Native Costa Rican Tree
Alton Park Williams
Mentor: Dr. F. Lynn Carpenter

Tropical deforestation contributes to the degradation of land through erosion, overgrazing, and nutrient leaching. These effects lead to soil infertility, forcing tropical farmers to relocate to less-disturbed land. Therefore, restoration of tropical soils can be of economic importance to farmers while providing the ecological benefit of slowing deforestation. I planted a commercially valuable native species of timber tree on degraded pastureland in southwestern Costa Rica to test the effect of nitrogen on its growth. Previous analysis showed a positive correlation between soil nitrate and growth of this species. I designed an experiment to determine whether this was due to an effect of initial soil nitrogen on tree growth, or a later effect of tree growth due to differences in amount of decomposing leaf litter. I expected that topography might play a role because soil nitrate might be affected by drainage. I planted 300 seedlings (half treated with ammonium nitrate) across undulating terrain and determined the relationships between initial soil nitrate, topography, and subsequent tree growth over seven months. I observed no positive effect of fertilizer or initial soil nitrogen on tree growth and no relationship between soil nitrogen and topography. Therefore, this study suggests that nitrogen does not affect seven months growth of this species. These preliminary data support the hypothesis that tree growth positively affects soil nitrate after several years of growth. This result suggests that the successful production of this species can have a positive impact on tropical soil restoration while providing an economic incentive to the farmer.

A MEMS Based Telemetry System for Longitudinal Muscle Contractions in the Human Esophagus
Michael Williams
Mentor: Dr. Andrei Shkel

The long-term goal of this work is to develop an implantable micro-scale sensor, capable of measuring esophageal muscle contractions, based on MEMS technology. The initial design of such a device has been explored in this project. Currently, there are no effective methods of measuring longitudinal muscle contractions in the esophagus. Utilization of a MEMS-based telemetry system for health monitoring will allow for a more accurate characterization of longitudinal muscle contraction patterns within the esophagus. MEMS accelerometers are low cost and low power devices with sufficient sensitivity for the measurement of muscle contractions. Integrating an accelerometer with a suitable power source and biocompatible packaging along with extensive testing via a sensor-computer interface will be the first steps to developing a fully implantable MEMS-based telemetry system.

Glur2 Downregulation, Increasing Numbers of Ca2+ Permeable AMPA/Kinate (Ca-A/K) Channels, and Increased Intraneuronal Zn2+ Accumulation in Distinct Hippocampal Fields After Prolonged Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mature Rat
Karen Wong
Mentor: Dr. Hong Yin

The excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cells was increased by prolonged experimental febrile seizures in immature rat. The increase in excitability after hypoxic seizures in immature animals was thought to be contributed by the high levels of Ca-A/K channels and the low levels of Glur2 in pyramidal cells. Since Zn2+ is highly permeable to these Ca-A/K channels, the entry of Zn2+ via Ca-A/K channels after hypoxic seizure in immature animals may contribute to the observed long-term excitability. This study investigated the effects of prolonged experimental febrile seizures on the changes in the levels of Ca-A/K channels and Zn2+ in pyramidal neurons. The induction of seizure on 10-day-old rat lead to a reduction of Glur2 (not Glu R1 or 4) mRNA in the CA3a hippocampal field 24 hr later (not 7 hr), and recovered in a week. Moreover, the increase in kinate-stimulated Co2+ uptake in CA3 pyramidal neurons supports the function of Ca-A/K channels, while the reduction of immunoreactive Glur2 was consistent with the levels of Glur2 mRNA. In addition, Timm’s straining showed that there was an increase in the levels of Zn2+ in CA3 pyramidal neurons, which was thought to be due to a translocation from the stored vesicular Zn2+ in granular cell axon terminals. The above data suggest that the increase in the entry of Zn2+ via Ca-A/K channels in the pyramidal neurons may lead to long-term excitability at these cells after neonatal hyperthermic seizures.

The Constitutionality of Public Single-Sex Schools Under the Equal Protection Clause
Jackie Woo
Mentor: Dr. Pamela Kelley

Currently, fewer than fifteen public single-sex schools exist in the United States, and their number continues to decrease as the courts have repeatedly ruled against single-sex admissions policies. Even though courts have become increasingly skeptical of single-sex admissions policies in schools, they have not yet declared them to be unconstitutional. The main reason that the courts have opposed single-sex schools is that these educational institutions discriminate along gender lines. They give students of one sex the unique opportunities and benefits of studying at certain schools, while denying members of the other sex those opportunities and benefits. When determining whether or not gender discrimination is justified under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the courts use the intermediate scrutiny standard, which requires that a policy be substantially related to an important governmental interest. Public single-sex schools will often state improvement of academic performance as their important governmental interest but can have difficulty demonstrating that their single-sex admissions policies are substantially related to their important governmental interest because the research about the benefits of single-sex education is currently inconclusive. The main problem with single-sex schools is that they exclude certain students on the basis of sex, but if states establish an equivalent all-girls school for every all-boys school, and vice versa, the single-sex schools should be able to withstand constitutional scrutiny.

Does Instructional Feedback Make a Difference? A Longitudinal Study
Jieeun Woo
Mentor: Dr. Robin Scarcella

Instructional feedback has been a controversial teaching technique probed in the field of education. Both advocates and critics conducted research evidencing their claims. Critics such as Steve Krashen (1985) denounced instructional feedback as needless, since children were found to be equipped with a mind that had a natural ability to organize and attain the grammar of a language. Advocates, notably Jim Cummins (2000), proposed an opposing view claiming the effectiveness of this personal assistance. In actual fact, instructional feedback has been a time-honored manner of assistance administered by teachers in classrooms. A personal scaffold to students, instructional feedback provided students with comments and assistance tailored to areas that needed improvement. In view of the controversy, more studies are needed to prove either the effectiveness or the impracticality of this teaching technique. This longitudinal query on the study Does Instructional Feedback Make A Difference was a continuation of a research project conducted in 2002. Along with the analysis using the pre-test and the post-test, the use of academic English was studied to also measure the effectiveness of instructional feedback.

Gender Differences in the Effects of September 11, 2001 on Adolescents
Allison Wright
Mentor: Dr. Carol Whalen

The events of September 11, 2001 impacted adolescents throughout the country. Most had never experienced an act of violence so extreme. Often times, gender plays a role in the effects of tragedy. For example, research has shown that females show more PTSD symptoms than do males following national traumas. This research examines gender differences in the effects of 9/11 on adolescents. The focus is on subjective reactions, levels of stress, views about the President’s performance, and expectations about a future war. One hundred and seventy-one adolescent high school students in Orange County, CA, completed a confidential 11-page survey about the events of September 11. These 108 female and 63 male respondents are part of a larger longitudinal study of personality and contextual factors that impact health behaviors. Both quantitative ratings and open-ended responses will be analyzed. This study is important because most research on the effects of national tragedies focuses on children and/or adults; little is known about the critical period of development known as adolescence. Given the large individual differences in reactions to tragedy and violence that have been documented in children and adults, it is important to understand if particular subgroups of adolescents are more affected by September 11 than their peers. This study will begin to fill this gap by assessing gender differences in reactions to and perceptions of the events of September 11.

Effect of Water Temperature and Immersion Time on Bend Angle During Cartilage Thermoforming
Ryan Wright
Mentor: Dr. Brian Wong

Much interest has been placed on the permanent reshaping of cartilage for facial reconstructive surgery using lasers. An alternate way to reshape cartilage is to heat the tissue in a water bath while maintaining the specimen in mechanical deformation. The objective of this study was to measure the circular bend angle of a cartilage specimen produced by varying the temperature and immersion time in a water bath. Rectangular cartilage specimens (18 x 4 x 1.5 mm) were bent in a semicircular jig (diameter 11 mm) and then immersed in a saline bath at temperatures between 50-80 °C. The immersion times were 5, 20, 80, 160 and 320 secs at each temperature. The distance between the ends of each specimen was measured before reshaping and at 15 min and 24 hr after immersion in order to calculate the resulting bend angle. The largest bend angle occurred in the specimen immersed in saline at 74 °C for 320 secs, illustrating a definite thermal influence on the physical shape of the cartilage sample. The critical immersion times and bath temperatures where definite shape change occurred were determined.

Inducing Viable Cartilage Reshaping in Porcine Septum Using Nd:Yag Laser
Ryan Wright
Mentor: Dr. Brian Wong

The process of photothermal heating mechanically deformed cartilage accelerates the stress relaxation within the matrix, resulting in sustained shape change. The processes of stress relaxation are thought to involve collagen denaturation and alteration of weak van der Waals bonds between proteoglycan molecules. The purpose of this project is to use a computer controlled reshaping device to determine the most effective laser parameters for cartilage reshaping. The device components consist of: 1) an assembly used to move the cartilage with respect to the fixed laser beam; and 2) instrumentation used to irradiate the cartilage and detect the diffusely scattered probe light and surface temperature data. Porcine septal cartilage from the head of a rabbit was cut (15 x 5 x 1 mm) using a custom-built guillotine microtome. The specimens were mechanically deformed into a semi-circular shape using a jig constructed from aluminum tubing and high-tension wire. For this experiment, the specimens were irradiated using the Nd:Yag laser l=1.32 µm at several different power settings (6-10 watts) and five pulse durations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16). Irradiation occurred in three separate regions in order to maximize cooling between laser exposures. The lengths of the ends of the specimens were measured in order to determine the resulting bend angle of the semi-circular cartilage piece. The specimens treated with the laser at 10 watts for 10 sec appear to have the greatest amount of reshaping.

Dynamic Trafficking of SREBP-2 in the Nucleus
Cristen Wu
Mentor: Dr. Vickie LaMorte

The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors involved in cholesterol regulation. Recent studies have begun exploring the cellular redundancy of the proteins in this family, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2. However, our experiments indicate that SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 show different localization patterns in the cell, suggesting a difference in function. SREBP-1a appears in a diffuse pattern throughout the nucleus, while SREBP-2 has the ability to present as foci in the nucleus of cells. This discovery prompted an inquiry into the nature of the activity of SREBP-2 in the cell and why it differs from that of SREBP-1. Using a series of deletion constructs, we localized the ability to form foci to within amino acids 101 and 149. Electron microscopy was used to examine the ability to form foci seen with SREBP-2. The foci appear as electron dense structures, indicative of a nuclear body, rather than aggregates of protein. Two-photo imaging and spectroscopy fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TPIS-FRET) was performed with GFP mutants. It was found that both SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 form homodimers in vivo and that SREBP-1a and 2 form heterodimers, which are localized in foci. The recruitment of 1a/2 heterodimers to foci was supported using GFP constructs that show SREBP-1a-GFP, which is always diffuse when overexpressed alone, being recruited to foci by SREBP-2 in living cells.

Political Mobilization in Voluntary Organizations and Churches
Sally Wu
Mentor: Dr. Carole Uhlaner

Numerous studies have been conducted on political participation. In 1995, Verba, Schlozman and Brady researched the effects of political mobilization on the likelihood that a person will participate. Mobilization is the act in which a request to participate is made, so the decision to participate is not spontaneous. Requests by persons in an elite position, such as an organization or religious leader or a boss, increased participation rates. This current study looks to test the effects of mobilization by voluntary organization and church leaders within the Asian community. Multiple studies have found that Asians have lower participation rates than would be expected given demographics that are associated with higher participation levels. Twenty-five interviews were conducted on leaders of organizations and churches from the Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese community throughout Orange County, CA. The interviewees were asked a series of questions relating to organization/church demographics, number and type of acts they have requested members to participate in, and whether skills that could be acquired through their membership might also be useful for politics. Data analysis is currently underway. The analysis will consist of comparisons between the number of mobilizing acts between organizations and churches, as well as their variation depending on the focus of the organization or the denomination of the church. It will also look for variations between the three ethnic groups. The findings of this study are expected to help explain decreased participation rates and why this gap exists.

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The Effects of Kinase Signaling Pathways on AMPA Receptors
Ted Yanagihara
Mentor: Dr. Gary Lynch

AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast, excitatory transmission throughout the brain and have been implicated in learning and memory. AMPARs can be quickly inactivated by internalization, a process that may require multiple protein interactions and signal transduction mechanisms. Scaffolding proteins known as PDZ proteins have been shown to interact with discrete subunits of AMPARs and allow kinases to act on specific amino acid residues of the receptor. Related to this, a series of kinases including protein kinase C (PKC), calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and members of the Src family of kinases are implicated in the control of AMPAR expression. Most of the work on these enzyme-receptor interactions has been conducted using primary neuronal cultures and heterologous reconstituted systems that may not reflect the physiological conditions in the brain. In this study, we propose to investigate the ability of protein kinases to alter the concentration of AMPARs in neuronal slice cultures. Slice preparations create an environment that is more comparable to that found in vivo than is the case for dissociated cells. We intend to add various kinase inhibitors to neuronal slices to identify which enzymes play a role in AMPAR regulation. In addition, we will also investigate the ability of certain neurotrophic factors to rescue receptors targeted for deactivation. Results from the proposed experiments add to the information gathered from studies conducted in primary neuronal cultures and advance the analysis of AMPAR regulation closer to the behaving animal.

An Investigation into the Effect of Nicotine on Glutamatergic Receptor and Transporter Gene Expression
David Yang
Mentor: Dr. Katumi Sumikawa

Previous experiments in our laboratory have shown that in vivo exposure to nicotine altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. To gain insight into the nicotine effect, I examined if nicotine exposure altered numbers of glutamate receptors (NR1, NR2A and NR2B) and glutamate transporters (Glut, Glutamine/Aspartate transporter, and EAAC) in the hippocampus using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). I found that nicotine exposure for 10 days did not alter the gene expression of glutamate receptors or glutamate transporters. However, nicotine-withdrawn rats showed a lowered gene expression in glutamate receptors NR-1, NR2-A and NR-2B in comparison to the control and chronic-nicotine rats. In conclusion, changes in the gene expression of glutamate receptors (NR-1, NR2-A and NR2-B) and glutamate transporters (Glut, Glutamine/Aspartate transporter, and EAAC) are not the underlining mechanisms that alter glutamatergic synaptic transmission. My data suggests, however, that the withdrawal of nicotine decreases the gene expression level of NR-1, NR2-A and NR2-B.

Identification of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Aplysia californica
Yifan Yang
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Carew

The recent discovery of local dendritic protein synthesis (LDPS) has raised a number of questions pertinent to the study of learning and memory. For example, why are some RNAs translated directly at the synapse, and are they involved in the strengthening of the synapse during learning? Several proteins have been identified in vertebrates to be translated at the dendritic sites. One of these is Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IIa (CaMKIIa). In this study, we have sought to identify and characterize CaMKIIa expression at the tail sensory neuron-motor neuron synapse in Aplysia. The marine mollusk Aplysia exhibits sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdraw reflex. This reflex has been well characterized and provides a good model for the study of a role for LDPS in memory formation. We have studied several antibodies for the use of CaMKIIa identification in Aplysia and found two that would be suitable. When we studied CaMKIIa levels using Western Blots of the pedal neuropil two hours after tail shock, we did not observe a significant increase in the protein level. However, CaMKIIa may well be activated at other time points. We are currently examining this possibility.

Tactile and Auditory Perception in People With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Elizabeth Yanni
Mentor: Dr. Arthur Grant

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy in adults, provides a model for studying the effect of a seizure focus on cognitive functions. This study examined tactile and auditory perception in 23 adult subjects with TLE, and compared their performance to that of 20 age-matched neurologically normal controls. Subjects underwent a battery of psychophysical perceptual tasks in each domain. Tactile tasks included Von Frey hair sensitivity, discrimination of grating orientation, and discrimination of grating groove width. Auditory tasks included brief tone discrimination at several stimulus durations, Scan-A, and Staggered Spondaic Words. Subjects with TLE performed significantly worse than controls on all durations of the brief tone discrimination task, but relative performance worsened as tone duration decreased. Performance on the tests of higher level central auditory processing, SCAN-A and SSW, was no different from that of controls. On the tactile tasks, subject performance relative to that of controls was again correlated with stimulus duration, in that shorter exposure to the stimulus generally resulted in a greater performance deficit. These perceptual impairments were partially or fully reversed in subjects who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy with surgical removal of the seizure focus. These data suggest that: 1) a seizure focus can disrupt interictal perceptual function mediated by distant cortical regions; 2) this dysfunction can be overcome by stimulus redundancy (i.e., increasing stimulus duration); and 3) removing the seizure focus can actually improve interictal cognitive processing, despite the loss of considerable normal brain tissue. We hypothesize that interictal cognitive dysfunction in TLE may result from propagation of focally generated epileptiform discharges.

Expressions of Asian Americans: A Look at a Changing Perspective through Theater, Dance and Music
Jasmine Yep
Mentor: Dr. Daphne Lei

For over two centuries, Asians have come to call America their home, making large strides that enrich their lives both culturally and artistically. Through the performing arts of theater, dance and music, Asians and Asian Americans have found a voice that impacts and changes the arts. From the original script of Flower Drum Song to modern dramas challenging established and media-enforced stereotypes, Asian-American theater has become an avenue in which Asian Americans are able to play diverse and provocative roles. Dance is an avenue of expression that portrays thoughts and emotions. Through movement, traditional and folk dance is commonly being fused with modern concepts and techniques to create dance pieces that are more Asian American than Asian dance. Japanese taiko drumming is one form of music that has been altered as Asian-American groups integrate contemporary rhythms and beats into the traditional taiko music. The internationally renowned group Kodo, from Japan, has released an album combining traditional taiko with modern recordings. This research demonstrates changes in Asian-American arts through a collaboration piece between dancers at UCI and Jodaiko, UCI’s collegiate taiko group that fuses traditional and contemporary rhythms. The findings of this study examine the changes in Asian performing arts in America, focusing on the factors that have contributed, changed and effected theater, dance, and music, making these performing arts Asian American.

Coping and Behavior Problems in Early Childhood
Christine Yocius-Escalona
Mentor: Dr. Jodi Quas

In recent years, many studies have been conducted on the relations between coping strategies and psychopathology in children. However, they have failed to address the early childhood years. In addition they have relied on parent measures ignoring self reports. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between coping strategies and behavior problems in early childhood. Coping was measured using the Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist and children’s self reports in 120 five- and six-year-olds. Additionally, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed using the MacArthur Health and Behavior Checklist. Results suggest emotion-focused coping to be associated with more behavior problems than primary or problem-focused strategies. These findings have important implications from both applied and theoretical perspectives. If coping strategies are predictive of psychopathology, then these behaviors can be targeted in prevention programs.

Microstructural Components of the Coronary Vascular System
Roxanne Yongvanich
Mentor: Dr. Ghassan Kassab

The "diameter-defined Strahler model" was created to represent the geometry of coronary arteries for the hemodynamic analysis of a pig. This model makes it possible to attain data of the diameter, length, and branching patterns of vessel segments that is comparable to human data, but it only accounts for unit thickness. In an effort to improve coronary circulation models, Dr. Ghassan Kassab and his lab at UCSD began the task of determining coronary vessel wall thickness and this research has been continued at UCI. Quantitative data of this type can be utilized to further analyze coronary circulation and compare it with the mechanical properties of the vessel wall. The measurements taken of blood vessel wall thicknesses demonstrate the stress distribution and elasticity of the wall. Once a complete set of coronary vessel wall thickness is obtained, coronary circulation properties can be determined from the data. This is done by taking histological measurements of samples from a pig’s heart. These are then magnified and the images are displayed on a computer. The thickness of the intima (innermost vessel layer), media (middle vessel layer), and adventitia (outermost vessel layer) are measured and recorded. This is repeated on different samples from several parts of the heart until a quantitative set of data is acquired. The significance of this data will be evident in the future when ways to reconstruct damaged vessels, a greater knowledge of coronary circulation, and cures for coronary diseases result.

The Real Effects of Technological Globalization
Jay You
Mentor: Dr. Priya Ranjan

The rise of technological globalization has brought up many questions which are all significant inquiries pertaining to its effects. It is to my understanding that globalization is the new direction of the world and thus I am not attempting to show its significance to the world in terms of development. Rather, I am trying to produce an indicator to answer whether it is the best way. The purpose of this project is to attain a better projection of the effects of globalization in the future. Through the comparison of fluctuations in currency value and trade volume with real income during the past 20 years, we can see whether technological globalization has caused an increase or decrease in international trade and how that would have an effect on the real income. More importantly the indicator is meant to provide an in depth look at whether the "trickle-down theory" of industrial nations is truly having a significant effect on the standard of living in global south nations. Data gathering is nearly complete and data analysis will start right after the database has been completed. My hope for the project is that it will lead to a better understanding of the economic aspect of technological globalization in addition to shedding light on its opportunity costs. In showing specific effects of globalization through regress analysis and other statistical tools, people will be better able to weigh the positive and negative aspects. Thus the ultimate goal is to give a clear perspective on the economic situation of the future as the world moves closer and closer in the grand scheme of global unity.

Assortative Mating for Herbivore Resistance in Plants
Chad Young
Mentor: Dr. Arthur Weis

The development and use of transgenic crops is constantly increasing. Many crops have been engineered to resist pest damage. One of the concerns is that these resistance genes could escape into the wild population via cross pollination. The spread of these genes through the wild population may be accelerated by increased fitness and assortative mating of resistant plants. We conducted a biological simulation to determine whether herbivore resistant and nonresistant plants mate assortatively. We used Brassica rapa that were selectively bred to be homozygous for a dominant pigment gene that made the stems purple and others that were homozygous recessive and had green stems. Purple stem plants were treated as resistant, while plants with green stems were subject to damage during early development. We found that damaged plants do flower later than undamaged plants, inducing a detectable level of assortative mating.

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Latino Political Participation: Issue Preference as the Dominant Predictor
Rosa Zavala
Mentor: Dr. Louis Desipio

Latinos are one of America’s fastest growing populations. Data from the 2000 census reports that 12.5 percent of the U.S. population is of Latino descent and demographic studies show that they represent the largest ethnic minority group in Texas, California and Florida. Despite the high numbers, and the potential to influence politics, Latinos have more nonvoters as a share of the adult population than does any other major racial or ethnic group in U.S. society. While previous studies suggest that variable dynamics influence participation, I argue that issue preference above all variables is empirical in determining political participation because group consciousness and shared interests on particular issues can serve as a basis for political mobilization. Utilizing the 1999 Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey on Latinos in America, analyses were conducted to test the relationship between issue preference, political efficacy, socioeconomic status, country of origin and the levels of political participation. The dependent variable political participation is defined here as any action taken by individuals to influence who holds governmental power or to influence public policy outcomes. The results of this study are expected to increase our knowledge of Latino political participation. Arguably, a Latino electorate will soon emerge that will prove significant and potentially decisive in American elections.

Importance of Specific Acupoints in the Reduction of Increased Blood Pressure
Nanfei Zhang
Mentors: Dr. John C. Longhurst & Dr. Stephanie Tjen-A-Looi

Electroacupuncture (EA) is a potent alternative of acupuncture, the traditional Chinese therapy used to treat many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Acupoints are certain points on the body, into which needles are inserted, and have specificity in treating different diseases. One well-recognized set of acupoints, P 5-6, overlies the median nerve on the wrist, and is used frequently to treat high blood pressure. We have reported that 30 min EA at the P 5-6 reduces the pressor response (increase in blood pressure) induced by application of bradykinin (BK) on the gallbladder (Li, 1999). To evaluate the efficacy of EA stimulation at different acupoints on this pressor response, we separately stimulated six sets of acupoints: LI 4-L 7, overlying the superficial radial and median nerves; LI 6-7, overlying the superficial radial nerves; LI 10-11, overlying the deep radial nerves; S 36-37, overlying the deep peroneal nerves; and K 1-B 67, overlying the medial plantar and dorsal digital nerves. Stimulation of the acupoints P5-6 and LI 10-11, respectively, decreased the pressor response by 38% and 39% for up to 60 min (P<0.05). In contrast, EA at LI 4-L7 and S 36-37, respectively, decreased the response by 24% and 32% both for only 15 min (P<0.05). EA at LI 6-7 and K 1-B 67 did not modulate the pressor response. Thus, stimulations of different acupoints overlying different nerves have different modulatory effects on the pressor response, suggesting the importance of point specificity in the treatment of elevated blood pressure.

Detection of Oral Pathology Through in vitro Spectroscopy
Roman Zorin
Mentor: Dr. Petra Wilder-Smith

The survival rate of a patient with oral cancer depends critically on early detection. However, early detection is difficult because oral cancer often doesn’t have any signs and/or symptoms. Yearly about 10,000 die of oral cancer. Squamous Cell Carcinoma accounts for 96% of all oral cancers. The disease usually starts with Dysplasia that progresses on to Leukoplakia, which has a tendency to spread to multiple lesions. Patients diagnosed with localized disease have 75% five-year survival rate, compared to only 16% for those with cancer metastasis. Oral cancer can progress from healthy tissue to Dysplasia to a full-blown Carcinoma. The only reliable diagnostic technique currently available is biopsy. Biopsy can be traumatic to patients. Developments in Photomedicine give hope for development of noninvasive diagnostic techniques based on tissue autoflourescence. Tissue autofluorescence is the phenomenon that we employed to create a "spectral signature" of oral cancers. Autoflorescence is a phenomenon that takes place when an electron absorbs a photon of a specific wavelength and re-emits it at a shorter wavelength. We did our experiment using human tissue. Initially we tried examining epithelial layer and the connective tissue layer of our healthy, Dysplasia and Leukoplakia samples using 366 nm, 405 nm and 440 nm excitation bandwidths. The data showed that there is a noticeable difference between healthy and Leukoplakia epithelium when excited at 405 nm and 440 nm. While the result is encouraging, more work needs to be done to identify the underlying principle behind the difference in the spectra between healthy and Leukoplakia epithelium.

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