Student Abstracts




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Steven Norman Lee Faculty Mentor: Dr. Madeline A. Kozlowski

Costume Rendering Techniques

Costume design plays a major role in all types of staged productions. Costumes build and create character, it shapes an actor into the role being portrayed. Working as a production team, the goal for the costume designer and the artistic crew is to create the vision of a director into a reality. For the costume designer one of the most rewarding accomplishments is to see a two dimensional rendering transformed into a three dimensional costume. In this process of bringing costumes to life, it is crucial for a designerís rendering to be visually accurate as to what is desired. Renderings do not only illustrate a silhouette, but also convey draping, folds and textures of fabric. As a result, the correct usage of various artistic mediums used for renderings are crucial for accurate representations. This research and experiment of costume rendering techniques will discover how mixed mediums can produce an accurate portrayal of the drape, folds and textures of specific fabric. One of the goals of this creative project, is to explore and to invent costume rendering techniques. Discovering innovative rendering techniques, will introduce the costume designer to a wider range of mediums that will benefit and enhance a designerís creative expressions.

Gregory Todd Lewis Faculty Mentor: Dr. Frank J. Feher

Survey of Si-O Framework Reactivities in Incompletely-Condensed Silsesquioxanes

Incompletely-condensed silsesquioxanes offer excellent potential as ligands in homogeneous models for silica-supported catalysts. Until now, any chemical modifications of (C6H11)7Si7O8(OH)3 has involved reactions which transformed the SiOH groups into new siloxane (i.e., Si-O-Si) or heterosiloxane (i.e., Si-O-M) linkages. However, using the fluorinating reagent HBF4/Me2O, silsesquioxanes such as (C6H11)7Si7O8(OH)3 are selectively functionalized to give the corresponding fluorinated products such as (C6H11)7Si7O8F3. Reactions using this reagent typically afford products in quantitative yields with inversion of stereochemistry at Si. This methodology has been applied to a variety of silsesquioxanes including (C6H11)8Si8O11(OH)2, (C6H11)6Si7O7(OH), (C6H11)6Si6O6, and (C6H11)6Si6O9. This talk will examine the scope of these reactions and will discuss possible applications for the reaction products.

Adrian Lobito Faculty Mentor: Dr. John F. Marshall

Time Course of Methamphetamine-Induced Astrogliosis in the Rat Brain

Methamphetamine (m-AMPH) is a neurotoxin that damages select neuronal populations in the rat brain. The glial response to m-AMPH, however, is not well characterized. This study investigates the time course and regional distribution of astrogliosis in m-AMPH-treated rats. Rats were given four s.c. injections of either saline (1 mg/ml; SAL) or m-AMPH (4 mg/kg) at two hour intervals and sacrificed at 1 day (d), 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d post-m-AMPH. Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed on 40 mm coronal brain sections as a way to assess astrogliosis in the striatum and the cortex. There were a few, lightly-stained, thin glia in the striatum and cortex of all SAL-treated animals. In contrast, the striatum of m-AMPH-treated animals showed increased GFAP immunoreactivity 1 d through 21 d. The intensity peaked at 3 d and was focused mainly in the ventral-lateral striatum. In the cortex of m-AMPH-treated animals, there was a distinct band of increased staining intensity observed in some of the 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d animals. This time course suggests that m-AMPH-induced astrogliosis is transient in the cortex, while in the striatum the astrogliosis is long-lasting. The occurrence of cortical astrogliosis in only a small proportion of the m-AMPH-treated rats indicates the cortex might be less vulnerable than the striatum to the glial reaction caused by m-AMPH. The relationship between striatal and cortical damage will be considered in the discussion.

Jason Tuan Ly Faculty Mentor: Dr. Curt Sandman

Treating Self-Injurious Behaviors in Individuals with Autism

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is among the most serious problems in institutionalized persons, with a prevalence rate of 7-40%. SIB is mostly an untreatable, expensive, destructive, and unpredictable behavior exhibited in persons with autism or mental retardation. Self injury may be explained by two versions of the opiate hypothesis: 1. the analgesic hypothesis and 2. the addiction hypothesis; both which relate to the disregulated levels of beta-endorphins. Currently, no long term or permanent treatment is available for SIB. Research on Naltrexone, and opiate antagonist, however, shows promise in decreasing frequency rates of SIB for some individuals. This presentation will show results from our study which incorporates a double blind, placebo controlled administration of an acute dose of Naltrexone.

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Grace Mack Faculty Mentor: Dr. Don Hoffman

Salience of Visual Parts

Recognizing objects visually from their shapes may appear simple, but it involves many complexities that are as yet not understood. However, there is now converging evidence for part-based representations of shapes. These involve decomposing shapes into parts and representing the spatial relationships between them. Hoffman and Richards (1984) proposed the "minima rule" which defines part boundaries at negative minima of curvature on silhouettes, and along negative minima of the principle curvatures on surfaces. However, the minima rule does not say anything about the relative salience of parts. The "salience" of a part refers toits effectiveness as an index into shape memory. For example, salient parts are more noticeable and better remembered. Hoffman and Singh(1997) have proposed a theory of part salience according to which the salience of a part depends on at least three geometric properties: the strength of its boundaries, the degree to which it protrudes, and its size relative to the whole object. One way of testing the theory of part salience is to use figure-ground displays. The Hypothesis of Salient Figures states that human vision prefers figure-ground assignments that lead to figures with the more salient parts. To test this hypothesis, we are currently conducting four experiments where we manipulate shapes in both 2D and 3D displays. The proportion of times that subjects see one side of a display as figure, over the other, give us a measure of the relative salience of the parts in the two possible interpretations. Our results so far support this hypothesis.

Adriana Maestas Faculty Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

Latinos and Political Incorporation, Case Study: City of Bell Gardens

In 1990, Latinos comprised 26% of California's population; however they are underrepresented in the pool of registered voters and in various elected positions throughout the state. In California, Latinos are not politically incorporated. There are two aspects of political incorporation: representation (having an elected official of the same ethnicity as the group that is seeking incorporation) and how effective that group's interests are represented in policy making. Bell Gardens is a small working class city in Southeast Los Angeles County. The Latino population is approximately 90% in the city; and until 1992 Latinos were politically disenfranchised with only one Latina serving on a council of five members. Today all of the council is Latino. In my thesis, I determine if Latinos have attained political incorporation in Bell Gardens by interviewing community leaders and researching city records and written material on the city. My results show that Latinos are partially incorporated in Bell Gardens. Questions still remain as to how effective Latino interests are being represented in city hall.

Marisa Monique Magana Faculty Mentor: Dr. Timothy F. Osborne

Co-regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

Cholesterol, an essential component of the mammalian cell, is found in the plasma membrane and is the precursor to all steroid hormones. It is also a major component of lipoprotein particles (such as LDL) which are responsible for the distribution of cholesterol and fatty acids from the liver, where they are made, to other sites of the body. Although it serves several vital functions, an excess of cholesterol can lead to its accumulation in the blood plasma which may cause coronary disease. A negative feedback mechanism maintains cholesterol balance. An important protein involved in its regulation is the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), which activates genes involved in cholesterol uptake and biosynthesis when cholesterol levels are low. Our lab has shown that two genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), are also regulated by SREBP in response to cholesterol levels. Thus, cholesterol and fatty acids are co-regulated through the action of SREBP. Since SREBP belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix zipper (bHLH-zip) transcription factors, we predicted that the SREBP binding site in the FAS gene would be the "E-box" which is the consensus binding site for the bHLH-zip family of proteins. My work has shown that the "E-box" is not the recognition site for SREBP in the FAS promoter, instead there are two adjacent SREBP sites that are both required for efficient sterol regulation. Currently, no sterol regulated genes have been identified that are regulated by SREBP through the "E-box".

Charles Jack Malki Faculty Mentor: Dr. John C. Chen

Prevention of Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infection in a Rabbit Model

Infections of aortic prosthetic grafts are one of the most catastrophic complications to vascular surgeons. Although surgery is performed under sterile conditions, infection rates as high as 6 percent in surgically implanted prosthetic grafts have been documented. The application of a sustained release antibiotic at the site of the implant may reduce the occurrence of graft infections. We examined the effects of lipid encapsulated amikacin on vascular grafts contaminated with topically applied Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were implanted with contaminated aortic grafts. Twelve animals received topical antibiotic treatment, twenty did not. Following a two week recovery period, all implants were excised and cultured for the presence of infection. In the untreated group, the infection rate was 63% as compared to the treated group which had an infection rate of 25%. Despite clinical attempts to maintain a sterile environment, there are conditions under which contamination during surgery may be unavoidable. Postoperative stress suppresses the effectiveness of the immune system and may allow contamination during surgery to multiply to lethal concentrations. The use of multivesicular liposome encapsulated amikacin significantly decreased the occurrence of infection at the contaminated implant site with this animal model. The use of multivesicular liposome encapsulated amikacin may prove efficacious for the clinical implantation of a prosthetic vascular graft in a contaminated field.

Laine Markley (Chapman University) Faculty Mentor: Dr. Lee Estes

Culture and Class in Nineteenth Century Los Angeles

I propose to show that cultural and class values were more important than race in determining minority group acceptance in nineteenth-century Los Angeles. Two primary reasons for this were the residual Mexican influence upon Los Angeles society and the nature of frontier society, itself. I will use the Owens/Mason family of African American pioneers as the vehicle with which to explore my thesis. I will follow the family from its arrival in Los Angeles in 1854 through three generations, the last of which represented, in the words of the Los Angeles Daily Times, "the richest Negro in Los Angeles" by 1909. My study will end in 1885, the year the Southern Pacific railroad lost its monopoly in Los Angeles. The resulting competition sparked the great land boom of the 1880ís which transformed Los Angeles from a frontier town to a modern city. After this time, ethnic relations began to be affected by other forces. These forces do not contradict my thesis but they are complex enough to warrant a study of their own. I will analyze the real estate transactions of the Owens/Mason family to determine buyers, sellers, terms of sale and any other social data that may have a bearing on ethnic relations of the time. I will also be contrasting the experiences of the Chinese with the African Americans to attempt an explanation of the different ways in which the two groups were treated by the majority whites. I will also examine the experience of white "hillbillies" from the Appalachians and the discrimination they face in places like Southern Ohio and Kentucky today as an example of treatment which is obviously not racially motivated but, nevertheless is identical to that experienced by "racial" minorities.

Catherine A. McCall Faculty Mentor: Dr. Larry Cahill

Affect and Memory in Olfaction

It has been conjectured that there is a strong affective component in odor-evoked memories. In this two-phase experiment, the interaction of affect and memory in olfaction will be investigated. The first phase will focus on the lateralization of both perceived pleasantness and recall of odors. Participants will experience eight odors in either the right or left nostril, rating each on scales of pleasantness and arousal. After one week, the participants will receive and rate the same odors using the other nostril, and will be asked to recall the odors they experienced the week before. The results will be analyzed to determine whether there is a lateralization of the subjective pleasantness or arousal of odors, and whether the ratings of pleasantness and arousal are related to long-term recall of the odor experience. In the second phase of this investigation, participants will receive fMRI brain scans while experiencing a "target" odor which evokes a strong, autobiographical memory, and while experiencing a "control" odor which is similar in hedonic quality but does not evoke a strong memory. The relative activation of brain areas in response to the two odors will be examined. It is hypothesized that greater brain activation will occur during exposure to the target odor than during exposure to the control odor in a brain region called the amygdala, which is known to be important for emotion and memory. The results of this research should contribute to an understanding of the interaction between affect and memory in olfaction.

Nisha Melwani Faculty Mentor: Dr. Ellen Greenberger

Social Perceptions

Each ethnic group has their own perceptions about ethnic groups other than their own. In this study we were trying to study this phenomenon. Although much research has been devoted to relations between Blacks and Whites, few -- if any-- studies have simultaneously examined more facets of the current multicultural social landscape. In the current study, however, we sampled over 450 University of California, Irvine college students from six national-ethnic groups: Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mexican, Caucasian, and African American. These particular groups were mainly chosen due to their sizable representation on the University campus. In addition, we hypothesized that non-Asian ethnic groups would perceive all Asian groups in a similar light, whereas Asian groups are expected to perceive more differences between the three Asian groups. Using a questionnaire, subjects were asked to indicate which of 30 possible adjectives were "typical" of each of the six ethnic groups. In a separate analysis we collected evaluations of the 30 adjectives from members of each ethnic group. With this data we will be able to see how positively and how negatively each ethnic group regards its own "typical" characteristics, as well as those of all the other groups. This data will also allow us to assess how "sharp" or well-defined each stereotype is. Further analyses will consider how the tendency to stereotype varies by group attributes such as education level and socio-economic status, and by individual characteristics such as acculturation, social dominance orientation, degree of exposure to other ethnic groups, and social desirability (among others). Currently we are in the final stages of our data entry and preliminary analysis.

Kristi Luella Montooth Faculty Mentor: Dr. Allen Gibbs

Physiological and Behavioral Consequences of Pheromone Production in the Female Housefly

I studied potential interactions between natural and sexual selection pressures, using insect cuticular lipids as a model system. Because cuticular lipids serve both as a barrier to evaporative water loss and as chemical signals, changes in the lipids may affect both the survival probability and reproductive potential of an individual. The production of the tactile sex pheromone, cis-9-tricosene, by mature female houseflies causes a significant decrease in the melting temperature (Tm) of their cuticular lipids. In this study, I examined both the physiological and behavioral effects of this decrease in cuticular lipid Tm by measuring: 1) rates of water loss from young and mature houseflies using flow-through respirometry and 2) male sexual response to pheromone-containing cuticular lipids with either a high or low melting temperature. Total water loss increased significantly between 0-1 day old and 4-5 day old females, while no significant difference was found between young and mature males. Thus, the production of pheromone and the resulting decrease in cuticular Tm reduces survival probability of mature female houseflies by increasing water loss. The Tm of the cuticle lipids containing the pheromone does not affect female attractiveness to males, although the presence of pheromone remains important to female mating success. These results suggest that natural and sexual selection have antagonistic effects on cuticular lipid composition in houseflies.

Orion A. Mosko Faculty Mentor: Dr. William Batchelder

The Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and Its Relationship to Visuo-Spatial Selective Attention

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) can predict response latencies and accuracy rates for an experimental task which measures both attentional orientation and resolution for expected and unexpected stimulus presentations which require variable levels of attentional demand. Undergraduates from the University of California at Irvine participated in this experiment. There were two parts to this study. First, subjects participated in an experimental task put forth by Liotti, Fox, and LaBerge (1994) designed to create differential levels of attentional concentration. Subjects were instructed to identify the letter O amongst stimulus presentations with either similar or dissimilar distractors. The difference in attentional intensity involved in these Hard and Easy tasks were provided by response-times to probe stimuli, which were randomly inserted into a series of target trials. The dependent variables for this experiment were the subjectsí mean response time and accuracy rate of response for the orienting and resolving of the presentation stimuli. The subjects then filled out the CFQ. It was predicted that the subjectsí CFQ scores were related to their response latencies and accuracy rates under the conditions, such that low CFQ scores (indicating fewer cognitive errors) were positively correlated with faster response latencies and higher accuracy rates, and high CFQ scores (indicating more cognitive errors) were positively correlated with slower response latencies and lower accuracy rates for the experimental conditions. Results will be presented and discussed in relation to previous studies of the CFQ and attentional performance.

James R. Mowrey Faculty Mentor: Dr. Paul Jesilow

A History of Fraud and Abuse in the Securities Industry

Abuse of the securities markets were common throughout the 19th century. Despite numerous problems, the government was loath to introduce any regulation to control the behavior. As a result, problems grew until public outcry resulted in legislation. This pattern of inaction, public complaint, and eventual legislative remedy has continued into modern time. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical record of abuses in the securities markets and some reasons as to why such behavior went unregulated. It will show that behaviors that today are considered securities fraud became predominant in the second half of the 19th century. During this period there was little or no regulation of the securities markets. After the stock market crash of 1929, the Securities and Exchange Commission was created and a period of federal regulation began. The incidence of fraud didnít begin improving until World War II. The war and post-war era were marked by budget cuts and a revitalization of non-government intervention. The SEC suffered from these policies which led to a re-eruption of securities fraud. It was not until the market crash of 1987 that the government took steps to restore the publicís confidence in the fairness and integrity of the securities markets. To illustrate these reactive policies, this manuscript utilizes Congressional hearings regarding securities fraud during the 1980ís. This data suggests that criminal conduct constitutes a substantial amount of market activity by established securities industry professionals. Lack of resources is perhaps the greatest problem in the battle against securities fraud.


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Teresa Neighbors Faculty Mentor: Dr. Nina Scolnik

The Russian School of Piano Performance

Over the past hundred years, musicians and composers, alike, have been influenced not only by their own culture, but by others as well. Many great musicians have gained richer understandings of music through their studies of other cultural studies, which has allowed them to be more innovative and expressive. From 19th century European performer/composer Franz Liszt to 20th century American composer George Crumb -- the listener can hear in their works the culmination of various cultural styles. For the performer, the importance of studying these various cultures is immeasurable. We know that it is impossible to communicate the meaning of the music through performance if the performer does not first recognize what cultural influences lie within the music, and then studying those influences. We also know that, as with anything in life, studies of other cultural styles and techniques can help to enrich the performer's own style; for he can borrow and combine what he already knows with what he has learned, in order to add color and variety. The result of such culmination is a richer, more captivating performance of anything he plays. I chose to take on such a study by focusing on Russian piano techniques. The results of my study not only have increased my understanding of Russian music, but have enriched my performance style in general.

Thanh Ngo Faculty Mentor: Dr. Timothy F. Osborne

A Negative Role for YY1 in Cholesterol Homeostasis

Mammalian cells require cholesterol to carry out many cellular functions. Cholesterol is obtained by intracellular biosynthesis and/or through the uptake of low density lipoprotein particles (LDLs) via a LDL receptor located on the cellular surface. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is accomplished by regulating the expression of the LDL receptor gene which requires transcription factors Sp1 and SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein). SREBP is cleaved from the endoplasmic reticulum when cholesterol levels drop; then, it is translocated into the nucleus where it activates genes such as the LDL receptor that are required for increasing intracellular cholesterol. We have shown that another protein called YY1 inhibits activation of the LDL receptor gene by SREBP and Sp1. In contrast, YY1 does not affect the expression of another promoter that only requires Sp1. By inhibiting the LDL receptor gene, YY1 may play an important role in regulating intracellular cholesterol levels by preventing excess LDL uptake. We are currently expressing mutant forms of YY1 to identify regions of the protein that are required for inhibition of LDL receptor expression. YY1's inability to inhibit expression of other Sp1 requiring genes suggests that YY1 inhibits LDL receptor expression of other Sp1 requiring genes suggests that YY1 inhibits LDL receptor expression by interfering with SREBP and Sp1. To test the hypothesis that YY1 specifically inhibits genes where SREBPs interact with Sp1, further experiments are being conducted with the HMG CoA synthase gene which is involved in cholesterol synthesis and whose expression requires SREBPs but does not require Sp1.

Maichi Nguyen Faculty Mentor: Dr. John Dombrink

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Legal Reform

As we approach the 21st century, many laws and regulations need to be examined to better adapt with the direction in which our society is heading. Throughout the decade, people have become increasingly aware of their rights. One such right, the right to die, has become the focus of many discussions. The most essential reason that makes the right to die movement an interesting area to examine is that it represents the societyís symbolic attitude change. On one hand, advancement in medicine and the application of medical technology cause difficulty and controversial decisions regarding medical treatment and matters at the end of oneís life. On the other hand, conflicts between a doctorís role and a patientís autonomy also trigger other dilemmas that beg for solution. Currently, 17 states have introduced bills regarding death in dignity, physician-assisted suicide, or related issues. And certainly the United States is not the only nation in the current social movement to reform such laws. Other countries around the world such as Australia, Canada, Great Britain, etc., have considered similar legislative efforts. The result of this study does not to justify suicide, mercy killing, nor does it to support the morality grounds for euthanasia. The sole purpose of the study is to examine the general direction to which death in dignity/physician assisted suicides legislative bills are reformed as well as to understand social forces that drive the right to die movement.

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Marissa Ochoa Faculty Mentor: Dr. Luis P. Villarreal

Resource Allocation in Herbivory Levels Between Male and Female Cecropia Trees

Plant species allocate their resources to three functions: reproduction, defense, and growth. The resource allocation theory postulates differences in herbivory between sexes; females containing greater leaf damage than males due to different resource distributions. For instance, in dioecious species females invest more in reproduction while males invest heavily in defense. This study compares herbivory levels between male and female Cecropia trees. Twenty trees (10 male, 10 female) were sampled along the forest edges of the Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biology Station, in Veracruz, Mexico. Three branches were removed from each tree and five leaves were randomly sampled from each branch. Leaf damage was quantified using a numerical scale. A one-way ANOVA examined herbivory variations and the Chi-Square test was used to determine herbivory differences between sexes. The results from the Chi-Square test showed no significant herbivory differences among male and female Cecropia trees. However, results from the one-way ANOVA showed significant herbivory variations among individual trees. This could be explained by several factors which include the mutualistic relationship between Cecropia trees and Azteca ants.

Aimee Owens Faculty Mentor: Dr. Victoria Bernal

Women's Childbirth Options in Orange County

Childbirth represents a major change in womenís lives; they are singular events and every womanís narrative reflects this uniqueness. Nevertheless, womenís stories collectively reflect strong patterns of medical intervention and socialization. Medicalization of childbirth has increased dramatically during this century, evident in our nationís high rate of Cesarean sections and by our increasing dependence on childbirth technology, such as fetal and maternal monitoring. Healthcare professionals, friends and family, and popular literature all help to socialize women about childbirth. The purpose of this study is to explore how medicalization and socialization shape womenís childbirth options. It focuses on three stages in childbearing among twenty-one Orange County women: pregnancy, including choosing a practitioner for prenatal care and birth attendance; childbirth, including location, degree of medical intervention, and payment; and the post-partum period, including how this experience will influence future options. The study consists of a questionnaire, a participant interview, and a smaller subjective follow-up questionnaire. The purpose of the questionnaires and interviews is to identify the agents of socialization, to understand how women incorporate these agentsí opinions and ideas into their own childbirth ideologies, and to identify the level of medical intervention during childbirth. Quantitative data analysis of the first questionnaire will uncover similarities and differences in medical procedures used and household demographics. Analysis of the participant interviews and follow-up questionnaire will consist of using the medical and midwifery models developed by Rothman (1982) as a theoretical approach for understanding why Orange County women choose the childbirth options they do.

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