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Negative Social Exchanges in Later Life: Do Causal Attributions Make a Difference?
Mary O’Callaghan
: Valerie Jenness & Karen Rook
Studies have shown that conflicts, misunderstandings, and other forms of negative interaction with family members and friends generally occur infrequently, but they cause considerable distress when they do occur. The extent of this distress may depend on people’s accounts, or causal attributions, for the negative interactions. Little research has examined this hypothesis, however. The current study investigated the associations between causal attributions and emotional reactions to negative social exchanges in a subset (N = 110) of a larger, nationally representative sample of community-residing older adults. Negative interactions attributed to internal, stable, and intentional causes were expected to arouse more intense and longer-lasting emotional distress than were negative interactions attributed to external, unstable, and unintentional causes. Older adults’ open-ended explanations for a recent negative interaction experienced with a social network member were coded in terms of these attribution dimensions and were examined in relation to overall emotional distress, as well as specific kinds of distress (anger, sadness, anxiety). The findings will help to shed light on the important and poorly understood question of what makes some older adults more vulnerable than others to negative exchanges with members of their social networks.
Shifting Social Responsibilities: The Case of Motel Living in Northern Orange County

Sarah Obaña

: Victoria Basolo
Some northern Orange County cities have adopted local motel ordinances intended to end the alternative of motel living for poor households. Housing advocates claim these local laws have displaced poor motel residents to cities without motel ordinances, such as the City of Santa Ana. Although city staff in Santa Ana drafted a similar ordinance, it was never adopted into law. The reasons that certain cities in Orange County have adopted ordinances concerning motel living are unknown, but anecdotal evidence suggests that these policy decisions reflect rational, self-interested motives. Such motives support the theoretical framework, known as public choice theory, developed by Tiebout (1956) and extended by Peterson (1981). That is, cities are conceptualized as producers of public goods (services), and residents as consumers in a regional market. Competition among cities in a region for economic benefits results in developmental policies that boost the economy and result in the best tax-to-benefit ratio for residents of the jurisdiction. Redistributive policies, such as housing for the poor, negatively affect this ratio and therefore, are avoided by local policy makers (Basolo, 1999; Downs, 1994; Schneider, 1989). The goal of this study seeks to understand the reasons for the adoption or non-adoption of a motel ordinance in Santa Ana and the seven contiguous cities and the displacement and demographic effects of these policies on the City of Santa Ana. By investigating public records and interviewing city staff about motel ordinances I discovered that some cities shared common circumstances in the context of overcrowded poor populations and not surprisingly the city staff among these cities are faced with an economic and ethical dilemma of affordable housing in which goes unnoticed and is disguised as a health and safety code ordinance and transient occupancy tax issue. These results provide valid support for the public choice theory and presents additional considerations on the process of public policy towards poor populations.
My Avisia Winger

Brian Oglesby  
: Michelle Latiolais
When asked what the play My Avisia Winger is about, I answer, "A man whose wife has an imaginary friend." Because the first spoken line is, "My wife has an imaginary friend," my response reveals little. With this play, based on a short story I wrote years ago, I wanted to write a piece of magical realism, which is a genre that integrates dreamlike or surreal elements into realism. I found that the interpretation of what that means is subjective, though, so I cannot gauge success. The play My Avisia Winger addresses self-contained and social illusions. Society rejects the husband, who in turn isolates himself from all interaction. The setting remains claustrophobic--inside the couple’s household and heads--for the play’s entirety, so the characters only refer to the artificial constructs, but cannot participate. They then in turn create their own constructs within the household. Even as the husband recognizes these as immaterial, he can only further isolate himself by shrinking inward; he cannot recognize his own immaterial creations. The play is an artificial construction, though, and recognizes itself as such. Actors can perform it in almost any venue – black box, found space, theatre in the round, etc.--for most audiences. Each of the three acts has a different format and I encourage the director to experiment with modifying the script. While the play is about an imaginary friend, it is also about experimenting with rules and conventions.  
Increasing Expression of CXCR4 in GHOST cells for Biological and Structural Studies of HIV-1

Hannah Oh  
: David Camerini
HIV-1 enters cells by binding to CD4 receptors on T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The virus needs the help of other coreceptors (chemokine receptors) to fuse with the cell membrane. CXCR4 is one of the main coreceptors used by many isolates of HIV-1 during cell entry. CXCR4 is also the receptor for the chemokine CXCL16. We built retroviral vectors that express the HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 and used them to stably transfect 293GPG cells thereby creating the retroviral vector producer cell line, 293GPG-MFG-CXCR4. We induced production of the vector and concentrated it as well. The vector was then used to create GHOST cell lines, derived from HOS cells, expressing the CXCR4 receptor. After spinfection of GHOST-CXCR4 cells with the vector, they were analyzed for CXCR4 expression using fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies directed to CXCR4. FACSCalibur flow cytometric analysis indicated that the expression of CXCR4 receptor was increased by 20 times the original amount after two consecutive spinfections were performed. The GHOST-CXCR42 cell line will be used for further biological and structural studies of HIV-1.  
Nine Shades of Cool

Zachary Oldham  
: Leslie Ishii
My project was an exploration of how to produce, direct, and act in my own self-written sketch comedy show. I learned that it was much more difficult than I had imagined. Through a lot of work, though, it did turn out well and we had a very supportive audience. I have learned that the most important part of putting a show together is having a team and dividing the chores amongst your team.  
Characterization of nanos in Aedes aegypti

Sedef Onal  
: Anthony James
It is hypothesized that the introduction of a transposable element containing malaria-resistance gene(s) into a mosquito population would result in lower rates of the disease, by increasing the frequency of malaria-resistant mosquitoes in the population. This synthetic transposable element would need to be controlled to prevent mutagenic somatic activity or activity in a non-target species. The nanos gene is a possible donor of the control sequences. Our aim was to characterize the Aedes aegypti nanos gene and to clone its 3’-end untranslated region (3’ UTR) and promoter, which are the known control sequences of the gene. The cDNA sequence of the gene, as well as genomic sequence of about 250 bp downstream of the cDNA was known prior to conducting the experiments. We have amplified the 3’ UTR, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and have successfully cloned it. We also recently have amplified the segment of the genomic DNA containing the promoter for the nanos gene, using inverse PCR, and are presently working on cloning the promoter. We have nearly completed the determination of the genomic DNA sequence. Two introns have been located to date. The Ae. aegypti nanos gene needs to be studied further to reveal any other regulatory mechanisms that may be used in the synthesis of the transposable element.  
Correlates of Drinking Under the Influence of Alcohol in Adolescence: A Secondary Data Analysis of 1992 National Health Behavior Survey

Judson Ostle  
: JoAnn Prause
Research examining adolescent risky behaviors is centered on factors that predict or co-vary with their occurrence. This study has developed a comprehensive demographic profile of adolescents who report driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and has examined the relationship between risk taking behaviors and DUI. This research is based on 6,105 respondents to the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Youth Risk Behavior Supplement who were 16 to 21 years old at the time of interview. A key variable of interest was drinking and driving as measured during the past 30 days: Never, one time, two or three times, and four or more times. The preliminary results show that white males from high socioeconomic status (poverty index, highest level of education of responsible adult, income) were more likely to report multiple incidents of drinking and driving than were non-white males of lower socioeconomic statuses. There were several geographic correlates to driving under the influence including region of residence and metropolitan statistical area of residence. There were multiple bivariate associations between increased occasions of DUI and other risky behaviors such as physical altercations, illicit drug use, early sexual behavior, early age onset of drinking alcohol and tobacco use, other dangerous vehicular activity (seat belt use, passenger with drunk driver), and staying out overnight without parental permission. Analyses are underway to develop a multivariable model to assess the relationship between risky behaviors and DUI adjusting for the various demographic and geographic factors.  
Effects of the Media on New York Society During the Great Depression

Mitra Pai  
: Gary Richardson
During the Great Depression of 1929 to 1939, over 10,000 banks in the United States failed. This was the highest concentration of bank failures in the nation’s history. The American economy’s capacity for growth was exhausted. The purpose of this research is to study the role of the media, one of the most powerful agents in society, on the New York people. The blame of the economic situation was always placed on the Federal Reserve, which is the economic agency in charge of supervising the banking and monetary system of the United States. Although the Federal Reserve was partly in error from taking the route of non-intervention, the media also plays a large role in how the laymen of New York reacted. My study shows the inaccurate portrayal by the media of the nation’s economic state during a period of extreme financial instability. The New York Times was my most used reference to show how society was informed on a day-to-day basis about future expectations. The overly ambitious outlook of the New York Times gets into a deeper study of the owners of this outlet of media and their role in this catastrophe. The media thereby provoked what became the lax spending habits of the people of the city of New York, the financial Mecca of the United States, in a time of economic catastrophe.  
Analysis of the Performance of Novel Truss Lattice Structures

Michelle Palmer  
: Daniel Mumm
Lightweight structures are used in applications that require high fuel efficiency, blast resistance and heat dissipation. One type of lightweight structure is the sandwich panel construction, with attributes that have long been recognized. As compared to a single solid sheet of metal, an equal-weight panel with dense face sheets and a porous core will outperform the solid sheet in terms of bending stiffness (a critical parameter in designing advanced vehicles). In preparing the structures, an alternative processing approach is used where a high temperature, ceramic insulation material (foam) supports the pins at a designed spacing and angle during brazing in a vacuum furnace. This research examines a new class of sandwich structures with cores made of truss networks of small diameter. These cores can perform better in compression and shear at equivalent weight, if the core is designed properly. The benefits of using hollow instead of solid pins are well known, and this knowledge can be applied to the pins in the truss structures. A truss structure made with solid pins will have less resistance to compressive stress than a truss structure made with hollow pins. In light of these properties, the researchers used compressive testing of the truss lattice structures to find the optimal pin diameter while keeping the structures at equivalent weight.  
Britain’s Choice to Keep the Pound

Nicole Pannoni  
: Michelle Garfinkel
Since the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Economic Community (EEC) has evolved from a group of nations tied together by a simple trade agreement into a group of nations, now referred to as the European Union (EU), bound by large scale economic and political arrangements. Member states, which include most of Western Europe, and shortly to spread into Eastern Europe, have agreed to trade freely with members of the EU. However, a new relationship has since developed independently of the treaty establishing the EU. The European Monetary Union (EMU) was created in an attempt to further integrate Europe and establish a trading block with the potential to revive Europe. This evolution has culminated in the establishment of a single currency, known as the Euro, and a single central bank, known as the European Central Bank (ECB). Britain, arguably the strongest European power, chose to opt out of this currency union, precluding it from realizing fully the potential benefits of participation in the European Union (EU). Some have argued that, as the European Union develops, further establishing itself as a major economic force, Britain will have no choice but to join. However, Britain’s unique economic situation, combined with its political culture, make it very unlikely that the country will adopt the Euro. From both a political and economic standpoint, Britain has more closely aligned itself with the United States, and thus the incentives produced by further European integration are not sufficient to tempt Britain to further its ties with continental Europe. Through the alignment of British and American business cycles to the decision of the government to support their American ally in the "War on Terrorism," the British have shown that they do not easily fit in with the rest of Europe.
Options for Secure Connections Over the Internet

Rajiv Patel  
: Tatsuya Suda
The data transmitted throughout a company’s computer network has confidential information. The confidentiality of this information is put at risk when the information is accessed outside of the company’s private network. For example, if an employee wants to access information on the company’s network from home, the information could be intercepted by a third party because the network outside of the company’s private network is not secure. Virtual private networks (VPN), ensure that data transmitted outside of the company’s private network is secure. A virtual tunnel is created between two computers such that only these computers could view the contents in the tunnel. A variety of VPN tunnel protocols are available. The MPLS and IPSec based protocols are the most common tunneling protocols used for VPN deployment, however these protocols are incompatible with each other. This research investigates these two protocols. We compare the utility and the practicality of these two protocols in the deployment of VPNs for private companies. Our investigation shows that MPLS provides less packet overhead on the network than IPSec allowing small network congestion. MPLS does not allow secure network access outside a company unless the access is done through a MPLS router. MPLS routers increase costs in deploying VPN but IPSec does not. IPSec allows remote access to a company’s private network with the use of IPSec client software thus reducing costs of VPN deployment.  
Undocumented Latinos in Higher Education: Barriers and Strategies

Laura Peralta  
: Leo Chavez
The issue of undocumented immigrants is highly controversial. Experts believe that there are presently 9 to 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, most of Latino origin (Census 2000). Every year about 50,000-65,000 undocumented children who have lived in the U.S. for over five years graduate from high school (Urban Institute 2001). These children typically did not make the decision to come to the U.S. nor are they likely to return to their parents’ country of origin. They were raised in this country and for all intents and purposes see themselves as members of this society (Chavez 1998). However, these students face major obstacles in receiving an education beyond high school. Current federal law denies undocumented immigrants in-state tuition and financial aid, preventing a substantial number of talented Latinos from pursuing higher education. Instead of educating this large population so they can contribute to society at a level commensurate with their talents, punitive immigration policies persist. Although undocumented students face barriers, a small percentage is able to complete their university education. The focus of the study is to identify the strategies these students develop to overcome obstacles as they seek a bachelor’s degree. Through interviews I have found that for many students the most important resource is their family because they offer financial assistance as well as emotional support. I believe my research is beneficial to society because it will provide policy makers with valuable information to consider before making decisions regarding undocumented students and their place in our society.  
Crossing Over: Collaborations Between Modern Dance Choreographers and Ballet Companies

Lilly Pinney  
: Mary Corey
The intent of this paper is to explore the collaboration between modern dance choreographers and ballet companies in America over the past 30 years. It seeks to explain how this relationship is possible by examining both the training of ballet dancers and the characteristics of those modern dance choreographers who have been successful in working with ballet companies. Sections of my research focus on the challenges that ballet dancers and modern dance choreographers often face when working together. These issues are discussed using statements made by both modern dance choreographers and ballet dancers regarding their experiences working with each other, and by the dance critics who evaluated their efforts. Modern dance choreographers Merce Cunningham, Mark Morris, and Twyla Tharp are used as a base from which to explore the topic. The information and conclusions that are drawn rely both on my own personal observations of dancers at dance studios in New York City, as well as on scholarly sources and dance reviews from the New York Times. I found little evidence that ballet dancers receive sufficient modern dance training to account for this crossover, but that the dance training, balletic styles, methods and views of modern dance choreographers are important in explaining the success of these collaborations.  
Program and Policy Changes Regarding Mexican-American Hometown Associations’ Influence Towards Mexico

Samantha Pio  
: Louis DeSipio
Mexican American Hometown Associations (HTAs) are groups based in the United States that unite to collect funds or goods for a specific "hometown" in Mexico. HTA clubs collect funds for a variety of different causes ranging from funeral arrangements to road construction to building a clinic. In most other research on HTAs, the focus tends to be on the dynamics of what HTAs are, how they have grown, and their level of influence in the United States (Zabin, 1998). Much of the focus tends to be on how these organizations are managed in the United States. My research focuses on remittances that are orchestrated by the HTAs, on how they get administered once they have reached Mexico, and on the potential effect on governmental policies that result from these transactions. I believe that the experiences and attitudes of representatives of HTAs who have administered funds in Mexico for large-scale projects, can reveal how program and policy issues are shaped. The administration process reveals the dynamics of how HTAs started collaborating with Mexican officials and how this process is affecting policy changes. This information can help elucidate what effects HTAs are having toward governmental policies and programs in Mexico. Information received from committee members of various organizations will reveal the hesitation of collaborating with Mexican officials and the hopeful outlook towards a positive program and policy changes in Mexico regarding the administering of funds in their respective Mexican hometowns. The overall importance of this research is that it will allow us to realize how the Mexican diaspora is shaping Mexico. This can be used as an example of how other diasporas affect their home countries as well.  
Economic and Social Changes Due to the Maquila in Hocaba, Yucatan

Jose Puell  
: Michael Burton
The towns of the henequen zone for years were cultivated by peasant farmers, with few educational opportunities, which were not necessary for their employment, like the residents of Hocaba. With its level of education and the current situation of the countryside, the people of Hocaba were destined to remain in poverty. But things have changed thanks to the maquiladoras that have relocated to Merida. The employment they provide has elevated the way of life, economy and consequently social changes have come about. This project studies the work done in the maquiladoras, ambiance, personal motivations, impact on traditions, social roles, and the economy of Hocaba. These factors are used to study the worker employed in the maquila with the purpose of analyzing the level of life through different perspectives and find if it has improved on not.  
The Role of Satellite Cells During Longitudinal Growth of Skeletal Muscle

James Quach  
: Vincent Caiozzo
Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated and incorporated during muscle fiber growth. These precursor myonuclei are located on the periphery of the muscle fibers. It is known that inactivation of these satellite cells with irradiation can blurt the hypertrophy of radial growth of muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether longitudinal skeletal muscle growth is also dependent upon satellite cell activation. Muscle fibers are multinucleated cells and the nuclear domain concept states that a myonucleus controls the protein content of a certain myofiber volume, and that there is a constant cell volume/myonuclei ratio. For this research project, rats underwent bone lengthening of their tibia by 0.5 mm per day for 32 days. There was a control group (CON) with no distraction, a bone distraction group (DIS), and a bone distraction plus irradiation group (DI). After 32 days the soleus muscles of each group were removed and single muscle fibers were extracted. Activated satellite cells were fluorescently labeled with phalloidin and Hoescht 33258 to measure fiber volume and myonuclear number respectively. The fiber volume to myonuclei ratio was found to be significantly greater in the DI group than the DIS group. This indicates that there are relatively less myonuclei in the DI muscle and that longitudinal muscle growth occurred without the contribution of satellite cells.  
An Evaluation of High School Preparation for Becoming a University Physics Major

Newton Quan  
: Roger McWilliams
How well do current math and physics courses in high school prepare a student to become a university physics major? The path of becoming a physics major begins with introductory physics courses that are expected to be passed. These courses, and their faculty, make assumptions of the level of understanding that these students have of different subjects. These assumptions are made of the students’ expected level of proficiency with algebra, calculus, and trigonometry as well as a basic understanding of the physical world around them, which can be made through everyday observations, such as gravity. Are high schools meeting these expectations? Do high schools even know what these expectations are? The results of local polling done of university faculty, current university students that are enrolled in introductory physics courses, as well as high school math and physics teachers will contribute to a better understanding of how well high school preparation matches the expectations of the university.  
OpenMP Parallelization of a 3D Electromagnetic Simulation

Rita Rabbath  
: Stephen Jenks
Parallel processing promises speed improvements to computationally expensive problems. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of compiler-based automatic and manual (OpenMP) parallelization of a memory-intensive Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method 3D electromagnetic simulation. Manual parallelization of the program was achieved by inserting OpenMP compiler directives into the source code to instruct the compiler which loops to parallelize. The results were compared to the code generated by the compiler's automatic parallel code detection methods. Comparisons were made between the speed of the parallel runs relative to the speed of the single processor run. Results illustrate the synchronization overhead associated with shared data and the limited parallelization achieved by the compiler autoparallelization options in comparison with OpenMP. More importantly, the study demonstrates the detrimental effects the caching architecture of the parallel machine can be to the overall performance of the program. The long-term goal is to combine shared memory parallelism with MPI-based distributed memory parallelism to exploit the capabilities of hybrid cluster computers.  
Computational Analysis of Cancer Growth and Treatment

Razvan Raicu  
: Vittorio Cristini
In these studies we used computer simulations to model cancer invasion and treatment with the ultimate goal of identifying the microphysical parameter space in order to aid the development of a viable treatment strategy. We analyze chemical and biological factors that affect tumor growth and progression in three regimes: (i) The initial avascular growth and onset of necrosis, (ii) neovascularization, and (iii) subsequent growth with dedicated blood supply. Tumor growth and invasion is modeled as a collective set of phenomenological processes. This includes diffusion of nutrient and oxygen from nearby sources, uptake by tumor cells and mitosis of cells based on nutrient concentration, which is balanced by apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis (death due to lack of nutrients). Tumor morphology is further affected by cell-to-cell adhesion and boundary perturbations that may lead to shape instabilities. Of prime importance in this computational study is the treatment cycle. Initially we simulate treatment cycles by modifying apoptosis parameters simulating targeted chemotherapy. In many situations, when this specific treatment is repeatedly performed, tumor fragmentation has resulted. These results coincide with experimental data showing the dual effect of treatment: (i) shrinkage of the tumor body and (ii) the negative effect of making metastases more likely.  

From Confrontation to Retreat: Multiculturalism and Student Organizations

Nic John Ramos  
: Katherine Tate
When student of color organizations first advocated curricular change to include ethnic and racial content in the university canon, their advance on University power represented what Antonio Gramsci refers to as a "war of position" i.e., strategies that seek to extend territory and take space within sites of power (Selections from the Prison Notebooks, 1971). Additionally, the impact of these demands also gave birth to a powerful, yet highly contested term, "Multiculturalism." Subsequently, the subsequent establishment and institutionalization of both Ethnic Studies and student of color organizations within Universities in the years after their founding can be understood as what Gramsci called a, "war of maneuver", or strategies to discuss, defend, and celebrate positions of power. The goal of this study is to explore the affect and institutionalization of student of color organizations, ethnic studies, and the continued use of the word, "multiculturalism", as well as discuss the weight of their political power historically and in contemporary times (Selections from the Prison Notebooks, 1971). This research utilized Pilipino American student organizations and their fight for Pilipino Studies as a case study and model to explain larger phenomena. Student organizations in this research demonstrated the loss of ability to address critical "war of positions" in gaining continued power in the university decision-making process because they were highly pre-occupied in establishing and strengthening programs and services more closely related to "wars of maneuver." The creation of smaller, more issue based organizations explains possible new organizations to take up this call.  
The Use of an Ellipsoidal Basis Function in the Detection and Classification of Underwater Sea Mines

Jerod Rasmussen  
: Roger McWilliams
The threat of underwater sea mines is a major concern for the defense of our nation and the safety of civilians worldwide. We present a technique for the detection and classification of underwater ordinances, necessary for the eventual deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle. Acoustic and electro-optic images are evaluated using an ellipsoidal basis function (EBF). A preprocessor is used to extract feature vectors, and in the classification scenario, to canonicize the extracted feature vectors. The EBF then utilizes an interpolating surface to score extracted feature vectors found within the images. The probability of detection (Pd) and probability of classification (Pc) are measured versus the probability of false identification (Pf), for the detection and classification cases respectively. This measurement is used to quantitatively compare the performance of the traditional matched filter (MF) technique and a human observer to the EBF performance. The results show that the implementation of the EBF outperforms the MF technique and is comparable to that of a human observer.  
Detection of a Cytidine Deaminase-Like Protein in Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Editing Sites

Diana Rave  
: Michael Mulligan
RNA can undergo changes or modifications before it is translated into a functional protein. One modification is known as RNA editing, a co- or post- transcriptional modification of RNA sequence through nucleotide deletion, insertion, or base modifications. Base modification editing of plant RNA has been observed in the mitochondria and the chloroplast. C-to-U editing in mammals is catalyzed by a cytidine deaminase , and this type of enzyme will probably be found in plants. It is very probable that the editing deaminase in RNA editing (mitochondrial and chloroplast) is a modified cytidine deaminase that also contains the zinc-binding motif. Previously in our lab, antibodies were raised against active site peptides of cytidine deaminase. The antibodies that were produced will recognize conserved domains from any cytidine deaminase family member. I propose to use these antibodies to detect cytidine deaminase-like proteins in organelle extracts. We have been able to induce proteins that contain the maltose binding protein and are currently working on the specificity of our antibodies.
Bradykinin Sensitizes Ischemically Sensitive Cardiac Afferents to Histamine

Emilia Ravski  
: John Longhurst & Fu Liang-wu
Myocardial ischemia activates the cardiac afferents, which lead to a reflex response, causing an increased heart rate, hypertension, tackyrrhythmias and pectoral angina. These conditions are modulated by interactions between mediators such as bradikinin (BK), histamine, prostaglandins, and hydroxyl radicals that stimulate and sensitize cardiac afferents. This study focuses on how the interaction between histamine and bradikinin influence cardiac afferent nerve endings. In the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, BK and histamine sensitize afferent nerve endings to histamine and BK, respectively. However, sensitizing affects of BK and histamine on cardiac afferents have not been addressed. In this study, doses of BK and histamine were administered through a catheter into the left atrium of a cat. Activity of ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents, isolated from the sympathetic trunk, was recorded and analyzed. The data shows that BK sensitizes iscemically sensitive cardiac afferents to histamine, whereas histamine does not sensitize ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents to BK. The findings indicate that histamine's mode of sensitization of fibers to BK differs in cardiac, cutaneous and abdominal afferents.  
Comparison of In Vivo Cardiac Function Following Two Methods of Donor Preservation

Jessica Reddy  
: Jeffrey Milliken
Hypothermic ischemic storage of the donor allograft in crystalloid solution is the current clinical standard for cardiac preservation prior to transplantation. This method limits safe myocardial preservation time to four hours and restricts the geographic distance between donor and recipient to within 500 miles. This preservation method prevents full access to the nationwide donor pool. Our laboratory has developed a method of extended cardiac preservation using continuous perfusion with a 20 °C modified bovine polyethylene glycol hemoglobin (PEG-Hb) solution. Preservation of extirpated rabbit hearts for up to 24 hr followed by return of cardiac function in vitro has been obtained. Our present goal is to compare recovered function of heterotopically transplanted hearts preserved by cold ischemic storage in crystalloid solution to that of hearts continuously perfused for 12 hr with a modified PEG-Hb solution. Measurements of heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure, maximum rate of contraction (peak +dP/dt) and maximum rate of relaxation (peak -dP/dt) are obtained and assessed over a 2 hr time period following transplantation. Hearts that undergo a 12 hr preservation period of continuous perfusion with PEG-Hb have return of cardiac function that is at least similar to those hearts preserved using cold ischemic storage of a crystalloid solution.  
Decision Making Processes in Dynamic Environments

Pooja Reddy  
: Scott Brown
Decision-making is a fundamental process of human cognition. Several individual differences exist in the way decisions are made. Most models of decision making agree that, in a static environment, individuals create a decision criterion in order to make their decision; this is the well-established Signal Detection Theory (e.g. Birdsall, 1956; Atkinson, 1963). However, many of our everyday decisions are made in a dynamic environment. When two decision environments vary in accuracy, and the accurate environment has higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates, a strength based mirror effect is said to occur. Mirror effects are important because they shed light on how people set their decision criteria, but their establishment is not understood. The present experiment uses alternating environments of easy and hard decision making settings in the domain of recognition memory of images. A traditional study-set, test-set experimental paradigm was employed, and recognition memory accuracy was measured. The strength based mirror effects that were found can be explained in terms of the repeated shifts in the decision-making criterion setting. The data show slow, systematic changes in decision criterion that lag behind the actual changes in the decision environment. These findings have important implications for models of decision-making.  
Determination and Analysis of Reduced Phosphorous Speciation in Synthetic Creek Water in Varying Environmental Sampling Parameters

Richard Remigio  
: Crist Khachkian & Tina Salmassi
According to scientific literature review, there are relatively few studies conducted on the global biogeochemistry of reduced phosphorus in the phosphorus cycle. The phenomenon of the phosphorus cycle typically assumes phosphates as being the signature source of global phosphorus. However, it is known that reduced phosphorus species exist, both from natural and anthropogenic pools, but not in natural water systems. An environmental survey was conducted in the geothermal pools of Hot Springs, CA to detect reduced species of phosphorus. Preliminary data did offer the possibility of finding these reduced species of phosphorus in creek water. However, sampling proved to be problematic since reduced phosphorus is highly unstable and will convert to phosphate, its oxidized product. In this summer study, the preservation of these reduced phosphorus species (hypophosphite, phosphate) were of interest for the next sampling field site trip. The stability of reduced phosphorus species in synthetic creek water were determined by using environmental sampling parameters in a factorial setup. Temporal (1-3 wk), Material (Plastic, Glass), Temperature (4 °C, 25 °C, 70 °C), and Color (Amber, Clear) were parameters considered that may effect the oxidative states of reduced phosphorus species during field sampling. 100 m M of P(I), 100 m M of P(III), and 100 m M of P(V) were spiked in synthetic creek water and distributed to each respected factored set. Ion Chromatography helped quantify available concentrations of phosphorous from each treated sample. Noise and unresolved readings did not allow any analysis of P(III) . Data from chromatogram readings do suggest that plastic and amber parameters offered the best preservation of hypophosphite.  
Martha Hughes Cannon: An Example of New Womanhood in Utah

Jana Remy  
: Alice Fahs
Martha Hughes Cannon, a nineteenth-century intellectual and activist, was described by a Chicago newspaper as "the brightest exponent of the women's cause in the United States." Cannon is most well known for being the first female state senator in the U.S. She ran as a Democrat and was elected on November 3, 1896. Despite Cannon's fame as a Utah State Senator, she had many achievements under her belt before she ran for public office—she was a medical doctor, ran a nursing school, and became the second female physician at the Deseret Hospital. In my research I will examine Cannon's life as an example of the 'New Woman' that emerged in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Cannon’s experiences are particularly interesting because of her participation in a polygamous marriage. I will explore the factors that led to Cannon’s election and explain the reasons for her political success. In addition, I will examine the contradictions between her choices in the public and private spheres to show how the changing of women’s roles at the end of the nineteenth century opened the public sphere for women, yet many were still caught between traditional social expectations, which complicated their ambitions.
Stories Like a Strange Dark Breeze: Portrayals of John D. Lee in Mountain Meadows Massacre Fiction

Jana Remy  
: Brook Thomas
The Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred in southern Utah on September 11, 1857 when 120 travelers of the Fancher wagon train were brutally murdered by Mormon settlers. My paper will look at a main character in the events of the massacre, John D. Lee, who was eventually convicted and executed for his involvement in the massacre. I will discuss portrayals of Lee in the following novels: The Ferry Woman, Satan's Caravan, The Wine-Dark Sea of Grass, The Fancher Train, Red Water, and The Veil. My analysis of these texts will explore the cultural value placed on acts of violence, as they are re-told in fiction. In particular, Lee's role as a scapegoat to satisfy the needs of community vengeance will be a focus of my analysis. Historian Richard Slotkin's research on the mythology of frontier violence and Rene Girard's theories of mimetic religious violence provide a theoretical framework for my study.  
Internal Migration Patterns Within Mexico

Rosa Rendon  
: Caesar Sereseres
I present a sociological analysis on internal migration patterns within Mexico. Immigration is usually seen as people crossing U.S. borders due to economic difficulties and families seeking a better lifestyle. However, there are many untold stories about the internal migration of people like those that originate from the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca who settle in larger bordered cities for job opportunities like maquiliadoras or agricultural fields. I investigated how and why recent immigrants from the southern states of Mexico like those stated above have settled in the border town of El Testerazo in the area of Tecate. The state’s economic instability and the social networks have a lot to do with the internal migration patterns occurring in Mexico. The central research issue is explaining the migration pattern of southern populations to the north, and the reasons why they are not traveling to the U.S.  
Determinants of Dating Attitudes: A Case Study of Being Christian and Coming from a Divorced Family

Rachel Ridnor  
: Belinda Robnett
Previous research indicates the detrimental nature of coming from a divorced family, examining different aspects of this hotly debated topic. However, unlike other works this study examines a specific cohort, Christians – a group experiencing a stigma from divorce – to empirically isolate specific variables that influence dating attitudes. The research field of this subject lacks a specified analysis on this group, and the existing works on Christians coming from divorced families generally echoes condemnatory rationalizations on the evils of divorce. This research intends to explain how and why Christians of divorced families react in different ways. Overall, in a comparison between males and females in this group four distinct typologies result; a male group and a female group that mistrust romantic relationships as a result of coming from a divorced family and a male group and a female group that have better romantic relationship as a result of coming from a divorced family. Individuals from the male and female groups that mistrust romantic relationships, typically are older at the age of their parents’ divorce and have little to no access to their opposite sex parent. On the other hand, the males and females in the group that have better romantic relationships, typically are younger at the age of their parents’ divorce and have access to the opposite sex parent. This study is done however on a small scale, resulting in the need for future research on this topic on a larger population.  
Identifying Pollutant Sources in Tidally Mixed Systems: Case Study of Fecal Indicator Bacteria from Marinas in Newport Bay, Southern California

Scott Ritter  
: Stanley Grant
The development and implementation of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) management plans requires, at a minimum, the identification of pollution sources likely to be responsible for water quality impairment. In this study we develop a field-based method for quantifying the contribution of specific geographical regions to water quality impairment in tidally mixed systems, such as estuaries, harbors, and tidal saltwater marshes. The method relies on a data analysis technique called Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis widely used in the oceanographic community to interpret complex multi-dimensional data sets. In the case study presented here, we demonstrate that EOF analysis yields quantitative estimates for the relative contribution of two recreational marinas to water quality impairment in Newport Bay, a regionally important embayment in southern California. The analysis indicates that less than 5% of the fecal indicator bacteria signal in Newport Bay can be attributed to sources of fecal indicator bacteria originating inside the two marinas, and hence TMDL management efforts should focus on other sources of pollution. More generally, our methodologies provide a much-needed approach for establishing clean-up priorities in water quality impaired and tidally mixed water bodies.  
Aztec Human Sacrifice

John Roach  
: Steven Topik
The purpose of my UROP project is to explore the Aztec’s use of human sacrifice from 1428 to 1521 when the sacrificial cult increased dramatically in size and scope in Mesoamerica. In fact, the massive scale of human offerings during the Aztec’s 93 years of dominance is unique in the history of man, and for this reason it is necessary to attempt to explain the role that Aztec human sacrifice played in the Aztec’s ideology and empire. Using a combination of written and archaeological data as primary sources, my research has taken me to the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. and to Mexico City, where I analyzed and took photos of the excavation of the Templo Mayor and Aztec art at the Museo Nacional de Antropología. I discovered that human sacrifice was incorporated into the Aztec’s ideology deliberately by the Aztec military leadership to serve concrete and abstract goals; human sacrifice was used in order to create a social hierarchy based on warfare as a basis for expansion, to provoke fear in enemies and potential enemies by the projection of power in mass scale human sacrifices, and to offer debt payment to the Aztec pantheon. Human sacrifice made it possible for the Aztecs to fuse religion and warfare into one belief system.  
The Influence of Religion, Spirituality, and Religiosity on Latina Undergraduate Coping Mechanisms

Tannia Robles  
: Jeanett Castellanos
The purpose of the study is to examine Latinas at a four-year institution and assess the role of religion and coping mechanisms in understanding college adjustment. This study focuses on the interrelationship between religion, religiosity, spirituality, and coping in influencing college adjustment. The study is an emergent design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. 100 UCI Latina undergraduates were surveyed and 6 were interviewed. There is evidence that suggests that religion is used as a coping mechanism in sometimes-stressful situations. Past research also supports the idea that the influence of coping and well-being on college retention.  
Mexican-American Cultural Capital in a Multicultural Context

Edson Rodriguez  
: Samuel Gilmore
Cultural capital literature lacks research on the dynamics of cultures in multicultural contexts. This research is an attempt to address such a vital dimension of contemporary societies. We find that Mexican-American socio-economic elites in Orange County exhibit patterns of cultural consumption that transcend class boundaries, appropriating certain Latino cultural products, and interpreting them as valuable resources. These resources, then, legitimate elites’ social positions within the Latino community and within the general society. Our findings illustrate the complex dynamics that result from the use of cultural products in a multicultural setting; and we challenge traditional class-focused analyses of cultural consumption, emphasizing the need to examine the role that ethnic identity plays in the use of different forms of cultural capital in modern contexts.  
Baseball Cards and Masculinity

EvaMarie Rodriguez  
: Alice Fahs
During the late nineteenth century, a major shift was occurring in the United States. The shift from an agricultural based society to industrial based brought many challenges to the population. The challenges were especially felt by white-middle class males. After the Civil war, men were trying to reestablish their masculinity in new ways. Since the war had ended and the frontier movement closed, man turned to the emergence of team sports, particularly Baseball. Baseball was seen as a gentlemanly sport to exert the masculine fitness of its participants. The fact that the game was played in parks in the suburbs suggests the conquering of a new frontier, the sports frontier. The masculinity of men felt new forces upon it. These forces consisted of the closing of the frontier, the strengthening of the women’s movement, the changing roles of men in the workplace, and the threat of immigrants. Current advertisements in periodicals such as Harper’s Weekly, illustrated these forces upon the white middle-class man’s masculinity. Masculinity during this time was trying to stand up to these forces. With baseball, players filled a new role in society--not quite heroes but the beginnings of being baseball stars. They were gentlemen, yet the most enduring artifact from this era, baseball cards, were given out by tobacco companies in cigarette packages. The baseball card collection studied for this project is the Old Judge Collection, 1888-1890, with over 350 cards. The research for this project suggests the figures on these baseball cards reflected the definition of masculinity seen in other visual arts contemporary of that time. Not every card was a portrait of a face, each card holding its own sense of masculinity through actions and stances of the baseball players. By studying painting from the 1890s, parallels can be seen when looking at both the painting and respective baseball cards side by side. Baseball cards of the 1890s were more than advertisements for tobacco products. They were a reflection of the redefinition of masculinity during the 1890s.  
Methylation Patterns in the LCR Region of HPV-16 and HPV-31 Cervical Samples

Leticia Rojas  
: Mina Kalantari
Cervical cancer is highly associated with infection of certain types of Human Papillomaviruses (HPV). Human Papillomaviruses are a sexually transmitted disease. Over 90% of cervical cancers have been found to progress from those HPVs that are particularly "high-risk". Included in these "high-risk" HPVs are HPV-16 and HPV-31, which is what this project has worked on thus far. This lab researches the methylation patterns of HPV type positive cervical samples. Previous studies have shown that methylation of HPV genomes, at cytosine residues, may suppress the progression of lesions and the development of cancer. The general goal is to sequence high-risk HPV genomes and to establish a consistent pattern of methylation and correlation with cancer development. We are investigating if there is a correlation between the methylation pattern of the HPV genome and cervical carcinogenesis. The project begins with the extraction of DNA from cervical tissue samples, which are then modified by bisulfite modification. Then the products are amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. The sequences are then analyzed for methylated and unmethylated sites. We have found that there is a correlation between methylated sites and the progression of cancer. Samples that progress to cancer do not show many methylated sites on the genome. Conversely, those, which are normal samples, do show several methylated sites, indicating to some extent that methylation may be an inhibitor to the progression of cancer. However, further sequencing must be done on more samples for a more concrete conclusion.  
Formal Specifications Based Testing

Jose Romero-Mariona  
: Debra Richardson
The use of mathematical notations to describe in a precise way the properties of an information system is often referred to as formal specifications in the Software Engineering field. The concept of formal specifications is older than 35 years, but the initiative on how to test them is younger than 10 years old; this is a relatively new field of research. Most of the software development in the software industry is currently done through specifying systems informally. This informal specification lacks a mathematical basis, and uses a natural language instead. The problem is that these natural languages reflect multiple deficiencies for specifying a system correctly. For example, natural languages can be ambiguous, imprecise, incomplete, etc. all of these deficiencies are then reflected in the software produced. The most appropriate way to battle these deficiencies is by employing formal specifications instead of informal ones. The goal of this research project is to be able to create a definite framework that will enable us to compare and evaluate different formal specifications as well as different testing techniques, and then reaffirm and support the best approaches found, by assembling a set of guidelines on how to correctly test formal specifications.  
Becoming a Broadway Idol - How a Small Town California Girl Can Transform Into a Broadway Star

Margaret Rottman-Hipps  
: Myrona Delaney
Acting is a highly competitive profession for all of those who choose the field, but it is most competitive for females because of the sheer number of participants. New York City has, arguably, the highest standard of theatre in the world, thus the highest expectations for their performer and the highest level of competition among actors. By traveling to New York and interviewing female performers at varied levels of success I was able to discover similarities in their backgrounds, performance techniques and level of dedication and hard work. I discovered many secrets of success in the business of acting. In order to get cast well in this field, it is important to be able to distinguish oneself from the other thousands of female performers. Shoshana Bean, ensemble member of Hairspray says, "Know what’s unique about you and capitalize on it." By interviewing these women and emulating their performance techniques, I was able to bridge the gap between my knowing the path and walking the path. These interviews will help future graduates achieve their aspirations of Broadway success.  
Motivation: What Students Want to Learn and How

Helene Rybol  
: Adam Matthew Ormond
At the threshold of the twenty first century, modern American society is facing many changes in public school education. With increasing globalization, immigration and global consciousness steadily grow. In face of these changes, it is necessary to ask if traditional public education is still appropriate for today’s youth. Traditional education is based on a teacher-centered curriculum, rather than a student-centered one. Orlich (2001) reports several increasing motivational problems encountered in students in a traditional school environment. These include insufficient activity for students, negative teacher and student attitudes, and apathy. They are closely linked to instructional, procedural and disruptive problems. To help identify the source of the problem, a survey was conducted among elementary school children to find out what subjects they are interested in and what teaching methods they respond best to. The results of this study show that children attach great importance to their education. Unfortunately, sometimes they cannot make the connection between what they learn and what happens outside of school. To boost student motivation, innovative teaching methods need to be implemented to create a link between what children learn in the classroom and what they experience in real life.  
The Effects of Functional Group Position and Carbon Number on Activity Patterns Evoked by Alcohols in the Rat Olfactory Bulb

Sepideh Saber  
: Michael Leon
The olfactory bulb is an organ in the brain that senses and processes odors. Even at very low concentrations, the olfactory system is able to distinguish among a virtually infinite number of chemical compounds. In order to understand how odorants with very similar molecular structures can be encoded in the rat brain, rats were exposed to a series of seven-carbon alcohols with varying hydroxyl group positions in a first study, and to homologous series of primary and secondary five-carbon to eight-carbon alcohols in a second and third study. The response patterns were studied by mapping the [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Each of the four heptanol isomers was found to evoke unique patterns of activity in the glomerular layer, with the responses to 2-heptanol, 3-heptanol, and 4-heptanol being more similar to each other than to the 1-heptanol-evoked response. These results support the prediction that each odorant is recognized by a unique combination of olfactory receptors (Johnson et al., 1998). In both primary and secondary alcohol chain length studies, a chemotopic representation of the odorants could be observed since each odorant-evoked pattern was mostly similar to the pattern of the odorant with one more or one fewer carbon. These findings support the hypothesis that neighboring receptors recognize parts or features that are adjacent to each other within the odorant molecule (Johnson and Leon, 2000).  
Activation of the Steroid Xenobiotic Receptor by Vitamin E Tocotrienol Isoforms Leads to Selective Target Gene Expression

Asal Sadatrafiei  
: Bruce Blumberg
It has been recognized for decades that vitamin supplements affect drug metabolism, including vitamin E. Vitamin E exists in eight isoforms: a -, b -, g -, d -tocopherol and a -, b -, g -, d -tocotrienol. All the isoforms of vitamin E are initially metabolized by w -oxidation, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). The cytochrome P450 family of isoenzymes is one of the major groups of drug metabolizing enzymes and is regulated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR. It is shown here that the four tocotrienols, but not tocopherols, specifically bind and activate SXR. Surprisingly, tocotrienols show tissue-specific induction of SXR target genes; in primary hepatocytes, tocotrienols are able to up-regulate expression of CYP3A4, but not UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) or multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR1) genes, whereas tocotrienols induce MDR1 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4 expression in intestinal LS180 cells. These findings provide a molecular mechanism explaining why vitamin supplements affect the absorption and effectiveness of drugs. Knowledge of drug-nutrient interactions may help reduce the incidence of decreased drug efficacy.  
Is Neuronatin mRNA Dendritically Localized in Hippocampal Neurons?

Judy Samattasribootr  
: Kelsey Martin
Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of neurons to alter the strength of their connections, and has been shown to occur in a synapse-specific fashion. Alterations in synaptic strength occur during late stages of brain development and in response to a variety of stimuli in the adult brain, including injury, drug abuse, and learning and memory. Although short-term forms of plasticity involve post-translational modifications of existing proteins, changes in gene expression are necessary for long-lasting effects. One question that arises is how plasticity can occur in a spatially restricted manner, where certain synapses can be altered while surrounding synapses on the same cell are unchanged. The dendritic localization of polyribosomes and translational machinery suggests that local translation of mRNAs at the synapse may play a role in synapse-specific forms of plasticity. To identify the population of mRNAs that are localized at the synapse, a preparation of cultured rat hippocampal neurons was developed in which neuronal processes could be mechanically separated from cell bodies. This preparation was used as the starting material for a microarray analysis. The analysis identified a number of candidate transcripts that may be dendritically localized. To confirm the localization of the candidate genes, a series of in situ hybridizations were performed both in cultured neurons and in cryostat sections of the brain. One of the identified genes, neuronatin-a , was shown to be localized to distal dendrites in cultured neurons. In the adult brain, neuronatin appears to be exclusively expressed in the cell bodies and dendrites of CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus as well as cells in the periventricular zones. Future studies are necessary to determine the function of neuronatin and its possible role in synaptic plasticity.   
Remittance flows from the United States to Mexico

Nancy Sanchez  
: Caesar Sereseres
There is a mean of 12 billion dollars per year that is sent to Mexico from immigrants that live in the United States. The majority of money is sent between families, but other money is donated by non-profit organizations. My research focused on one non-profit organization, "Club Nayarit". I investigated the social and economic impact that remittances and primarily Club Nayarit has on a town that is located in the state of Nayarit, Mexico. I conducted interviews with 1) Government officials: The Governor, Mayor, and ex-officials, 2) The town’s citizens, 3) Members of Club Nayarit, and 4) Banks & Cash Exchange booths. The interviews with government officials gave me essential information about the 3 for 1 program that was established by President Fox, which was established to bring together Federal, the State and U.S Non-profit organizations. In addition, from interviewing and investigating banks I concluded an estimated flow of $20,000 to $30,000 per day per bank. This money is sent by immigrants and non-profit organizations into one of the five banks in the town, as well as an estimated $10,000 to $12,000 dollars that is exchanged daily in one of the four cash exchange booths. My findings of the impact and the flow of money of Nayarit is just one of hundreds of towns and cities that receive remittances from the United States. My research highlights how these donations/remittances have affected this particular town.  
An Imperial Consequence: The British role in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Gabriel Santana  
: Carolyn Boyd
The Palestinian and Israeli conflict is a consequence of the end of the imperial age. Under the British Mandate and following the Balfour declaration, the Jewish people began to immigrate into Palestine by the thousands. Many Jews came from Eastern Europe, where they were persecuted. Under the mandate, the British were to maintain order and protect the rights of the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. With the backing of the British, the Zionists began to promote and establish themselves in large numbers in Palestine. This study focuses on the role played by the World Zionist Organization and the British government on their policies and relations to the Arab Palestinians. What role did these bodies have in laying the foundation of the ongoing conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis? Had the League of Nations not granted the British mandate over Palestine, would the Zionists still promote a Jewish State in Palestine? Because the British did not maintain order in Palestine and allowed the Jews to establish themselves on Arab land, the Palestinians felt threatened by the "invasion" of the Jews, which led the Arabs from becoming hostile toward the Jews causing the on-going conflict between both groups.  
The Effects of Overexpressing Candidate Quiescence Factors on B-Cell Proliferation

Pratibha Sareen  
: David Fruman
B-cells are one of the two major types of lymphocytes that play a key role in our immune system. B-cells circulate in the bloodstream in a resting state and undergo rapid proliferation after encountering antigens. It is necessary to gain a better understanding of the processes controlling the cell cycle of B-cells, since mutations can lead to uncontrolled proliferation giving rise to lymphomas. In our project, we are concerned with genes that negatively regulate B-cell proliferation by promoting the resting state of the B-cell. Recent studies reveal that the transcription factor KLF2 (lung Krüppel-like factor) is able to promote quiescence in T-cells, the other major type of lymphocyte. We believe that KLF4 (gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor), a transcription factor homologous to KLF2, may serve a similar function in B-cells. In a microarray study, we observed downregulation of KLF4 upon B-cell stimulation. Overexpression of KLF4 in primary proliferating B-cells led to death and cell cycle arrest. Based on these observations, KLF4 appears to be a good candidate to promote quiescence in B-cells. In order to further study the role of KLF4, we want to develop a Tet-off B-cell line, which will allow us to overexpress the gene in a controlled manner and observe its effects on B-cells. Furthermore, we identified a potential phosphorylation site on the KLF4 sequence, which may be the target of kinases involved in cell signaling. Currently we are attempting to mutate the phosphorylation site to determine whether it plays a significant role in the regulation of KLF4 activity.  
A Multi-Modality Non-Invasive Approach to Oral Malignancy

Ani Sarkissian  
: Petra Wilder-Smith
Patient cure and survival of cancer depends on the level of the cancer at diagnosis. Early detection increases the odds of the patient’s long-term survival due to the need for minimally invasive treatment. The project’s long-term goal is to develop a non-invasive real-time clinical capability for early detection, diagnosis, monitoring of pre-malignant and malignant oral lesions. A tar based carcinogen, DMBA (9,10 dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene), was applied to the hamsters’ right cheek pouch, mineral oil applied to the left cheek pouch served as the control. In vivo imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) were performed prior to sacrifice, cryosectioning and routine, semiquantitative histopathological evaluation. OCT, MPM and histopathological images were diagnosed by two blinded, prestandardized investigators on a scale of 0-6. High resolution in vivo optical coherence topography (OCT) was able to map dysplasia- and malignancy- related epithelial and sub epithelial morphological and structural change. MPM imaged changes in tissue collagen/elastin fibers, and cellular and vascular presence. The correlation between OCT and histopathology was 0.976. The correlation between MPM and histopathology was 0.986. For OCT, sensitivity was 0.95 (SE=0.049), specificity was 0.98 (SE=0.020). For MPM, sensitivity was 0.95 (SE=0.049) specificity was 0.98 (SE=0.020). OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG show great potential for the in vivo detection, diagnosis and monitoring of oral dysplasia and malignancy. Rapid, screening of high-risk populations is also envisaged. A novel approach to understanding the processes involved in dysplasia and malignancy becomes possible using these non-invasive, real-time modalities.  
Thyroid Hormone Directly Regulates Cholesterol-7-Alpha-Hydroxylase (CYP7A1) Gene Expression Through a Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binding Site in the CYP7A1 Promoter

Saro Saroyan  
: Timothy Osborne
The inverse relationship between serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels and serum cholesterol levels has been known for over 70 years, but a clear mechanism behind this relationship has not been established. Our study investigated the role of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A), the key enzyme involved in converting cholesterol into bile acid, in the link between thyroid hormone and cholesterol levels. CYP7A1 expression is low in models of hypothyroidism and it is reactivated when hypothyroidism is reversed by the addition of TH. Serum cholesterol levels are also elevated during hypothyroidism and are also reversed when TH is added back. Cholesterol is converted into bile acids exclusively in the liver, which are then excreted by the body. Because CYP7A1 levels are reduced by hypothyroidism we hypothesized that its gene was a direct target for regulation by the thyroid hormone dependent nuclear receptor (TR). To study this hypothesis, we performed transfection studies using various CYP7A1 promoter constructs to (1) evaluate whether the CYP7A1 promoter was directly activated by TH and TR and if so (2) to determine where the TR responsive region is located in the CYP7A1 promoter. Our transfection data shows that CYP7A1 is directly activated by TH and TR, and that there is/are a TR responsive region(s) between 2998 and 3132 base pairs upstream of the CYP7A +1 transcription start site.  
Money & Representation: The Culture of Language and Exchange

Brett Schmitt  
: Bill Maurer
Money rests efficiency in the linguistic characters that endorse its reality and its ability to establish value and acceptability. Coins, specifically, hold much of their power in the cultural construction of so-called "valuable metals" [specie]. What is so intriguing about coins of specie is that they work in such a way as to be validated not merely by metallic content but by the substantiality of the word of issuing authorities. Using a dialectic argument, and branching off of what Marc Shell calls a "knotty conception," this project seeks to understand the power of representation and monetary exchange as elucidated in the example of coins and tokens (1982:151). What unfolds in the course of this research is a fine-line balance between the modern tautological, philosophical, historical, and above all, anthropological studies of money, especially when applied to the struggling economic environment of nineteenth century North America.  
Freeway Opposition in California: The Case of Beverly Hills and Beyond

Jason Schultz  
: Jon Wiener
Freeways are an integral part of the Southern California landscape, yet their construction entailed significant disruption to Southland communities. In examining the never-built Beverly Hills Freeway, I found that economics, especially as reflected in the relative affluence of affected residents, powerfully shaped freeway system form. Citizen objections to freeway construction practices coincided with rising belief in ambiguously defined "community values" to slow the ambitious freeway program in Southern California. Even in the golden age for freeway construction, opposition arose and sometimes triumphed; Beverly Hills is a case-in-point, with heated debate taking place in 1964 and cancellation coming in the mid-1970s. Within Beverly Hills, freeway opposition alternately claimed the city deserved special privilege and denied that the city was asking for anything unique. Insistence on a tunneled freeway through Beverly Hills heavily contributed to its cancellation. There was contention within the city, too: between lower-income residents south of Santa Monica Boulevard and wealthier residents further north over potential routes. Southern residents of the city felt Beverly Hills’ official position endorsing the Santa Monica route was another instance of the City Council catering to the wishes of its wealthier clientele. The construction of the Century Freeway and continued contention over extending the Long Beach Freeway through South Pasadena demonstrate that the freeway right-of-way selection process still induces intense conflict despite close scrutiny and substantive changes to policies made in the 1960s. The dependence of the Los Angeles area on the automobile makes this issue one of peculiar regional cultural significance.  
The Modulation of Inflammation by Gonadal Steroids in the Cerebral Vasculature

Mariam Seddiqi  
: Sue Duckles & Diana Krause
Recently, there has been a focus on stroke incidence and gender differences. Pre-menopausal women have a lower risk of stroke than men. However, these gender differences disappear after clinical menopause. Activation of inflammatory pathways contributes to the pathophysiology of stroke. We hypothesize that the gonadal hormones, estrogen and testosterone, modulate the development of inflammation in the cerebral vasculature. Specifically, estrogen will decrease, while testosterone will increase, the expression of two markers of vascular inflammation: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). First, we determined the time course of expression of these inflammatory markers in male rat brain vessels after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin. Western blot analysis demonstrated the peak induction of both COX-2 and iNOS occurred at 6 hr post-LPS injection in male rat cerebral vessels. To investigate the effects of estrogen or testosterone on vascular inflammation, four groups of male rats were used, intact, orchiectomized (ORX), estrogen treated (ORX+E), and testosterone treated (ORX+T). COX-2 and iNOS expression were induced by LPS in cerebral arteries from intact and ORX rats. However, the induction of both inflammatory markers was noticeably suppressed in ORX+E. In contrast, there was a significant amplification in LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS levels in ORX+T. Thus, it is likely that the effects of gonadal hormones on cerebral vascular inflammation may contribute to the well-known gender differences in stroke incidence.  
Vastu Shastra: An Intersection of Hindu Metaphysics and Design

Vasant Sharma  
: Sanjoy Mazumdar
Vastu Shastra (Vastu) is essentially a collection of ancient design principles pertaining to the creation of built space, with origins in Hindu culture, and said to be effective in achieving harmony and balance between man and his environment (or a more harmonious person-environment fit, from the standpoint of environmental psychology) through the built form. Part of this paper is an introduction to the history and scope of Vastu Shastra, which is based on a survey of various sources on the subject. Some dominant Vastu architectural and spatial design principles, based on considerable agreement from diverse sources (Indian and Western), are presented. In addition, an attempt is made to illustrate the interrelationship between these design principles and the metaphysical beliefs and cultural assumptions they are based upon. As Vastu Shastra forms a key cultural determinant of built form to the Hindu people and reflects a philosophy of indigenous design, a working understanding of some of its key principles and their metaphysical foundation is indispensable in this post-industrial age; the prevalence of modern, functional housing design has resulted in the acute neglect of the role of traditional belief and cultural practice in the design of space for human habitation and use. This neglect of indigenous cultural knowledge and tradition in architectural and spatial design "can lead to the dismantling and eventual decline of a group’s distinctive cultural ethos, values and identity" (Mazumdar), by imposing standardized design (often meaning westernized) that is completely bereft of the philosophies, traditions, and beliefs of indigenous people. It is hoped that this study is a step towards reversing this trend.  
Computer Simulations of Amplitude Equations

Owen Shaw  
: Michael Dennin
Amplitude equations are used in the analysis of complex fluids. They work as substitutes for the full hydrodynamics equations because they are easier to simulate and still contain the major features of the dynamics. Typically amplitude equations are used in systems that make transitions from a uniform state to a pattern. The amplitude and phase of the resulting pattern are described by the equations. Computer simulations can produce expected results quickly, which allows for rapid testing of a broad range of initial conditions. Furthermore, the use of pseudospectral code, a combination of Fourier Transform and real space analysis, can increase the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation.
"Do What Pleases You": An Emblematic Account of the Dangers of Erotic Verse in Tasso’s Aminta

Alana Shilling  
: Jane Newman
Reaching the height of their popularity in the 16th and 17th centuries, the emblem genre is largely overlooked today. This genre, which has often been dismissed as a mere ‘curiosity’, juxtaposes an image with a verse in order to express a concept. The emblem thus relies on comparison. That is, the image and verse are not simply variations of an identical claim. Instead, their very juxtaposition implies a specific and novel thought. The emblem theorist Giovio imagined that the image formed the emblem’s attractive and absorbing "body," while the accompanying verse constituted the emblem’s "soul." The Giovian formulation was quite popular, and the poet Torquato Tasso wrote a treatise on the subject. In this analysis, the central problem of Tasso’s pastoral drama the Aminta is formulated as one of emblematic completion. The Aminta is an idyllic pastoral confection in which morality is noticeably absent. The hedonistic tendencies of the drama set the pastoral at odds with Tasso’s other works, most notably the Jerusalem Delivered, a stern and often moralizing epic. While erotic verse figures prominently in both texts, the Aminta allegorizes the Sirenic dangers of the pastoral tradition and figurative language precisely through their absence. Put in emblematic terms, Tasso’s pastoral drama presents the danger of erotic verse, the ‘body’ of the text, unaccompanied by a moralizing ‘soul,’ rejecting any implied necessity of linking such hedonism with moral redemption.
Reconfigurable Supercapacitor System: A Dynamic Power Delivery System

Farhan Simjee  
: Pai Chou
With the increasing popularity of wireless sensor networks, unpredictable power generation through wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems limits its functionality. The most common way of extending operational lifetime is to use more energy-efficient components. Our methodology takes an alternative, orthogonal approach by extracting more usable energy out of the same power source. We accomplish this by means of a novel, reconfigurable power source that enables a set of supercapacitors to be composed in series, parallel, or individually depending on the charge state and power demand over time. By scheduling the supercapacitor’s topology between series, parallel, and switching configurations, it provides better efficiency during charging/discharging, significantly higher peak currents for short-term power bursts, and vital backup power to perform critical activities. At the same time, controlling the current flowing through the components will create optimal power generation through load matching. Finding the optimal current and adjusting system currents to it with current limiter circuitry is one possible implementation. Our initial results show this has the potential of extending power efficiency by 20%.  
Melody Recognition as a Function of Electrode Number in Cochlear Implant Users

Sonya Singh  
: Fan-Gang Zeng
Cochlear implants improve the hearing of individuals suffering from severe hearing loss by utilizing a microphone, a transmitting coil, a speech processor, and an electrode array surgically placed in the cochlea. Previous studies have manipulated the number of activated electrodes to determine how many electrodes were contributing to the improvement of consonant and vowel recognition. Considering that cochlear implant users have more difficulty recognizing melodies than vowels or consonants, I initially hypothesized that more electrodes would have to be activated to improve melody recognition than the 4-7 that were necessary to improve vowel and consonant recognition. I utilized WinDPS software from Cochlear to create six different testing conditions, each with a different number of activated electrodes. These testing conditions included activation of 20, 10, 7, 4, 2, or 1 electrode(s). Subjects were given a melody recognition test under each of the testing conditions. Instead of the characteristic plateau in performance observed after 4-7 electrodes had been activated for vowel and consonant recognition, a very different pattern was observed for melody recognition. The poorest performances were observed between 7-10 electrodes along with peak performances in the 1-4 range and with 20 electrodes. This pattern may reflect the relative contribution of temporal and place cues to pitch perception at low and high frequencies. The application of these results may contribute to improvements in the design of future cochlear implants.  
Flamenco: A Study of Classical Technique and Choreography

Ann Smith  
: Lisa Naugle
Flamenco is prevalently performed in southern Spain, but also around the world. Originally a social dance containing Moorish and Middle Eastern influences, the dance became a stage art in the late 19th century. In 1866, the first public flamenco dance was performed in Seville in a cafes cantantes. Much of the technique and repertoire of flamenco was codified during this era, known as "the golden age of flamenco." However, it is the creative individuals rather than schools that are responsible for how flamenco has evolved as a theatrical dance. In the past 25 years, a more contemporary style of flamenco has emerged from fusion of ballet, jazz and modern dance techniques. During the summer of 2003 I had an opportunity to study flamenco at Fazil Studio, Ballet Hispanico, and the Ailey school in New York City. This amazing experience allowed me to expand my understanding and love for this style of dance as well as improve my performance technique. It also allowed me to bring back to the UCI Spanish Dance Ensemble the many flavors of this style. Members of the ensemble will demonstrate some basic flamenco exercises, highlighting use of the arms and torso, and the zapateado (footwork). Accompanied by a live flamenco guitarist, Hideki Natstumaya, they will perform Seviallanas, a social dance still performed at flamenco parties today. I will then perform a Colombiana, in a style influenced by my studies this summer.  
Methods for Improving Energy-Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks

Kristina Smith  
: Tatsuya Suda & Ariffin Yahaya
Wireless sensor networks are networks of small computers that can be scattered over an area and are capable of sensing changes in the environment around them. Because these sensors are intended to collect data over long periods of time, they constantly need to be supplied with energy. There are two main ways to alleviate this problem: the sensor can generate its own energy over time, or it can conserve its energy. This paper describes several of the algorithmic solutions to the problem of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks that have recently been proposed, specifically focusing on STEM, GAF, and SPAN. It compares these different approaches, listing advantages and disadvantages of each, and distinguishes between the algorithms that focus on limiting the power consumption at the node level and those that look at the network as a whole. The goal is not to rate these algorithms, but merely to present an overview of them so that the reader may understand and be able to utilize these methods in implementing energy-efficient wireless sensor networks.  
Cultural Perceptions of Breast Cancer Risk Among Vietnamese Women

Sondhaya Sritongsook  
: Mei Zhan
According to Deborah Lupton everyone is a part of a ‘risk society’ with the obsession over what could harm us, or will harm us. Cultural anthropologists notion of ‘cultural/symbolic’ risk explains how people "establish and maintain conceptual boundaries between self and other, with a particular interest in how the human body is used symbolically and metaphorically in discourses and practices around risk." (Lupton, 1999) The different cultural groups have their own denotation of what kinds of risk are detrimental to them, and this notion will allow me to research how immigrant Vietnamese women and Vietnamese American women express the context of risk in different localities. Cultural perceptions of breast cancer risk factors could possibly influence getting screened for cancer in the United States. Therefore, comparing the view of risk factors for the second-generation Vietnamese women to the view the immigrant Vietnamese women through cohort analysis, I believe is an effective way of gathering changing views of breast cancer risk. If this is the case, the breast cancer mortality rate could be linked to the knowledge immigrant women have about breast cancer, which is less than those who are born in the United States.  

Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of Calretinin

Christopher Stapleton  
: Brian Edmonds & Hartmut Luecke
Calretinin (CR) is a member of a large family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and resides mainly in the cytosol of sensory neurons of the visual and auditory systems. Calretinin is known to regulate Ca2+ signaling at sites of neurotransmitter release; however, it may also function as a Ca2+-dependent activator of intracellular signaling proteins. In order to facilitate investigation into CR’s function, the focus of my project is to determine the atomic resolution structure of CR in both the apo- and Ca2+-bound forms. CR was first expressed using standard transformation and expression methods. I purified recombinant His-tagged CR with an affinity column and purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The purified protein was concentrated and crystallization set-ups were made using commercial crystallization kits. Crystal growth was observed in a variety of conditions and recent X-ray analysis confirms the presence of protein crystals.  
The Lost Stories of the Vietnam War

Kathryn Sundell  
: Charles Wheeler
For Americans, Vietnam represents conflict. Rather than recognized as a nation of people or a history-rich country, Vietnam refers to a period of war and unrest in American history. These interpretations focus on the American conflict in Vietnam, completely ignoring the fact that America played a small role in a country that had been battling foreign aggressors for 2,000 years. To gain a fuller understanding of the war in Vietnam, it is important to understand it from the Vietnamese outlook. A collection of oral histories from Vietnamese individuals allows listeners to develop a perspective of the war that differs from the common American depiction. Stories of people who were uprooted and fled to begin new lives in America offer a perspective filled with a complexity greater than the usual American perception of a conflict between doves and hawks. Each person had a different story to tell. The storytellers' thoughts and opinions about the conflict directly correlate to both the location and cultural background of the individual, as well the events each experienced. These histories illustrate a picture of a population of people forced to leave their homes to find new lives in another country; the very country that was at the center of the conflict. The stories demonstrate the way in which individuals' flights to America and subsequent life in the United States has formed their opinions on the conflict in Vietnam, the country of Vietnam (past and present), and the United States.  
Monitoring Mammary Tumor Composition Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy

Vaya Tanamai  
: Bruce Tromberg
Breast tissue is mainly composed of blood, lipid, and water. Using a technique known as diffuse optics, the approximate percent composition of the breast can be determined. This piece explains the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) as a breast scanning technique. In scanning the breast, it is believed that changes in tissue composition is indicative of a lesion within the breast that could either be benign, such as a fibroadenoma, or malignant (cancerous). Whereas the normal tissue composition contains high lipid content, a tumor is mainly water, so increased water readings are indicative of a tumor in the breast. It is also thought that a tumor’s size is proportional to the blood vessel density. The total hemoglobin concentration (THC), which can be determined though DOS, is a measurement of blood content; therefore, THC can be correlated to vessel density. In this study, we attempt to verify such a correlation between tumor size and THC through an animal model. A mammary adenocarcinoma A3230 was induced in the hindquarter of Fischer-344 rats and was monitored using DOS until the tumor reached 2 cm in diameter. Correlation between tumor size and tissue composition were seen in 10 subjects.
UCI Commuting Behavior

Irene Tang  
: Marlon Boarnet
This is a study of the commuting behavior of students at UCI. Previous travel research focuses on the behavior of the traditional nine-to-five, home-to-work commuter. This study focuses on the unique travel behavior of the college student, whose behaviors differ for a variety of reasons, including their schedule, and for some, the close proximity of their living location to campus. Interviews were conducted, and those findings were developed into a survey that was then distributed to UCI students. The survey was designed to assess student travel patterns and student opinions concerning their transportation options. Preliminary results show that students regularly have a complex schedule, requiring them to be on campus during "off-hours" and travel to campus several times per day. Most students who live in the "East Campus" housing complexes, less than two miles from campus, use University-provided shuttles as their primary mode of transportation. A smaller portion of "East Campus" students walk; results indicate that time and distance are factors that deter most students from walking. The most popular secondary mode is driving, and "East Campus" residents drive to "Main Campus" at least once per week, despite the fact that they feel driving (and subsequent parking) is expensive and inconvenient. The results of this study will grant greater insight into the needs of UCI students. Furthermore, it is an opportunity to study the choices and opinions of a group that lives in close proximity to their destination.  
Handoff in Mobile Wireless Network

Xue Teng  
: Tatsuya Suda & Ariffin Yahaya
Wireless networks are divided into cells, the mobile node may not receive application traffic when it travels from one cell to another, and the process of reconnecting is called handoff. Therefore, an efficient handoff management is the key issue to provide global roaming services to mobile users among different network architectures. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) allows a Mobile Node to talk directly to its peers while retaining the ability to move around and change the currently used IP address. In order to make Mobile IP perform flawlessly and efficiently, five issues are essential to be solved: i) Discovering agents, ii) Registering addresses with agents, iii) Authentication, iv) Tunneling, and v) Performance. As a result, various mechanisms that operate either above the IP layer or on the IP layer have been proposed and the latter solution concludes to be a more suitable design because of its simplicity. This project is a survey of illustrating and comparing the methods proposed for layer2 and layer3 operations.  
This Little Light of Mine

Valerie Terrell  
: Barry Siegel
On August 12, 1965, Marquette and Ronald Frye were pulled over for drunk driving. The confrontation that ensued between the African-American community and the arresting officers sparked four nights of fiery rebellion that would become known as the Watts Riots. On November 2, 1965, a Quaker man named Norman Morrison packed up his eleven-month-old daughter and a can of kerosene, drove to the Pentagon, and set himself on fire outside the office of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. His dramatic act of self-immolation shaped the debate over the Vietnam conflict. On December 22, 1965, Pete Seeger, legendary folk singer, stood in front of a crowded audience with his acoustic guitar and sang the Negro spiritual, "This Little Light of Mine." This song became a rallying cry of protest and rebellion in these incendiary times. Though the stories of the Fryes, Norman Morrison, and Pete Seeger are disparate and the connections between them are tangential at best, they all reveal something important about the nature of dissent in all people. By weaving together these stories and invoking the stories of the cultural, social, and intellectual icons who influenced them and us all, the end product will be a compelling piece of historical journalism that helps us understand ourselves and realize our potentialities.  
Differences in the Amount of HIV Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Due to Fc Receptor Polymorphism

Maria Tokuyama  
: Donald Forthal
Decrease in HIV replication have been shown to occur in monocyte-derived macrophages when stimulated with immobilized human IgG(1). However, other studies have shown that Fc receptor polymorphism in accordance with the different subtypes of IgG give rise to a more specific response which depend on the Fc receptor polymorphism and IgG of specific subtype(2). In the experiments performed, we have synthesized a synthetic immune complex(ICSYN) consisting of goat anti-human F(ab’)2 and human IgG, which was used to stimulate NK cells to measure the difference in chemokine relsease. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages were stimulated with this synthetic immune complex and infected with HIV to see the differences in the amount of HIV replication in donor cells of various Fc receptor polymorphism. So far, the synthetic immune complex seems to stimulate cells from different donors differently, indicating that there are differences in the stimulation of the Fc receptor depending on the genotype of the Fc receptor polymorphism. The results of these experiments can be extended to other diseases such as autoimmune diseases and cancer, where antibody treatments may react differently depending on the person’s Fc receptor polymorphism genotype; or in case of autoimmune diseases, some people may be more susceptible in contracting the disease than others due to this phenomenon.  
d 13C of Soil Organic Carbon in Thailand Forest and Cropland

Exequiel Tostado  
: Stanley Tyler
The concentration of CO2 has increased dramatically in the last 200 years reflecting the increase in global agriculture and industrial development (Farquhar et al., 2001). Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas that will play a crucial role in climate changes around the world in coming years. Carbon is distributed among the atmosphere, oceans, and land (geosphere and biosphere) and moves between these reservoirs as a result of direct man-made emissions (e.g., fossil fuels, biomass burning, land-use change) and naturally occurring phenomena (e.g., photosynthesis and respiration, rock weathering, erosion). Land use change will have a critical role as it can either decrease (e.g. reforestation) or increase (e.g. forest converted to pasture and agriculture) CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Changing the land structure through deforestation for agricultural practices to keep pace with the increasing demand to feed an increasing world population is altering the carbon content of the soil. The goal of this project is to better quantify the carbon content in soils in various regions of Thailand and to observe changes in the carbon stored in them along with changes in land use. Variations in carbon-13 help us to track these changes because the carbon isotope ratio in forests (woody plants) can be different from either grasses or certain agricultural crops. Thailand is an important place to study because it is a tropical region that lies along the equator where vast tropical forest with high carbon content is rapidly being converted to farms and fields. (Malhi and Grace, 2000). Samples from Thailand will be analyzed for their carbon isotope ratios of organic matter at various depths in the soil. The carbon isotope ratio will be used to study the changing sources of organic carbon in the soil, the turnover time for these soils to reflect new carbon sources, and the isotope ratio of soil respired CO2, parameters which are useful in answering questions about carbon sequestration and CO2 flux in and out of soils.  
Screening HCV Specific Peptides for Potential Use as Diagnostic Markers for Disease Progression

An Tran  
: Martina Berger
The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has caused major epidemics worldwide. To date there have been approximately 170 million people infected with HCV. These viral infections can lead to life threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and cancer. However, some patients can withstand the virus infection and prevent disease progression. Such individuals are important targets to investigate the correlation between the humoral immune response and virus control. It has been demonstrated that the immune response to certain virus antigens may be stronger in different patient groups. The variability of clinical outcomes after HCV infections provides the opportunity to study the kinetics of antibody response to individual epitopes (not whole or dissected part of proteins) during the course of viral disease. Phage-displayed random peptide libraries are a new and modern technique, which can be used to surveyed peptides reacting with antibodies in HCV viremia controller or acute infected HCV patients. By modifying this technique and coupling it with an immuno-screening approach we were able to isolated 175 different peptides in various disease states of HCV infected individuals. At the present time the value of these peptides has not been determined. If these peptides can be used as diagnostic marker to predict disease outcome in HCV infected patients or are usable as a part of a vaccine or treatment needs further investigation.  
The (Re)Invention of the Medical Spectacle

Chris Tran  
: Nanette Fornabai
The medical spectacle and the display of medicine first originated as a means for doctors and other medical educators to educate one another. The display of medicine first appeared in the forms of illustrations in medical books in the 1700s. At first the display of medicine was used to educate, but by the late 1800s the display of medicine had evolved into something more. By the end of the 1800s the most popular modes of medical display were the Dime Museum, also known as Freak Shows. Although the first emergence of the medical display was for the purpose of education, the purpose of the Dime Museum was for entertainment. During the turn of the 21st century another form of the medical spectacle began to evolve. Unlike previous medical spectacles, the modern medical spectacle and display of medicine are done both for education as well as for the sake of creating a spectacle for visual pleasure. Only by understanding the intricacies of the relationships within the medical spectacle can we understand the visual appeal of the medical spectacle.  
Growth Kinetics and Differentiation Potential of Adipocyte Derived Stem Cells

Daniel Tran  
: Gregory Evans
Adipocyte derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to emulate human bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells (bone marrow "stem" cells) as well as embryonic stem cells. It is known that stem cells have the unlimited potential to differentiate their cell type, therefore the potential of having an "unlimited" supply of stem cells would allow for the treatment of millions of people with peripheral nerve injuries. ADSCs are produced from human processed lipoaspirate (PLA) cells that are isolated from various adipocyte sources, the main source being the adipoctye waste from liposuction procedures. Through this study the neural differentiation potential of ADSCs and the optimal conditions for the induction of neurons and/or glial cells will be tested through the use of multiple different induction medias, which have been tested with some success in other laboratories, as well as varying induction conditions, i.e., variation in protocol surrounding cell treatment. Optimal conditions will be judged based upon the morphologic and morphogenetic changes as well as through the use of polymerase chain reaction to test for target cell specific genes.  
Effects of Food Storage and Handling on Blow Fly Eggs and Larvae

Marie Tran  
: Ronald Sherman
Phaenicia sericata
is an anthrophilic fly, commonly known as the greenbottle fly. Greenbottle flies are attracted to fresh carcasses and rotting flesh. Thus food sources can easily be contaminated with fly eggs and larvae. This project evaluates the survival of P. sericata eggs and larvae exposed to various food storage and handling conditions. Fly eggs and larvae were exposed to refrigeration, freezing, and various methods of heating. Egg and larval survival with each exposure were calculated to determine the minimum duration required to kill 50% (LD50), 90% (LD90), and 99% (LD99). Increasing exposure to food processing conditions led to increasing fatality. Current community standards of food processing and storage meet or exceed the exposure required to kill all fly eggs and maggots.  
Estrogen Modifies Cerebral Vascular Inflammation

Minh Tran  
: Sue Duckles & Diana Krause
Estrogen reduces cerebral injury in animal models of stroke; however, the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Since the cerebral vasculature is an important site of cellular inflammation following ischemia, we investigated whether estrogen treatment modifies this process. Two groups of rats were compared: ovariectomized females (OVX) and OVX treated with estrogen (OVX+ E), s.c. implant, 3 weeks. After euthanasia, brain vessels were isolated by dextran gradient centrifugation, and levels of proteins quantitated by Western blot. For the first model of inflammation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected s.c., and animals sacrificed 1 to 9 hr later. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were both increased in cerebral vessels. Peak enzyme levels were seen 6 hr after LPS injection. Animals exposed to chronic estrogen showed significantly attenuated cerebrovascular inflammatory responses compared to OVX. For the second model, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in collaboration with Dr. Patricia Hurn at Oregon Health Sciences University. The two cerebral hemispheres were separately frozen and sent to us for analysis. There was an increase in COX-2 in blood vessels from the stroked hemisphere. Furthermore, prior estrogen exposure significantly suppressed vascular COX-2 induction on the stroked side. Thus, exposure to estrogen substantially modulates the cerebrovascular inflammatory response; this may contribute to the well-known ability of estrogen to attenuate ischemic brain injury.
Understanding the Role of DnudC, a Gene Required for Drosophila Oogenesis

Nancy Tran  
: Rahul Warrior
is a 38.5-kDa protein that is ubiquitously expressed throughout the Drosophila life cycle. It is believed that DnudC regulates DLis1, a gene required for correct nuclear positioning and migration in Drosophila. Lis1, the human homolog of DLis1, causes the disorder Lissencephaly. Mutations in Lis1 result in defects in neuronal migration and patterning of the cerebral cortex. Children suffering from Lissencephaly are often severely developmentally disabled and die prematurely. Several studies have utilized Drosophila as a model to study Lissencephaly through DLis1. Since DnudC interacts with DLis1, it is important to understand the role and function of DnudC. In my study, I analyzed how reduced levels of DnudC affect oogenesis. Homozygous DnudC mutants are lethal, but I was able to rescue these flies by providing them with a pulse of DnudC expression through a DnudC transgene with a temperature-inducible promoter. Heat shock of the mutants activates transcription of DnudC, rescuing the mutants. To study DnudC-deficient oogenesis, ovaries from the rescued mutants were dissected and stained. Several aspects of oogenesis were analyzed: nuclear positioning and migration, actin and microtubule organization, and oocyte specification. I found that a reduction in DnudC activity greatly disrupts oogenesis. Abnormal numbers of germline cells indicate cell proliferation is affected. A significant amount of egg chambers exhibit oocytes that have failed to maintain growth and are positioned incorrectly in the cell. All egg chambers are severely reduced in size and die prematurely. These findings suggest DnudC is required for several fundamental aspects of Drosophila cellular behavior and development.  
Mapping the Core Promoter Element of UOL Gene Encoded by Herpes Simplex Virus

Phu Tran  
: Guey-Chuen Perng
The amount of a gene expression is dependent upon the activity of its promoter. The activity of a promoter is regulated tightly and in a specific manner and involves a multitude of factors. In order to understand the regulations of gene expression, dissecting a key promoter element is a necessary step. The goal of my research is to fine map the core active region of the UOL gene promoter in neuronal derived cells. To achieve the mapping of core promoter for UOL gene, we scan the promoter region and designed three sets of specific PCR primer. The overlapped PCR fragments are 650, 760, and 1000 base pairs (bp), respectively. The PCR products were digested with HindIII and MluI, and ligated to a promoterless reporter vector, pGL3, which was digested with the same restriction enzymes. The ligation mixtures were then transformed into E. coli competent cells. The transformed competent cell mixtures were plated on ampicillin resistant plates and incubated overnight. The visible colonies were picked the next day and grew in 10 mL LB Broth containing 50 ìg of ampicillin overnight. The plasmids were isolated with Miniprep procedure, digested with HindIII and MluI, ran on agarose gel, and photographed. I obtained the 650 bp cloned into pGL3 plasmid and currently continued to clone the 760 and 1000 bp fragments. I will perform transfection assays to assess the Luciferase activity of the 650 pGL3 clone while continue to clone 760 and 1000 bp into pGL3 Basic vector.  
Specificity of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuron Cell Growth on Hippocampal Formation

Irene Tsai  
: Richard Robertson
Neurons communicate by sending axons to synapse with dendrites of target neurons. The cell-to-cell interactions of neurons in the brain form the basis of establishing connections in the nervous system. However, the exact mechanism of how synaptic connections are formed is still not fully understood. In order to study this mechanism, our laboratory studies basal forebrain cholinergic neuron projections to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as our model system. Our laboratory has developed a technique in which basal forebrain neurons are dissociated and "seeded" onto cultured slices of hippocampus. Past experiments have shown that cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain do form a specific pattern in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether non-cholinergic neurons also form a specific pattern or whether they display a random distribution. We use BrdU, a cell birthdate marker, which labels cholinergic as well as non-cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. To carry out the experiment, we cut organotypic slices from P6-8 rat pups and sprinkle dissociated basal forebrain onto them. Then, we visualize the cells using BrdU immunocytochemistry. Preliminary results have shown that BrdU labeled cells form a random array rather than a specific pattern. Because the cholinergic neurons are less than 10% of all the total neurons, we may not be able to easily detect their specific pattern within the random pattern of all neurons. Future experiments could involve staining only non-cholinergic neurons to verify if they do indeed grow in a random array.
Post Operation Iraqi Freedom Turkish-American Relations: Can Damaged Ties Be Mended?

Beril Unver  
: Patrick M. Morgan
This past spring the U.S. declared war on Iraq, which shares a border with Turkey, without aid from its longtime ally. This resulted in a damaging of ties between Turkey and the U.S. and the immediate speculation by the media, in both countries, of the end of the alliance. In my thesis I discuss the blossoming and shaping of Turkish-American relations over the past 50 years through events such as the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Cyprus crises and two Iraq wars. I argue that Turkey and America need to reevaluate the strategic importance of maintaining ties. For example, Turkey is a bulwark of the West in the volatile region of the Middle East, while the United States is a major supporter of Turkey’s membership in the European Union. My research has shows that claims that Turkey’s allegiance to the United States diminished during the interim period of Operation Desert Storm (1991) to Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003) are unfounded. The contexts in which each occurred were quite different. The opposition of the U.N. Security Council and the majority of the world to intervention in Iraq affected Turkey’s decision. The loss of revenue due to the 1991 war, PKK terrorism in its Southeastern region launched from the vacuum of Northern Iraq, and dangling of EU membership in front of its eyes also aided Turkey’s settling on a neutral position this past spring.  
The Physics Behind Prosthetics and Joint Replacement, and Their Current and Future Trends

Shardul Varma  
: Roger McWilliams
How does physics play a role in prosthetics and in joint replacement such as the knee? Using the physics and biomechanics of a leg, and more specifically the knee, we will see how this information is translated and applied to a biomechanical prosthetic or joint. We will explore the history and possible future advances in joint replacement for the millions of people seeking treatment from accidents such as sports, or basic wear and tear.  
Ethical and Social Constraints Facing Immigrants from Mainland China and France

Tida Vasinamakin  
: Mei Zhan
Birth control pills and the IUD are some of the birth control methods that liberate women throughout the world; however in China it is enslaving them, while in France it is depriving them of free choice. While providing efficient means of avoiding unwanted pregnancies, these methods place women and their bodies under the control of the political sphere. The women’s bodies have been made to bear the burden of contraception, abortion, and childbearing, as well as the harmful effects on their health and well being. It seems as though the female body is seen as a social body in social relations and a cultural context. The focus of my research is to analyze the social construction of fertility control and family planning, and show their relationship with the control of the female body through fertility and reproduction in terms of various conceptualizations, views, and approaches facing immigrants from China and France in the United States. I will also describe how structures of masculinity and political domination are embodied in the one-child policy system of China and the identities of women through their role of motherhood in France. My analysis offers insight into how the constriction of contraceptive use policies provide unique circumstances where women question the pervasiveness of the structures of authority, and particularly how women themselves contribute to the embodiment of this supremacy to their own subjugation.  
Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Genes: A Novel Interacting Protein With The DNA Mismatch Repair Gene PMS2

Jonathan Velasquez  
: Steven Lipkin
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), the most common known genetic cancer susceptibility syndrome. We are investigating protein interactions between the DNA MMR protein PMS2 and Clone PMS2-Interactor 1 to explain the dominant negative (DN) mechanism of DNA MMR failure. The N-terminus of PMS2 is known to react with other proteins, and expression of the truncated N-terminus of PMS2 exhibits a dominant negative phenotype and microsatellite instability (MSI). Mutated PMS2 does not inhibit initial steps of MMR but interacts with and inhibits a downstream component of the MMR pathway. We hypothesize that the clone construct interacts with and is inhibited by DN-mutated PMS2 resulting in increased levels of MSI and loss of DNA MMR function. We cloned Clone PMS2-Interactor 1 through its interaction in the yeast two hybrid cloning assay with the N-terminus of PMS2, and it is known to confer DN-MSI. Our initial study focused on Northern analysis of the 3’ untranslated mRNA of Clone PMS2-Interactor 1, demonstrating wide expression of PMS2-Interactor 1 mRNA in mammalian tissues, predominantly in the testes and liver. We also focused on expressing PMS2-Interactor 1 protein in bacteria and the development of reactive antisera for Western analysis. Preliminary data and results show successful expression, and western analysis of the antisera against the construct in bacteria demonstrates reactivity against both GST and PMS2-Interactor 1. Our continued investigation using our developed antisera in immuno-precipitation assays and western analysis with different mice tissue will characterize the tissues in which the protein is expressed. Cell cultures with a PMS2-Interactor 1 and green fluorescent binding protein construct will hopefully elucidate PMS2-Intercator 1 localization within cells.  
Techniques for Improved Pulse Shape for Particle Detection

Mark Villamor  
: John LaRue & Richard Nelson
The Coulter counter is a technique for particle counting based on the resistance change that occurs when a particle in an electrically conducting fluid passes through a small opening or a channel. The pulse shape resulting from particle detection in Coulter Counters is highly variable. The variation in pulse shape results from the different flow paths of the particle relative to the electrodes. This limits the information that can be extracted from the waveform, such as the particle’s size and shape. Incorporating a new electrode configuration and hydrodynamic focusing of the particle flow can reduce this variability. The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate a microfluidic device that can successfully count and estimate particles with a diameter ranging from 5-10 microns. This is accomplished with the design of a symmetric electrode structure, hydrodynamic focusing, and an improved input coupling. The symmetric electrode structure reduces the variability of the generated pulse and hydrodynamic focusing centers the particles down the length of the channel. Both increase the symmetry of particle placement with respect to the electrodes, resulting in a more spatially uniform electric field distribution.  

Heterostylous Breeding Systems: Effects of Incompatibility Modification on the Frequency of the Mid Morph

Athena Vuong  
: Ann Sakai & Stephen Weller
Hermaphroditic plants have evolved various kinds of breeding systems to prevent the deleterious effects of self-fertilization. Outcrossing is promoted in heterostylous breeding systems by the presence of two or three self-incompatible floral morphs. The evolution of distyly from tristyly has been well documented. This study explored the importance of incompatibility modification in the evolution of distyly in Oxalis alpina. Incompatibility modification refers to the breakdown of incompatibility relationships typical of a tristylous breeding system. Usually, only crosses between anthers and stigmas at the same floral level lead to high seed set. Preliminary studies on tristylous populations of O. alpina from the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona provide evidence for incompatibility modification. To determine the generality of results obtained in the Chiricahua Mountains, field surveys and controlled crossing programs were extended to other tristylous populations of O. alpina. Additionally, the relationship of incompatibility modification to the frequency of the mid morph was investigated to determine whether the mid morph is less common in populations with highly modified self-incompatibility. As in earlier studies, incompatibility in the Chiricahua Mountains was highly modified. The breeding patterns in populations from Sierra de San Jose and Sierra la Purica are similar to those of the Chiricahua Mountains, but are not as extensively modified. Loss of the mid morph is common in populations from the Chiricahua Mountains, where incompatibility modification is most extensive. In other areas mid morphs typically occur at higher frequencies, except in Sierra la Purica where mid morphs occur at a frequency of 10%.  
Personality and Motivation

Abigail Wald  
: Virginia Mann
The relationship between motivation and personality has been studied frequently. Previous research indicates that people who are more extrinsically motivated have lower self-esteem. Furthermore, studies have shown that people who are more intrinsically motivated tend to be more extraverted. However, there is little research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in academic settings. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the personality factors of self-esteem and introversion/extraversion and academically oriented intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. One hundred and sixty-four participants filled out a packet containing a demographic sheet and three questionnaires, one for each of the variables. The data will be run through statistical analysis within the next weeks, with the hopes of obtaining results similar to those mentioned above.  
DBR1 RNAi Suppression of HIV-1 Replication Indicates RNA Lariat Intermediate Formation and Debranching During HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

Helen Wang  
: David Camerini
Eukaryotic long terminal repeat (LTR) transposons such as Ty1 in yeast are mobile DNA elements that have reproductive cycles analogous to that of HIV and other retroviruses. Recent research has demonstrated that an RNA lariat is an intermediate in Ty1 replication. The lariat facilitates minus-strand RNA transfer by formation of a 2’ – 5’ phosphodiester bond between the 5’ end of Ty1 genomic RNA and the first nucleotide of the 3’ LTR R region. Lariat formation places newly made reverse transcript in the vicinity of the R region of the 3’ RNA template end, thereby eliminating the need for the transcript to de-anneal from the 5’ end of the genome and re-anneal to the 3’ end during reverse transcription as previously hypothesized. Normal levels of Ty1 transposition and cDNA formation require the cellular 2’ – 5’ phosphodiesterase, RNA lariat de-branching enzyme (Dbr1), to resolve this lariat intermediate in cDNA synthesis. To determine whether this novel mechanism applies to HIV-1 minus strand transfer, DBR1 enzymatic activity was down-regulated using RNA interference (RNAi), a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism. Three short interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting DBR1 were introduced separately or together into GHOST-R5X4 cells followed by HIV-1 infection. DBR1 mRNA suppression was assayed by RT-PCR and viral replication was assessed by measuring GFP expression with a flow cytometer and by p24-ELISA. Preliminary data show significant reductions in both DBR1 mRNA and HIV-1 replication. Suppression of HIV-1 replication by down-regulation of DBR1 implicates the involvement of RNA lariat formation and DBR1 mediated de-branching in reverse transcription.  
Effects of Gender on Competitive Stress Reactivity

Kandace Whiting  
: Larry Jamner
The degree to which men and women differ in behavioral aspects of hostility has received little attention in empirical research. Though women are often thought of as less aggressive than men, gender differences in aggression may result from a male prototype. From an evolutionary prospective, it is reasonable to postulate that nature evolved gendered coping mechanisms to the sympathetic and hormonal responses of stress, resulting in men aggressing overtly and women aggressing covertly. To empirically demonstrate the relationship between gender and overt and covert exhibitions of aggression, a data set was used to examine aggressive behavior as a function of gender and dispositional hostility. Exploratory analysis found aggressive behavior to be a function of gender, cynical hostility, and the type of retaliatory response; suggesting women differ in their behavioral manifestations of aggression. In order to further explain these differences, the present study examines the effect of the gender of the target of aggression on the interaction between gender and aggression. Using a modified Buss-aggression task, the intensity and duration of retaliatory responses of 20 men and 20 women will be collected under two different target gender conditions. Similar to the results yielded in the exploratory analysis, women are expected to exert longer, less intense blasts than men. In accordance to the proposed evolutionary explanation for gender differences in aggression, women are expected to aggress more overtly when the target is another woman, while relying on more covert forms of aggression when the target of aggression is a man.  
The Role of Cerebral Ganglion Modulatory Neurons in Learning and Memory in Aplysia

Nimalee Wickremasinghe  
: Thomas Carew
The marine mollusk Aplysia shows several forms of non-associative learning, like sensitization, a generalized increase in responsiveness following noxious stimuli. Memory for sensitization is reflected by an increase in several defensive reflexes, including the tail-induced siphon withdrawal reflex (T-SWR), through which the animal retracts its siphon in response to tactile stimulation of the tail. Sensitization of this reflex is typically induced by a noxious stimulus such as tail shock. Considerable evidence supports the view that the neural circuit underlying T-SWR is modulated by extrinsic factors, like the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), that serve at least in part to increase transmission between tail sensory neurons (SN) and motor neurons (MN). We tested the hypothesis that 5-HT released in the T-SWR circuit originates from neurons located in the cerebral ganglion. We performed surgery to cut one of the bilateral nerves between the cerebral ganglion and the ganglia containing the T-SWR circuit, thus allowing the circuit to remain intact, yet preventing the release of neuromodulatory signals from the cerebral ganglion. Immunohistochemistry revealed that serotonergic fibers were still present in the cut side up to 2 months after surgery. However, chronoamperometric detection showed a marked decrease in 5-HT release on the nerve-cut side compared to the control side. These data suggest that a significant proportion of the 5-HT released into the T-SWR circuit during sensitization training originates from the cerebral ganglion. Further studies will examine the effects of this lesion on SN-MN synaptic plasticity and memory.
The Complete Process of Playwriting

Jennifer Wilcoxson  
: Stephen Barker
The process of playwriting, from conception to production, is a step-by-step process. First, one must read up on familiar works of various genres, easily attainable to a drama major. But also, one must write plays and find a healthy constructive environment to do so, [this being a playwriting class and workshop] where all works are original and feedback is honest. I have taken two such classes at UCI with David McDonald. Next, one must find a mentor to seek guidance and assistance if need be, this being achieved by the intellectual advisory of Professor Stephen Barker. Research on the subjects involved and avid reading on the process are of great use and bring light into foreign territory. Application for a Drama 198 workshop is a must, for with that you have full commitment by all involved and are held by contract. To produce a play or sequence of plays [or your own work for that matter], you take on the responsibility of scheduling auditions, meetings with mentors and directors, final drafts, rehearsal schedules, and performance dates. This I have done, and will bring my production into fruition in June.
Gene Expression in the Drosophila Telomere

Patrick Williams  
: Harald Biessmann
Telomeres are believed to be heterochromatic and therefore they inhibit gene expression. D. melanogaster’s telomeres are maintained by replicating retrotransposons found in the telomeres. By analyzing P-elements containing the white and yellow genes that had inserted into different regions of the genome, we noticed differential expression; by cloning out the regions surrounding the P-element, we verified how far a P-element’s white gene could be from a silencing Telomeric Associated Sequence (TAS) and how this reflected on the fly’s eye color. The EY1387 strain’s P-element was at least 22kb from the silencing TAS and the eyes did not show inhibition of the white gene. Therefore, telomeres are not inherently silencing since retrotransposons can be transcribed, as seen through the expression of the white gene.  
Determination of Chondrocyte Viability Following Nd:YAG (l = 1.32 mm) Laser Irradiation

Ryan Wright  
: Brian Wong
Cartilage plays a unique role in the human body because of its ability to provide structural support for overlying soft tissue. Autologous cartilage grafts can be used to bolster, or provide a structural framework for tissue that has been modified by oncologic surgery, trauma, or congenital malformation. One method to reshape cartilage for use in reconstructive procedures involves laser irradiation. The clinical feasibility of this process depends upon preservation of chondrocyte viability. The purpose of this project was to determine the viability of laser-irradiated cartilage using a differential fluorescence assay system. Ex-vivo rabbit nasal septal cartilages were harvested and irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser (l = 1.32 mm) for times varying from 6-16 sec and for power settings of 4-6 watts. After the irradiation, the cartilage samples were placed in the fluorescence assay solution. A cyanine dye which fluoresces in the green spectra binds to the DNA of viable chondrocytes, while a ethidium homodimer-2 dye (red-fluorescence) attaches to the DNA of chondrocytes with compromised cell membrane integrity. When imaging the cartilage samples with a laser scanning confocal microscope, living chondrocytes fluoresce green and dead chondrocytes fluoresce red. Cartilage specimens irradiated for longer periods of time and at higher power settings had a greater population of dead (red) cells. Longer irradiation times also resulted in a sharper demarcation between live and dead cells. The viability data will provide support for a set of laser parameters that produce maximal shape change with minimal tissue injury.  
In vivo
Response of Cartilage to Laser Reshaping in the New Zealand White Rabbit

Ryan Wright  
: Brian Wong
Laser cartilage reshaping is of clinical interest due to its potential applications in reconstructive surgery in the head, neck, and upper airway. A unique feature of cartilage is its ability to resist deformation and maintain a stable shape while simultaneously providing structural support for overlying soft tissue. Yet there have been few studies that have examined the behavior of laser irradiated cartilage in vivo. The purpose of this experiment is to describe laser reshaped cartilage in an in vivo model. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (3.5 - 4.0 kg) underwent submucous resection of the nasal septum a surgical procedure under anesthesia. A segment of septal cartilage was removed from each rabbit and cut into two equal sized slabs (5 x 15 mm); one used as a control, while the other was reshaped using a Nd:YAG laser (l = 1.32 m m, 25 W/cm2). The cartilage specimens were irradiated at power settings of 4-6 watts with times of 4-16 sec. After irradiation, both pieces of cartilage (control and laser treated) were then washed in antibiotic solution, and then implanted into a subperichondrial pocket behind the rabbit’s pinna at the base. Approximately six months following surgery, the animals will be euthanized. The cartilage samples will be removed and analyzed using conventional histology as well as confocal microscopy. The cartilage specimens irradiated at higher power settings likely will retain a greater degree of shape change while those specimens irradiated at lower power settings may have reverted to their native shape.  
Exercise Regulates Endothelin Receptors in the Rodent Hippocampus

Cinda Wu  
: Carl Cotman
Endothelin-1 is a vasoactive peptide that recognizes endothelin receptor type A (ETRA) and endothelin receptor type B (ETRB). Stimulation of ETRA causes local capillary contraction while stimulation of ETRB causes local capillary dilation in the rat hippocampus. Exercise was shown to have protective effects against neuronal damage that could be due to the regulation of ETRA and ETRB. Using the western blot technique, which analyzes the total protein amount in a sample, we observed the effects of exercise on the amount of ETRA and ETRB in the rat hippocampus after 2 weeks of exercise. There was no significant difference of ETRB observed in exercising rats compared to sedentary rats, but there was a significant decrease of ETRA observed in exercising rats. A reduction in ETRA suggests that exercise may have protective effects against ischemia-inducing agents or increased amounts of endothelin agonists in the hippocampus by lessening the degree of capillary contraction.  
Suicide, Identity, and Acculturation: A Study of a Social Problem Within The Hmong Community

Machiline Xiong  
: Paul Jesilow
A string of eight suicides by Hmong teenagers in Fresno, California, between 1998 and 2001, resulted in considerable consternation within the media and the community. This paper focuses on determining why the Hmong suicides became a social problem. That is, why did the media and Hmong community leaders focus so much attention on these suicides? In-depth interviews with Hmong community members and media sources were conducted to ascertain the basis for why and how the suicides were elevated to the status of a social problem. Spector and Kitsuse’s (1973) Four-Stage Natural History Model was used as a framework from which to examine how the string of events surrounding the suicides transformed them into a social problem in need of societal response. The interviews indicated that the suicides were used by Hmong community leaders and the media to facilitate the acculturation of the Hmong into mainstream culture. Hmong community leaders were forced to confront various mainstream issues, including higher education, biculturalism, and access to Western resources. Mainstream society leaders were obligated to find viable methods of incorporating and communicating with the Hmong and other immigrant communities. The data revealed the existence of relationships between the suicides and: the media and Hmong community perceptions and responses to the suicides; Hmong identity formation; and, accelerated Hmong acculturation.  
Perceptual Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy May Improve Following Temporal Lobectomy

Elizabeth Yanni  
: Arthur Grant
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy in adults, is a good model for studying the effect of a single seizure focus on cognitive function. There is growing evidence that a seizure focus can impair brain function in between seizures, in the "interictal" state. This study examined auditory and tactile perception in 20 patients with TLE and 25 neurologically normal controls. In addition, some TLE patients were tested before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Subjects performed two tactile tasks (grating orientation discrimination and grating groove width discrimination) and one auditory task (brief tone pitch discrimination). TLE patients performed significantly worse than controls on the grating orientation task, and at all three tone durations (10, 100, and 200 millisec) on the brief tone pitch discrimination task. The performance difference between subjects and controls was significantly higher for the 10-millisecond than for the 100-millisecond tone duration. With unlimited time per trial on the groove width discrimination task TLE subjects performed as well as controls, but performance was impaired when trial time was limited. Postoperatively, TLE patients had improved performance on the grating orientation task. These results suggest that a temporal lobe seizure focus causes interictal dysfunction of distributed cortical networks, and that removal of this seizure focus may lead to normalization of cerebral function.  
Toward Computer Games that Help People Form Positive Relationships

Man Lok Yau  
: Bonnie Nardi & Bill Tomlinson
Researchers have shown correlations between aggression in video games and aggression in real life (Funk et al., 2002). The purpose of the research presented here is to explore another side of this phenomenon. It involves designing and implementing a computer game that helps people to form positive relationships. In this game, two players control avatars that interact in the same virtual world together. There are two variants of this game. The objective of the first variant is to encourage the players to spend most of their time interacting near each other, in the second variant, to encourage them to spend less time with each other. The rationale is that the relationship formed in the virtual world will extends to real life, a phenomenon known as social facilitation (Heyes and Galef, 1996). We plan to carry out experiments using this implementation during the Spring 2004 quarter. In these experiments, we will measure the relationships people form by administering questionnaires to test the level of affinity, commitment and attention that exists between them (Nardi, submitted to Journal of CSCW). We predict that people will form better relationships if they spend more time with each other in the virtual world than the people who spend less time interacting with each other. The findings in this research can verify the impact of the positive aspects of computer games on people who play them. It may encourage more game developers to release computer games that can help people to form positive relationships in an industry that is saturated with violence.  
Development of Metal Micro-Springs

Jonathan Yee  
: John LaRue & Richard Nelson
Electronic technology is constantly decreasing in size. Integrated circuit technology and micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) are reaching sub-micron dimensions. Micro-springs have widespread application in MEMS from sensors to switches. This study attempts to characterize mechanical properties of such springs. Fabrication processes were first determined. The aluminum cantilever beams are fabricated using current integrated circuit processes. A group of beams are tested together, with a gravitational force pulling the free (non-anchored) end of the beams. A design is used that applies a tensile stress to the beams and minimizes bending moments and torque. A centered gravitational force is applied. The applied force is the product of the gravitational acceleration constant and attached mass. Displacement is to be found using the change in a diffraction pattern of a laser directed at diffraction grating that is located along the free end of the beam to be strained and broken. Measurement of force needed to break the beams, as well as its stress-strain relationship (elastic modulus), will soon be gathered. The measured result will be compared with known values for the bulk (large volume or non-MEMS) material. This data assesses aluminum beam applications within the current uses of micro-sized beams. The design and testing approach can be used to evaluate additional materials for use for in micro-springs.  
HCN mRNA Expression in the Hippocampus

Amy Yeh  
: Tallie Z. Baram
Hyperpolarization activated channels (HCNs) are expressed in the developing hippocampus. Previous work from this lab has shown that prolonged experimental early life seizures, that is, abnormal intense activity, resulted in an increase in HCN2 mRNA and reduced HCN1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus, one week after seizures (Brewster et al., 2002). In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the HCN channels here we focus on studying how early the alteration on HCN1 & HCN2 mRNA expression occurs. We used semi-quantitative in situ hybridization (ISH) with antisense probes for HCN1 and HCN2 channels on frozen brain sections. The brain sections are from rats, 24 hr after seizures. ISH one day after seizures showed no alteration on HCN gene expression. Abnormal intense activity did not alter HCN expression 24 hr after the induction of prolonged experimental early life seizures.  
Characterization of Tumor Line Expression of a Novel Tumor Antigen: Rat Mammary Tumor-1

Jekwon Yeh  
: Edward Nelson
It has become increasingly apparent that anti-tumor immunotherapy will need to target multiple antigens to be effective. Current work has been targeted towards only RatNeu tumor antigen in a rat mammary tumor system. I sought to characterize the expression pattern of another recently identified novel tumor antigen in established tumor cell lines that are commonly used for the evaluation of anti-tumor immunotherapeutic strategies. The antigen of interest, Rat Mammary Tumor-1 (RMT-1), was first identified in nulliparous animals and in chemically induced rat tumors. I used nested Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect the presence of RMT-1 mRNA in MADB 106, R3230, 13762 and RBA tumor cell lines. Having identified RMT-1 mRNA in the tumors used in our animal model, we will incorporate this tumor-associated antigen into our immunotherapy strategies. Thus we will be able to evaluate the hypothesis that targeting multiple tumor associated antigens will be more efficacious than targeting single antigens.  
Simulation of kWTA Algorithm Using ATHENA

Mike Yin  
: Richard Granger
There is a remarkable similarity among the cortical structures of many cortical systems, especially secondary, tertiary, polysensory and association cortical areas. Some common representation must exist for association areas to combine and relate information from such disparate sources. A well-defined computational model that explains this common structure could aid our understanding of how this ability is achieved. A major component of the proposed computational model involves the ability of a cortical layer to fire only k neurons during any given activation period. This led to the formulation of a k-winner-take-all algorithm (kWTA). In order to investigate the algorithm in detail, it was necessary to build a fine-scale neural simulator that allows for large numbers of neurons to be simulated in a reasonable amount of time. To this end, we created the ATHENA (Anatomical Theoretical Neural Architecture) engine, which was constructed with the following goals in mind: 1) capable of running sparsely-activated large-scale neural assemblies; 2) good temporal and spatial scalability; 3) long-term storage and dynamic queries of results; and 4) offline graphical analysis of simulations. Using ATHENA, the kWTA algorithm simulated three different parameter settings: 1) the amount of connectivity; 2) the amount of activation; and 3) the sensitivity of neurons to downstream activation. By observing simulation performance in these three domains a detailed analysis of the kWTA algorithm is presented.  
Are GABA Receptors Present in the Sciatic Nerve?

Leena Youssefian  
: Zulma Duenas-Gomez & Ricardo Miledi
It is known that in humans, as in all vertebrates, the central and peripheral nervous systems play essential roles in the transmission and assimilation of information in our environment. This information is processed through neuronal synaptic communications, mediated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors. To study the neurotransmitter receptors, we use different methods to try to characterize them and to understand how they work. Previous work shows that receptors to Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in all vertebrates, including humans, are present throughout the central nervous system. However, GABA receptors in the peripheral nervous system have not been well studied. For that reason, this project is targeted to see if GABA receptors are present in the nerves of the peripheral nervous system, using the sciatic nerve as a convenient source. Two methodologies are used. One is isolation of messenger RNA from the rat sciatic nerve and injection into Xenopus oocytes to express any encoded receptors. The second consists of microtransplanting membranes from the sciatic nerve to Xenopus oocytes. Electrophysiological procedures and western blot analysis are then used to see if receptors are present. So far we have not detected GABA receptors. At this point we can conclude that GABA receptors are not coding for GABAA present in the rat sciatic nerve, or are present in numbers too small to be detected. Thus, the sciatic nerve contrasts with the optic nerve, which does contain mRNA receptors.  
Cognitive Effects of Nicotine Exposure

Payam Zamani  
: Frances Leslie
Long-lasting cognitive modifications, including deficits in learning and memory, are associated with offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. In rodents, gestational nicotine exposure has also been associated with similar impairments that exist until late adolescence or early adulthood (Postnatal day (PN) 30-60). However, little attention has been placed on the mechanism of such a phenomenon. It has been suggested that cognitive memory modulations may be related to prenatal nicotine effects on noradrenergic (NE) systems. Nicotine, through in vitro studies, acts directly with nicotinic receptors on noradrenergic neurons to stimulate [3H] NE release in developing rat brain. Our lab has shown that chronic prenatal nicotine exposure radically alters the efficacy of subsequent nicotine-stimulated [3H] NE release, a consequence that was most robust from the postnatal period (PN 1-9) to adolescence (PN 20-40). The above findings suggest a mechanism whereby early nicotine exposure may lead to long-term cognitive deficits due to maternal cigarette smoking; however the in vivo relationship between noradrenergic and cholinergic elements has yet to be analyzed. The purpose of this proposal is to test the hypothesis that chronic prenatal nicotine exposure leads to noradrenergic modifications causing long-term cognitive deficits that remain until the adolescent period (PN 30) in the animal. To accomplish this goal, two animal models of cognitive memory are proposed, inhibitory avoidance and olfactory learning, which have been shown to require specific age-related noradrenergic stimulation for accurate behavioral performance. For specific aim 1, I will use these tasks to: test the hypothesis that acute nicotine exposure will lead to cognitive modifications in postnatal and adolescent rats due to alterations in nicotine induced norepinephrine release. For specific aim 2, I will test the hypothesis that chronic nicotine exposure will lead to cognitive modifications. To determine whether chronic prenatal nicotine exposure leads to memory modulations via direct alterations of nicotine-induced norepinephrine release, in vivo microdialysis coupled to high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection will be utilized. In so doing, these findings could: (i) suggest a mechanism for the clinical relationship that exists between maternal smoking and cognitive memory modifications; (ii) help confirm the existence of critical periods in development where the brain is vulnerable to nicotine’s adverse effects; and (iii) offer more avenues for researchers to develop prevention and intervention strategies to ameliorate gestational nicotine induced deficits.  
Age-Related Changes in Cognition: A Comparison of Healthy and Demented Individuals Past the Age of 65

Gisoo Zarrabi  
: Linda Nelson
About half the individuals past the age of 85 suffer from dementia, a condition characterized by the progressive decline of thinking, memory, and behavior. It is believed that the rate and pattern of cognitive decline among individuals showing very early signs of dementia differs from that of healthy individuals. This study investigates whether long term changes in a healthy individual’s performance on standard neuropsychological tests can predict the likelihood that they will become demented. We hypothesize that performance on a subset of tests assessing frontal lobe functioning will be the best predictor of dementia. Over the past six years a group of 178 healthy individuals past the age of 65 have been tested either every year or every two years. About ten percent of these individuals began showing early signs of dementia according to results of neurological exams. After comparing the performance of pre-demented individuals to that of those individuals who were felt to be progressing normally, we predict the following: a) that there exists a statistically significant difference between the two groups, b) that the pre-demented group declined more rapidly in their test performance and c) that the performance between the two groups differs most dramatically on tests that assess frontal lobe functioning.  
Comparative Efficacy of 12 Hour Perfusion-Preservation with PEG-Hb and 4 Hour Cold Crystalloid Ischemic Storage of Rabbit Myocardium Followed by Transplantation

Justin Zelones  
: Jeffrey Milliken
The number of people awaiting heart transplantation is increasing each year. This is in part due to the inability to fully utilize the available nationwide donor pool. Cold crystalloid ischemic storage is the current method that is used for heart preservation. Unfortunately, this ischemic method limits safe preservation time to 4-6 hr, thereby restricting the accessible donor pool to within a 500 mi radius. Our research group has demonstrated that continuous perfusion of the extirpated rabbit myocardium for up to 24 hr using an oxygen carrying 20 ° C modified bovine polyethylene glycolated bovine hemoglobin perfusate (PEG –Hb) solution allows for return of cardiac function in vitro. The purpose of our current study is to compare cardiac function in vivo following heterotopic transplantation into a respective recipient of those extirpated donor rabbit hearts that have undergone a 4 hr period of cold crystalloid storage to hearts continuously perfused for 12 hr using a modified 20 ° C PEG-Hb solution. Preliminary results demonstrate that hearts that undergo extended periods of perfusion-preservation perform as well as, or better than hearts that undergo short-term cold crystalloid storage preservation.  
Development of Enhanced Thermally-Based Low Pressure Sensor

Fazlul Zubair  
: John LaRue
There is a substantial need for an accurate low pressure gauge in Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS). There is a need to measure the vacuum seal within multi-layer electronic devices, because reliability of the seal is critical to the functionality and life of electronic products. For example, many MEMS accelerometers must operate at low pressures. The vacuum seal that creates this low pressure must always have a finite leak rate, which means the seal is never perfect. If a MEMS pressure gauge could be integrated into the package of the accelerometer the quality of the vacuum seal could be monitored, and we may be able to find ways to minimize the pressure loss. A miniature Pirani style pressure sensor that can be integrated into any electronic package is studied here. A Pirani pressure gauge uses the notion that as pressure increases, there is an increase in thermal energy drawn from a wire. The heat loss is proportional to the number of particles striking the wire, which is proportional to the pressure. This study is a numerical analysis of a Pirani style gauge adapted to MEMS technology. The goal of this study is to determine the geometric parameters that would extend the operating range of highly sensitive Pirani style MEMS devices.
The Distribution of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Allele Frequency and the Contribution of APOE-4 to the Prevalence of Dementia in the Oldest old: The 90+ Study

Rian Zuniga  
: Claudia Kawas
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Currently, 4 million Americans have AD, and the number of cases is expected to quadruple by the middle of this century. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has three major alleles, E2, E3, and E4, of which E4 has been found to increase the risk of AD. However, most studies have analyzed subjects in the 6th and 7th decade of life. This study aims to 1) report the allele frequencies of the APOE gene in the oldest old (90 years of age and older) and 2) analyze if APOE-4 increases the prevalence of dementia in the oldest old. The study includes 252 men and women from the 90+ Study, a population-based sample in a Southern California retirement community that is primarily Caucasian. Dementia status was determined from a neurological examination using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV) criteria. The allele frequencies were 8.8% for E2, 81.2% for E3, and 10.5% for E4. When allele frequencies are compared to younger Caucasian populations, the E4 frequency is lower in our study (10.5% vs. 15.8%) and the E3 allele is higher (81.2% vs. 76.5%). The proportion of demented people without an E4 allele (22%) and with an E4 allele (26.9%) was not significantly different (P=. 45). Our study provides evidence that there is a difference in allele frequencies between younger and older Caucasian populations and that there is no association between E4 and the prevalence of dementia in the oldest old.

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