Abstracts

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Experimental Assessment of the Structural Performance of Steel Corrugated Decks

José Valle
Mentor: Dr. Gerard Pardoen

Many industry applications of plate-type structures such as slabs and diaphragms must consider the plateís properties as anisotropic rather than isotropic. Examples of plate-type structural components with natural anisotropy are wood, plywood and fiber-reinforced plastics. Examples of structural anisotropy consist of one-way and two-way reinforced slabs, masonry walls, as well as steel or aluminum decks with ribs or corrugations. An experimental program is propose that will study the strength and stiffness properties of steel corrugated decks that are typically used as roofs. The experimental program will consider new steel deck panels as well as corroded panels. Fourteen new samples will be obtained from three different manufacturers. In addition, a minimum of 15 corroded samples will be obtained from various roofs in service. Therefore, the minimum number of samples that will be tested is 36 new and 15 corroded samples. Analytical studies will take place at the UCI Structural Engineering Test Hall.

 

A Formal Synthesis of Meso-Chimonanthine

Jennifer Vance
Mentor: Dr. Larry Overman

In natural product synthesis, the organic chemist endeavors to find creative methods of constructing structurally challenging molecules, which have previously only been made by Nature. Natural products that exhibit biological activity are especially intriguing due to their potential therapeutic benefits. The natural product, meso-chimonanthine, was first extracted from the New Caledonian plant, Psychotria Oleoides, in 1992. Meso-chimonanthine is a member of the pyroloindoline alkaloids, which have been shown to exhibit possible anti-cancer effects. Although, the Link/Overman total synthesis of meso-chimonanthine was published in 1996, a more versatile formal synthesis of meso-chimonanthine has recently been accomplished. Formation of the 3a,3a'-bis-quaternary carbon-carbon bond is the first synthetic challenge of meso-chimonanthine. This step was completed via an efficient bis-alkylation with a chiral biselectrophile.

 

The Dances of Early California in Santa Barbara

Thea Vandervoort
Mentor: Dr. Deidre Sklar

During the Rancho Period of California history (1828-1868) the people of Santa Barbara celebrated their Spanish heritage through the performance of song and dance passed down through many generations. The dances of early California are social figure dances which took place during informal parties (fiestas) popular in the area since the 1830's. This project is a case study of early California dance activity and culture in Santa Barbara within the context of California history. I present a general history of these dances within the Rancho culture, as well as specific details concerning their performance, social connection and importance to the Santa Barbara community. Three of the most popular early California dances have been preserved and I have documented them through reconstruction, musical and costume specification, video filming, accurate descriptions of historical style and choreography, and precise notation of movement and floor patterns. Primary research for this project was supported with readings on the general nature and history of early California dance. Further exploration included live interviews, examination of official archives and personal collections from Santa Barbara including newspaper articles, original photos, journal entries, memoirs, correspondence, sheet music and recordings, and original dance notation by my great grandfather. The purpose of this research is to preserve and perpetuate a significant aspect of California cultural history, while tangibly establishing physical, artistic and social connections to the past.

 

A Multicultural Mosaic: A Study on the Ethnoburb

Stephanie Velasco
Mentor: Dr. John Liu

Since its incorporation on April 25, 1956, Cerritos, California was once the "most ethnically diverse community" in the United States. Within this multicultural suburb exists several ethnic concentrations which border the geographical area near the city of Artesia. Several ethnic concentrations which include Asian Indian, Korean, and Filipino small businesses and resident enclaves have developed within the same area bordering both cities. This study will examine how the mixture of small businesses and residential enclaves contribute to the formation of an ethnoburb (i.e. a suburban ethnic community). It will also examine to what extent the formation of ethnoburbs are limited to a geographical location but are developed through a process of social networks. As the United States and specifically California, becomes increasingly diverse, the "ethnoburb" leads us to question the development of many more cities such as Cerritos which reflect that growth.

 

Latinas and Domestic Violence

Guadalupe Vidales
Mentor: Dr. Valerie Jenness

Increased awareness of the impact that domestic violence has in our society has caused the criminal justice system to develop changes in order to assist victims of domestic violence. Several laws have been made in order to stop and prevent more incidents. Even though changes have increased the support for battered women requesting assistance, more changes are needed and more research has to be conducted in order to prove the effectiveness of the new strategies and/ or to implement different ones more appropriate to specific family and social situations. The socioeconomic situations of women, as well as race and cultural values produce different effects within the cycle of violence occurs. The experiences of minority victims such as Latinas usually make them more reluctant to seek help, often they do not obtain the proper legal assistance, in part because many Latinas are burdened by lack of education, unemployment, poverty, and consequences of gender and class oppression. Moreover, they are not aware of their rights and are unfamiliar with the criminal justice system. This study will explore and identify the main factors that 86 Latina battered women faced when seeking assistance from the criminal justice system and their perceived view of the support they have received when interacting with the judicial system. Based on surveys, face-to-face and phone interviews, and participant observation, this study identified the following factors as the main obstacles to seek and/or obtain proper assistance: language barriers, lack of knowledge of help available, traditional Latino gender roles, familism, religious views, economic factors, level of education, and lack of legal documents.

 

Studies on Xenopus laevis Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Herman Villalba
Mentor: Dr. Ricardo Miledi

Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the autonomic and central nervous systems. ACh elicits its varied physiological effects by activation of muscarinic (mACh-R) or nicotinic receptors. The mAch-R family is made up of five different, yet similar, receptors encoded for by five separate genes. In mammals, mACh-R play key roles in the contraction of an assortment of smooth muscles including those of the small intestines, heart, and lungs. mACh-Rs have also been electrophysiologically and pharmacologically characterized in Xenopus oocytes and surrounding follicular cells. Though electrophysiological responses elicited by ACh differ from oocyte to oocyte, a characteristic oscillatory current mediated by mACh receptors and Cl-selective channels is usually present. The process by which this oscillatory current is produced includes activation of a cascade involving secondary messengers. mACh-R are also found in follicular cells surrounding the Xenopus oocyte. These receptors give rise to at least four unique electrophysiological responses. Yet which of the five types of mACh-R are responsible for these elctrophysiological responses in native Xenopus oocytes and follicular cells is still to be determined. To answer this question, Xenopus genomic DNA will be screened for mACh-R coding sequences using standard PCR techniques. Amplified DNA will be cloned and positive clones will be sequenced and used as probes to screen a frog oocyte cDNA library. Isolated clones will be sequenced and cloned into expression vectors. Eventually individual genes will be expressed in Xenopus oocytes to study their pharmacology and electrophysiology.

 

Identification of Cellular Proteins Interacting with Yeast Retrovirus-like Element Ty3 Integrase Protein by Two Hybrid Analysis

Tracy Wang
Mentor: Dr. Suzanne Sandmeyer

Ty3 is a retrovirus-like element found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ty3 is a 5.4 kbp element containing two 340 bp sigma elements also known as long terminal repeats (LTR) flanking the internal domain. The internal domain encodes two open reading frames, GAG3 and POL3, which are analogous to the retroviral gag and pol genes. Unlike retroviruses, which integrate into the host genomic DNA relatively randomly, Ty3 integrates in a highly position specific manner adjacent to tRNA genes. RNA polymerase III transcription factors TFIIIB and TFIIIC have been shown to be required for targeted integration. Integrase (IN) is the enzyme responsible for the integration of transposable elements as well as retroviral DNA into their hosts genomic DNA. A greater understanding of the mechanism of integration could lead to the development of safer retroviral vectors for gene therapy to treat genetic diseases, AIDS, and cancer. This stresses the importance of understanding the mechanisms of integration. In our research, we are investigating the hypothesis that Ty3 targeted integration occurs via a protein-protein interaction between Ty3 IN and a yeast cellular protein(s). We are using the yeast two-hybrid system to identify interactions between Ty3 IN and yeast cellular protein(s). Using a GAL4 DNA binding domain-IN fusion protein, protein-protein interactions have been identified with 60 yeast proteins. Of the 60 clones, 23 have been sequenced and compared against the yeast genome database, and the authenticity of these protein-protein interactions was determined by testing their ability to interact with IN in a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-IN pulldown assay. So far, 3 clones have been shown to interact with IN in a GST-IN pulldown assay.

 

Epitope Mapping of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) p40 Protein

Katherine Wang
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Briese

Borna disease virus (BDV), a negative-stranded, nonsegmented RNA virus, causes behavioral abnormalities and motor disturbances in infected animals. Of the six BDV proteins, the phosphoprotein (p23, P), and the nucleocapsid protein (p40, N) are produced most abundantly. Accordingly, most antibodies in infected animals are directed to these proteins. This study is focused on the epitope mapping of p40. Currently, there is no consensus on a reliable detection method for BDV infection. Serologic assays test for the presence of antibodies to viral proteins, but results often conflict with those of genetic assays. To improve the specificity of serologic assays, epitope mapping of p40 is conducted using a SPOTS membrane. The membrane contains 73 10-mer peptides, each seen as a "spot," that overlap by five amino acids which, in total, represent the sequence of p40. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), sera from BDV infected rats, and sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant p40 are being tested to identify the specific epitope(s) of p40 to which these antibodies bind. First results obtained with two mAbs and the rabbit sera indicate a dominant epitope located near the N-terminus of the protein. Compiling additional data with the remaining mAbs and sera will allow the identification of major immunogenic determinants to which humoral antibodies are directed. Once identified, we will use this information to synthesize the respective oligopeptides in order to replace the complete p40 protein in serologic assays. This will provide greater sensitivity and specificity of the assays and should reduce background problems.

 

Mercury Adsorbents and Wastewater Treatments

Shahrooz Zaghi
Mentor: Dr. Kenneth Shea

Contamination of wastewater streams is a major industrial and environmental concern. Recently, a series of new hybrid organic-inorganic materials have been developed which display a tremendous potential for removing toxic metal ions from wastewater streams. These hybrid materials have high surface area and porosity and can "soak up" a large quantity ( ~6 mmols of metal ion per gram of polymer) of heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead and silver from aqueous solutions. The architecture of these materials is comprised of a silicate-like network that incorporates an organic fragment. The porosity of the materials is a consequence of the inorganic skeletal structure while the heavy metal ion adsorption sites are furnished by the organic functionality. Engineering of the physical and chemical properties of the hybrid materials is influenced therefore by the choice of the molecular building block and reaction conditions. To assess the correlation between the method of preparation and adsorption capacity of the various materials, mercury(II) ion uptake experiments have been conducted.

 

UNSCOM: Barriers to Collective Action

Zachary Zwald
Mentor: Dr. Etel Solingen

As part of United Nations Resolution 687, Iraq agreed to the creation of an international institution to supervise and take part in its destruction of all chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, as well as all ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km (94 miles). After seven years, it has become clear that this institution, the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM), has been unable to completely fulfill its mandate. An interesting puzzle now emerges: how has UNSCOM, an international institution comprised of members from the most powerful states in the world, been held to such limited successes by the relatively weak state of Iraq? A consideration of the ideas and principles behind the creation of international institutions, as well as the factors that influence institutional success or failure, offers a theoretical framework for the analysis of UNSCOM. Whether one ascribes to the Functionalist or Realist school, international institutions allow states to achieve ends that are not possible unilaterally. The success of UNSCOM also seems to hinge on state considerations of personal gains. Iraq possesses a proven oil reserve of 100 billion barrels, and the Hussein regime has offered rights to these oil fields to states such as Russia, France, China, and even Britain, contingent upon an end to the UN sanctions currently imposed on Iraq. Also, these states and others are eager to resume their lucrative arms trading and general investments in Iraq. Therefore, each state stands to gain political prestige from supporting inspections in principle, but only half-heartedly encouraging the intrusive UNSCOM inspections needed to rid Iraq of their Weapons of Mass Destruction capabilities.

 

Group Projects:

California's Three Strikes Law & Jury Nullification

Todd Lewellen, Dilkash Khan, Hsia-Ying Pai
Mentor: Dr. Paul Jesilow

In response to public concern about violent and recidivist criminal offenders, many states (including California) have passed laws which prescribe increased penalties for repeat felons. In 1994, California passed the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law (AB 971). According to the bill, any person convicted of a second felony is subject to twice the punishment that would otherwise apply; any person convicted of a "third strike" is subject to a sentence of 25 years to life. Strikes include any felony -- whether violent or non-violent. Jurors, however, may be reluctant to apply the severe punishments required by the law to what they may see as minor offenses. The present study examines the potential for such jury nullification. Data for the present study were collected from a convenience sample of 233 undergraduate students at the University of California, Irvine. Each subject was given one of two versions of the survey instrument. The two versions of the survey were designed with parallel case scenarios in which the type of offense, information given regarding defendant's prior record and punishment were varied. Preliminary analyses reveal a correlation between the extent of evidence required for conviction and knowledge of Three Strikes punishment.

 

Acculturation of Iranian and Muslim Immigrants

Sabiha Khan, Kathy Khorramian
Mentor: Dr. Roxane Silver

The immigrant population in the United States is growing at a rapid pace. In addition to settling in a country that is different from one’s own, immigrants have to face new challenges in their daily lives. There are three fundamental transitions involved in the acculturation process: transition from the primary (home) cultural system to a different one, changes in bonding and interpersonal relationships, and the adjustment to the new host economic system (Rogler, 1994). The immigrant population that we have studied is Iranian and Muslim immigrants in the United States. In our study, 50 immigrants were interviewed, using an open-ended, semi-structured questionnaire, about their personal experiences regarding their own acculturation process. Data analysis considered factors such as the age of immigration and gender in the process of coping with migration. We hope that the findings of this study will benefit the immigrants from these two cultures by providing methods to help acculturate to the new society and make this turning point a better experience.

 

Integrating Cultural Heritage into Environments for People with Dementia

Daisy Carreon, Cheryl Stump
Mentor: Dr. Kristen Day

Currently, more than 2.4 million U.S. citizens suffer from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this statistic is expected to rise. Due to the debilitating symptoms of AD, it has become a major reason for institutionalization. The great number of elderly with dementia placed in nursing care has promoted research in this area. Previous research has shown that the physical environment provides a therapeutic resource for individuals with Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Some of the proposed design elements include home-like environments, minimized sensory stimulation, and the use of familiar objects from the individual’s past. In addition to architectural design, culture has been identified as an important therapeutic resource. Cultural resources, such as religious rituals and daily activities, help to maintain familiar aspects of daily life, enhance memory retention, and promote social interaction. The current study involved a comprehensive review of available literature regarding the physical design and cultural heritage in dementia. In addition, a preliminary review of interviews and observations in two cultural communities were utilized—a Russian-Jewish community in North Hollywood and a Mexican-American community in Santa Ana. Cultural experts, caregivers, cognitively competent elderly, and family members of individuals with dementia were interviewed. Interviews examined the groups’ history, leisure activities, and various cultural norms. The analysis of these interviews is pending. The findings of this investigation are expected to reveal the relevance of cultural heritage in design guidance. Specifically, the data should lead to for philosophies of care, activities, and spatial organization that respond to cultural heritage in a therapeutic fashion.

 

Tijuanita's Pipeline

Sadaf Ahmed, Julio Perez
Mentor: Dr. Caesar Sereseres

Today’s global economy demands a higher level of education more than ever before. Obtaining a college degree is an initial step towards professional and economic success. Social and economic inequalities in our society are influenced on educational attainability. Therefore, access to higher education is the key to economic and social mobility through the development of marketable skills. Yet the prominence of school segregation, now more than before the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) in which the Supreme Court unanimously concluded that segregated schools were unequal, hinders the ability of gaining access to higher to education so that one may have social and economic mobility. Yet in the case of the inner city Jeffrey-Lynne (Tijuanita) community in Anaheim, one notices the dismantling of segregation by providing access to higher education to people within the community. Specifically, programs such as the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) at Loara High School, provide the avenue for students from within this low income, minority background community to gain the access needed to have economic and social mobility. By providing students with mentorship, tutoring, and information about college preparedness as well as placing them in college preparatory courses, students can be competitive applicants for a four-year college or university. This case study suggests the importance of discussion on community based programs (in inner city, low-income, and minority areas) such as AVID in development of a more representative student population within colleges and universities to that of California’s demographics.

 

Student Initiated Outreach Programs at UC Irvine

Denise Chang, Neil Malabuyoc, Nam Nguyen, Marta Ornelas, Stephanie Velasco, Judy Wang
Mentor: Ms. Sally Peterson

Student outreach efforts at the University of California, Irvine serves as a catalyst for middle and high school students interested in pursuing higher education. In particular, many of the student groups are motivated by a need to expose underrepresented students to the value of a college education. What are the top three essential components and/or factors that contribute to a successful student-initiated outreach program at UCI? This study involves a group assessment on success based on three perceived essential components: a) Peer Recruitment, b) Peer Training, and c) a Cultural Programming Component. Surveys sill be administered the members of the six clubs currently involved in outreach: 1) Kababayan/ PUSO (Pilipino Pre-Health Student Organization), 2) APSA (Asian Pacific Student Association), 3) MEChA (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicanos De Aztlan), 4) VAC (Vietnamese American Coalition), 5 ASU (Afrikan Student Union), and 6) CCM (Chicanos for Creative Medicine). Data analysis will reveal the salience and effectiveness of these outreach programs. The findings of this study are expected to provide a guideline/model for future outreach efforts.

 

Multimedia Networks

Li-Wei Gary Chen, Tim Sung Sheng Lee

 

Mentor: Dr. Tatsuya Suda

In today’s fast paced world, multimedia has become an important aspect of our everyday life. Web pages are getting more and more graphic intensive, and people have begun to use the Internet to watch video and listen to music. Although multimedia has become an essential part of our daily life, the current network architectures used for the Internet were not designed to handle such a large volume of multimedia traffic. Therefore, our group has begun to research for a better way to transport multimedia traffic. We have studied some of the network architecture such as IEEE 1394, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, ATM, wireless LAN, and IEEE 1596 and compared them to see whether they are suitable for handling the demand for high-speed multimedia data transmission. These are some of today’s most popular and up-to-date technology in network architecture. We have done a thorough study on all of those network’s property, and we have found valuable information in our study. Each network has its own unique characteristics. We have scrutinized some specific areas for each of the network architectures. The areas are maximum number of nodes, transmission speed, maximum distance between nodes, physical topology, add/remove nodes, type of network device, power transformed over the cable, use hub/switch, access type, access protocol, fairness, support different class-of-service, support TCP/IP, connection-oriented, built-in encryption, and cost. Our future plan is to verify our results by doing extensive empirical measurements of these network architectures and backup our results with data gathered from our simulation on each of the network architectures.

 

Rehabilitation Robot

Victor Chen, Billy Lee, Pei Vincent Seah, Billy Yim
Mentor: Dr. David Reinkensmeyer

The project involves the design of a robotic system that performs rehabilitation exercises for patients suffering from cerebral palsy or stroke. These patients commonly have difficulties in muscular control due to injuries suffered to the brain. Many rehabilitation processes require a series of time consuming and expensive exercises to retrain the brain to control the muscle articulation of certain limbs. In most cases, a professionally trained therapist must be present to perform the exercises with the patient. Without such recovery exercises, the patients may lose the ability to use a certain limb after a stroke. Although the muscle of that appendix is fully functional, the section of the brain used to control the limb is not active. The proposed project addresses the problem by retraining the brain to take control of the inactive limb. This is achieved by having the patient perform simple movements of the limb. This will force the brain to consciously take control and reform the synaptic connections that were lost to disuse. The quantitative data gathered can be used to analyze the progress of the rehabilitation. Professor Reinkensmeyer and the group have decided to realize the importance of rehabilitation programs with the assistance of this robot. Not only will the device aid the therapist to evaluate the recovery rate of the patients, it is also an important step towards a better understanding of rehabilitation.

 

Strontium Barium Niobate Ceramics

Michael Lee, Henry Wihardjo
Mentor: Dr. Martha Mecartney

Strontium barium niobate (SrxBa1-xNb2O6) are ferroelectric materials and are good candidates for microelectronic applications such as for optical memories. Strontium barium niobate (SBN) was synthesized using a new fabrication procedure, and the electrical properties were investigated. These ceramics were produced using a sol-gel preparation technique. Alkoxide of Sr, Ba, and Nb were dissolved in glacial acetic acid using varying Sr to Ba ratios. The molarity of the solutions was 0.36 M. The solutions were exposed to air and gelled with time (approximately 1-2 days). The dried gels were heat treated at 800 oC to produce SBN. The powder form of this ceramic was obtained by crushing the oxide and sieving it to under 36 micron. An isostatic press was utilized to produce bulk material from these fine powders. In order to produce a harder sample with a higher density, the product was sintered at 1200 oC for 24 hours. The influence of the Sr to Ba ratio on physical and electrical properties, such as density, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were determined.

 

Properties of Nails in Shear Walls

Melissa Kubischta, Yalina Munguia
Mentor: Dr. Gerald Pardoen

In structural engineering, sheathing materials are widely used in shear walls. Currently, to obtain the yield and fracture strength values for sheathing materials, such as nails and plywood, it is necessary to reference several publications produced by many different societies and associations. This project consists of creating a comprehensive database that includes properties of nails in shear wall applications. The scope of our work includes building single-shear test samples, conducting experiments and compiling the results for use in the database. The samples are constructed from one foot 4 x 4 sections and two pieces of plywood connected by nails, that will be either hand-driven or gun driven. These specimens are loaded in tension using the Tinius-Olsen Machine. Yield and fracture strength values for the nails are then obtained by using the Strawberry Tree Software in conjunction with the extensometer. Currently the data is being analyzed to produce load-displacement graphs, modes of failures, ultimate loads and yield displacements. Once the database has been created, the results will be easily accessible by members of the engineering community through the SEAOC webpage.

 

Platelet GP IIB/IIIA Inhibitor, Aggrastat, Attenuates Platelet Alpha Granules and Reduces Complement Activity in the In Vitro Ventricular Assist Circulation

Da Wang, Jackson Wang
Mentor: Dr. John Chen

Congestive heart failure (CHF) continues to threaten the lives of millions each year. Due to the limited heart donations, ventricular assist devices (VAD) often aid patients with severe cardiac failures. However, statistics have shown that prolonged use of [mechanical] assist devices are plagued by complications such as thromboembolism, bleeding, and inflammation. Blood interaction with the artificial surfaces of VAD circuits has also been shown to activate the complement cascade system. A serine protease inhibitor called C1-Inhibitor (C1-INH) is known to reside in the platelet alpha granules. Platelet degranulation may play a primary role in the release of C1-INH into serum during VAD use, where it negatively regulates complement by binding C1 of the classical pathway of complement. To prove that the increase in serum levels of C1-INH during ventricular assist occur as a result of platelet degranulation, the release of another alpha granule molecule was measured and compared with C1-INH. Platelet factor four (PF4) is a protein that also resides in alpha granules. It is expected that there will be similar fluctuations in the serum levels of PF4 and C1-INH resulting from platelet degranulation. Aggrastat, a specific platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, has shown the ability to inhibit platelet degranulation during in vitro VAD circulation. Current data analysis has revealed that VAD circuits receiving treatment with Aggrastat displayed a decrease in serum levels of PF4 and C1-INH. The purpose of this experiment, therefore, is to temporally correlate serum levels of C1-INH with PF4 to determine whether C1-INH is released into serum via platelet degranulation.

 

The Effects of Lazaroid U-74389-G in Hemorrahagic Shock: A Histological Analysis

Christopher Benitez, Won-Suk Choi, Arnold Pang
Mentor: Dr. Marianne Cinat

Hemorrhagic shock leads to the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species that are responsible for lipid peroxidation and cellular injury. Recently, Lazaroid U-74389-G (LAZ), a 21-amino steroid, has been shown to decrease the amount of lipid peroxidation that occurs during ischemia-reperfusion. Our goal was to determine the effects of LAZ at the histological level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 minutes of severe hemorrhagic shock by the removal of 27 cc/kg of blood, followed by one hour of resuscitation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored throughout the procedure. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group A (n=15) received 30 mg per kg of LAZ in addition to the standard resuscitation volume of 54 cc/kg. Group B (n=15) received the standard clinical resuscitation volume of Lactated Ringer’s only. Each group was further subdivided into five time points (n=3) 0, 2, 6, 24, and 72 hours. At the end of each time point, tissue from the heart, right lung, right liver, right kidney, and small bowel were harvested and preserved in 10% Formalin. All tissue is currently being processed and will be blinded and analyzed by a pathologist. If our hypothesis is correct, the tissue treated with LAZ will show evidence of less severe cellular damage and edema. If our results correlate with our hypothesis, we will conclude that the effects of reduction of lipid peroxidation by Lazaroid can be seen at the cellular level, and it may help prevent end-organ damage. If this is concluded, Lazaroid may have a role in the early treatment of trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock.

 

American Laboratory of Actor's Training

Jennie Baek, Geoffrey Going, Joanne Yarrow
Mentor: Dr. Cliff Faulkner

The American Laboratory for Actor Training was created to push the boundaries of theatre inception and performance. In addressing the need for new works we created a interdisciplinary ensemble combining dance, drama, music, and design. It is our desire to gain a better understanding for the multi-meaning of creative work. Traveling to New York and Europe gave us the opportunity to record and explore both a training process and a process of creating an original work, which we titled, "Esteban." We created a theatre community that developed through each artist’s individual culture and discipline, and established a common theatrical and performance vocabulary. Four months prior, we started a group laboratory that met twice a week here at UCI. This was followed by four weeks of intense training and rehearsal in upstate New York, which culminated in a performance presented in New York City and London. This exploration of movement theatre research also inspired a continuing laboratory where students from different artistic disciplines can exchange varied training principles under the umbrella of a movement theatre company. As pioneers, these students aspired and accomplished taking a laboratory ensemble to other artists around the world.

 

Requirement of Non-neuronal Feeder Cells for Normal Development of Cultured Primary Somatosensory Neurons

Dien Ton, Anne Walling
Mentor: Dr. Martin Smith

Neuronal cultures provide a unique system for studying differentiation and cellular interactions of neurons. The current method of culturing neurons in our laboratory involves plating neurons of the somatosensory cortex on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips, which are then placed on a feeder layer of non-neuronal cells. Neurons grown on coverslips require transfer to a new layer of non-neuronal cells biweekly, which necessitates preparation and maintenance of a large amount of non-neuronal cultures incurring a considerable demand for time and laboratory resources. The use of preconditioned media as compared to co-culturing with non-neuronal cells would allow for recycling of non-neuronal cultures and conservation of time and tissue culture equipment. To determine if the use of preconditioned medium in place of non-neuronal feeder layers provides comparable support to neurons, the effects of non-neuronal cells on neurons in culture were studied. Neurons were cultured in three different conditions: 1) in serum free media (NBM) on non-neuronal feeder layers, 2) in NBM preconditioned by non neuronal cells, 3) in NBM. Neurons grown in these conditions were compared in regards to morphology and synaptogenesis using immunocytochemical markers for pre- and postsynaptic proteins. Our results show that neurons grown with preconditioned media are indistinguishable from neurons grown with non-neuronal feeder layers. This suggests that direct contact of neurons with non-neuronal feeder cultures is not required for normal development. However, conditioning of NBM (with feeder cultures) seems necessary since neurons grown in NBM alone show severe morphological abnormalities.

 

Ocular Structural Changes Induced by Accommodation Over Time

Benh Lam, Chau Vuong
Mentor: Dr. Joseph Occhipinti

College students are known clinically to incur changes in their refractive error with the progression of time due to students’ increase in near focusing activities. During near focusing work, cilary body muscles of the eye constantly contract to focus, leading to an accommodation process that can permanently change the ocular structure of the eye. This change may be detected and correlated with a direct relationship to prescription change. As part of the investigation, video images of the eye’s anterior chamber depth were taken using an Anterior Segment Photography System (E.A.S. 1000) manufactured by Nidek. This was done after the subjects had their eyes checked for any refractive errors and had their eyes dilated. After a period of at least 12 months, the subjects will have a second set of images taken of their eyes. Data analysis is currently underway comparing the two sets of images to determine whether ocular structural changes occurred and correlating that to prescription change. The findings of the study is expected to help isolate the particular structure change in the eye due to the changes in refractive error and to lay grounds for further research in preventive measures.

 

Phenotypic Analysis & Detection of arsA, arsB and arsC Genes in Resistant Bacteria

David Huang, Foung Vang
Mentor: Dr. Betty Olsen

Arsenic pollution of drinking water source poses a potential threat to human health. The US EPA is considering decreasing the allowable amount of arsenic in drinking water in effort to decrease human cancer risk. In an effort to understand how arsenic cycles in water, this study is focused on characterizing a bacterial community resistant to arsenic originating from South Haiwee Drain #5 (Owen’s Valley, CA). This water source is contaminated with arsenic (total arsenic 740 µg/L). Resistant isolates are being analyzed for the presence of arsenic resistant genes (arsA, arsB and arsC) through PCR. In addition, the Biolog Microplate System is being used to characterize the species identity of bacterial isolates. Preliminary PCR results indicate the presence of one or more of the ars operon genes within this microbial sub-population. The outcome of this study will help in predicting the potential response of the bacterial community to the contamination of arsenic. The genetic analysis of arsenic resistant bacteria has implications for increasing the overall understanding of biotransformation of arsenic within the water environment. Understanding these processes could lead to biotechnological innovations that could be used to remove or transform arsenic to as less toxic form in drinking water.

 

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Brett Andrews, Charlie Chang, Daniel Chen, Catherine Le, Sabina Lin, Gary Mark, Shelley Notarnicola, Mica Parks, Theera Sirinopwongsagon
Mentor: Dr. Kenneth Mease

For the past several years, collegiate teams, with the backing of industry and government, have fielded autonomous flying robots in an attempt to perform missions that required robotic behaviors never before exhibited in a flying machine. The term "Aerial Robotics" was coined by Robert Michelson to describe a new class of small highly intelligent flying machines. Our research and design goals are to design and build a flying robot capable of autonomous takeoff, flight, and landing. If time permitted, mapping uncharted areas and identifying objects will also be included in the design. This required research into aircraft design, strength of materials, control logic and processing, fluid dynamics, and programming. Our craft is based on the Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) design. This design was chosen over a helicopter due to the inherent instability and low weight carrying capacity of a helicopter in flight. Currently, the craft has been constructed with final retrofits being finished before the on-board computer components are placed within. The control logic and process manager has also been completed but requires further testing before its full implementation. Due to time constraints, mapping and identification has been left out of the design process. Future plans for full scale testing are underway. Barring any complications, it will be possible to input instructions into a computer and have the craft follow these instructions completely on its own without assistance from a pilot. Our results are expected to further research into unmanned aerial vehicles used in emergency situations.

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