Peace and Prosperity in the Middle Ages: An Empirical Investigation
Shagufta Ahmed & Shaista Ahmed
Mentor: Dr. Gary Richardson
The prosperity of a country depends on the state of policy and society. That truism holds today and held in the past. Medieval England was a village-centered society similar to many agricultural nations today. We use the history of England as a laboratory to study the relationship between peace and prosperity in agrarian societies. Data about the level of violence and distribution of wealth in England from 500 to 1500 AD reveals the affects of conflict on the economy. Shaista Ahmed collected evidence on civil disturbances, military actions, and criminal activities in English counties each year of the Middle Ages. Shagufta Ahmed collected data on the institutional structures and economic development of English counties over the same period. Analysis of the two data sets across time will assist us in addressing important questions. Does violence hinder economic development? Are countries poor due to violence or violent because they are poor? Was the relationship between peace and prosperity the same in the past? Through the analysis of this model, we will be closer to determining the dynamics of developing nations that exhibit similar agrarian economies. This study will ultimately provide lessons that will help inspire progress in developing nations today.
Development of a Culture System for Characterizing the Electrophysiological Properties of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons
Kevin Boswell & Vinh Nguyen
Mentor: Dr. Diane O'Dowd
The mushroom bodies in the brain of the adult fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) have been shown to play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. The principle cells of the mushroom bodies, Kenyon cells, are located in two bilaterally symmetric clusters in the dorsal posterior cortex of the pupal and adult brain. The small size of the animal has precluded examination of the functional properties of this population of cells in vivo. Our goal was to develop a culture system in which we could assess the functional properties of these neurons. Using GAL4 enhancer trap lines driving mushroom body restricted expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene, we identified mushroom body neurons in whole brains removed from early red-eye pupae (42-48 hours after pupariation.) To prepare cultures enriched for mushroom body neurons, the visual lobes and ventral ½ of the central brain regions were removed. The remaining brain tissue was triturated following papain digestion and the cells were plated onto ConA-laminin coated coverslips in a defined media. Cells extended neurites in the first 24 hours and these continued to grow for up to a week. Approximately 20% of the cultured neurons were GFP positive. Whole cell recordings of the cultured neurons demonstrated that these cells expressed voltage gated sodium and potassium channels, fired action potentials, and formed functional synaptic connections. This is the first report of culture conditions which support the differentiation of electrically excitable neurons from the pupal/adult Drosophila brain.
Laser Induced Fluorescence of No2 in Super-Fluid Liquid Helium
Areg Boyamyan & Vahan Ghazarian
Mentor: Dr. Vartkess A. Apkarian
Superfluid liquid helium is of great interest to scientists because of its unique properties, such as the absence of viscosity. The understanding and utilization of these particular properties requires extensive engineering and experimentation in harsh cryogenic environment. Elucidating the implications of these microscopic properties on a molecular scale is the aim of our project. Our approach relies on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of a chosen molecule injected into the superfluid liquid helium. A major challenge in this regard is the engineering of the molecule injection system, since at the temperature of interest, T<2K, all molecules freeze into a solid. The solution of this task was the design of a supersonic nozzle, to deliver pre-cooled, isolated molecules entrained in a He packet into liquid helium. Due to the near absolute zero temperature of the environment causing a large temperature gradient between the liquid and molecule injector, the management of thermal loads required extensive design considerations. Using particular insulating materials and the introduction of two differentially pumped vacuum jackets, we super insulated the molecule injector from the cold liquid helium vapor. The design was sufficient to inject molecules in the liquid, as we confirmed during experimentation. Detailed measurements of molecular trajectories and spectroscopy in the liquid are underway.
Nicotine Self-administration in Naïve Rats: Comparison to Cocaine
Bill Chan & Chun Feng
Mentor: Dr. James Belluzzi
Studies have shown that nicotine induces extracellular release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region believed to be important in behavioral reinforcement. In the present study, we examined the reinforcing actions of nicotine. Both naïve and food-trained rats were surgically implanted with an intravenous catheter prior to self-administration experiments. First, we examined the strength of nicotine reinforcement by performing a 10-day acquisition experiment on both naïve and food-trained rats to see if rats could learn to press a lever for a self-injection of nicotine. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of nicotine on animals self-administering cocaine. Our results show that food-trained rats acquire nicotine faster than naïve rats, but both groups showed learning at the higher nicotine doses. In addition, our results indicate that the addition of nicotine reduces cocaine self-administration rates in a manner similar to the effects of increasing the cocaine dose. These results support the idea that nicotine reinforcement is sufficient for acquisition of self-administration and that nicotine enhances the action of cocaine.
Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System
Yinhui Chao & Alex Cheung
Mentor: Dr. Frank J. Wessel
This paper describes the physics, engineering, and systems design for a Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System (CBFR-SPS). A Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor is a cylindrically-symmetric, high beta, magnetic-field reversed configuration (FRC) driven by high energy ion beams that provide particle temperatures in the range of hundreds of keV. The use of high-energy ion beams is motivated by the prospect for a scaleable system, dominated by classical (particle and energy) transport. The performance characteristics of the CBFR SPS have been estimated for the following fuel cycles: deuterium-tritium (D-T), deuterium-helium-3 (D-He3), and hydrogen-boron-11 (H-B11) in the context of a mission to Mars. The main advantage of the CBFR SPS is the high specific impulse (Isp) of the system (high specific impulse is exactly analogous with exhaust velocity of the jet stream). Such a system can provide a ten-fold increase in the payload mass compared to a chemical system since the specific impulse is five orders of magnitude greater, Isp = 1.4 x 106 sec (e.g. for chemical propulsion systems Isp » 200 sec). The thrust-to mass ratio for this system is projected to be 3.9 x 10-3 Newtons/kg. The dimension of the CBFR SPS design would be approximately, 2-meters diameter x 7-meters length, and possess a mass ~11 x 103 kg. This project strives to improve our understanding of the CBFR SPS performance metrics relevant for an orbit-transfer mission between Earth and Mars.
Limonene and Terpinen-4-ol Enantiomers Evoke Differences in the Spatial Coding of the Rat Olfactory Bulb
Mark Choi & Ahdy Messiha
Mentor: Dr. Michael Leon
The spatial coding model in olfaction suggests that distinct odors generate spatially unique patterns of activity in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Odorant receptors bind to odorants according to various features of the odorant chemical. Variables such as carbon length, functional groups, and odorant concentration have been found to change the spatial representations of the odorants in the olfactory bulb. One specific feature that may play a significant role in binding of the protein receptors is stereochemistry. Because of changes in the spatial arrangement of atoms in the chemical, different enantiomers can have significant differences in perceived odor. This study attempted to determine whether the enantiomer pairs of S-(-)- and R-(+)-limonene and S-(+)- and R-(-)-terpinen-4-ol evoke unique spatial patterns of activity in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. Using a high-resolution [14C]-2-deoxyglucose mapping technique, the spatial patterns evoked by the two pairs of odorants were compared. Differences in patterns evoked by the odorants were found by statistical analysis. All odors showed greater activity than did control air exposures, and all four odorants evoked distinct spatial patterns of metabolism. Furthermore, possible similarities in the spatial coding of the olfactory bulb were found between odorants with similar stereochemical configurations.
The Function of Serotonin in C. elegans
Hsiao-Shyang Chow & Jie Li
Mentor: Dr. Ji Ying Sze
The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated to modulate behavior and metabolism in many organisms. Using the nematode C. elegans as a model system, we study the effect of serotonin on reproduction and growth. M In the first set of experiments using a pharmacological approach, we compared the egg-laying behavior of wild type vs. mutants that can not synthesize serotonin. We found that food stimulates egg-laying, whereas starvation inhibits it. And an exogenous supply of serotonin can replace the role of food to signal egg-laying. We also found that worms that can not synthesize serotonin have egg-laying defects even in the presence of food. In the second set of experiments, we determined the effect of serotonin on larval development. Wild type worms develop to adults through four stages in three days. Starvation or mutation in the daf-7 TGF-b signaling pathway causes worms to rest at a metabolic inactive stage called "dauer larvae." We found that mutations in serotonin synthesis enhance dauer formation in the presence of food. Currently, we use genetic approaches to isolate and identify genes that regulate serotonin synthesis in specific neurons. We have identified the POU homeo box gene unc-86 that regulates serotonin synthesis in a subset of neurons. We have isolated four mutants affecting serotonin synthesis in a pair of sensory neurons, and one mutant affecting serotonin synthesis in motor-neurons. The analysis on behavior and metabolism of these mutants are currently in process. Molecular genetic analysis shows that genes function in C. elegans are conserved in vertebrates. Therefore, study of mutants of C. elegans will lead to the understanding and discovery of genes important for physiological features in higher organisms.
Assessment of Neurotoxic Injury Using Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Fluoro-jade Histochemistry
Linh Duong & Gemi Nguyen
Mentors: Dr. James Fallon, Dr. Richard Kinyamu & Dr. Isaac Opole
Parkinsons Disease is a motor disorder characterized by rigidity, tremor, akinesia, and loss of coordination, due to depletion of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra. The experimental approach in Parkinsons disease research is to use a unilateral neurotoxic lesion to the substantia nigra in an experimental animal model and then to assess the effects of various manipulations on the induced symptoms. We have assessed the efficacy of 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced hemi-parkinsonism using a combination of behavior testing, Tyrosine Hydroxylase immunocytochemistry and Fluorescent histochemistry. Animals received a baseline behavior test by observing any apomorphine-induced contraleral rotation (subcutaneous apomorphine, .0025mg/kg). Two days later, animals were anesthetized and immobilized on Kopf stereotaxic. 8 microliters of 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrochloride was then stereotaxically injected into the left substantia nigra. Post-surgically, animals are allowed to survive for 6 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 8 days, 10 days and 14 days. Another behavior test was then assessed as above post-lesion, and the animal sacrificed by transcardial perfusion. We assessed the neurotoxic effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine using traditional Tyrosine Hydroxylase immunocytochemistry and an alternative histochemical technique using a novel fluorophore, Fluoro-jade (Schmued et al., 1996). Tyrosine Hydroxylase immunocytochemistry showed depletion of dopamine neurons after two days. However, Fluoro-jade histochemistry demonstrated cell injury and death at the earliest time period observed. Fuoro-jade, therefore, provides a quicker alternative to confirm the success of the 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions. This method may have more widespread application in cell death research in the biological sciences.
Pui-On Ip & Noel Ruiz
Mentor: Dr. Tatsuya Suda
A problem with todays computer networks is that they are continually growing at a rapid rate. With this size increase comes increased delays and a decline in performance. BIONET is a computer network architecture that uses biological concepts for improved network performance. A BIONET network is made up of cyber entities, which hold resources and can reproduce, migrate from computer to computer, and die. The BIONET project is ongoing and it is currently in a state of design and simulation. Iris Ip and Noel Ruiz have defined a personal project to enhance the functionality of the BIONET simulations. This project focuses on designing tools that will allow a better analysis of simulations results. The project consists of designing two algorithms for analyzing simulations statistics, programming the algorithms, testing the algorithms, integrating the algorithms with the simulator, and documenting the algorithms. These two algorithms were implemented using graph theory. The function "maxDiameter" measures the maximum distance between two cyber entities using Floyds algorithm. This algorithm first calculates the shortest distance between every pair of cyber-entities. It then returns the largest of these shortest distances, which is the maximum diameter of the network. The other function, "isConnected", determines if all the cyber entities of the network are reachable. It uses a "Breadth-First" search to examine if every cyber-entity has at least one relationship with other cyber-entities that belong to the same network. If all the entities are reached, then the network is connected.
The Usefulness of Violence Screening and Referral Cards in a Clinical Setting
James Khu & Kevin Le
Mentor: Dr. Federico Vaca
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, 2-4 million women are victims of domestic violence every year. Another 1-2 million children and nearly 2 million elders are also victims of abuse. Health professionals are in an excellent position to identify these cases. In cooperation with the Violence Prevention Coalition of Orange County (VPCOC), we conducted a pilot review of four violence screening and referral cards. They were developed to aid health professionals to identify, refer, and report patients at risk for child abuse, domestic violence, elder abuse, and youth suicide. In order to evaluate the usefulness of these cards in a clinical setting, ninety sets were sent to health professionals in outpatient clinics and hospital emergency rooms throughout Orange County. Participants were asked to keep the cards in an easily accessible place and refer to them as needed during a two-week period. Thirty-seven of the participants returned the questionnaire for a response rate of 41%. The responses for usefulness of the information on the cards are as follows: 29.7%(n=11) very useful, 40.5%(n=15) useful, 10.8%(n=4) somewhat useful, 2.7%(n=1) not very useful, and 16.2%(n=6) no response. Responses regarding the format of the cards are as follows: 29.7%(n=11) very useful, 45.9%(n=17) useful, 8.1%(n=3) somewhat useful, 2.7%(n=1) not useful, and 15.5%(n=5) no response. These data suggest that the cards will be useful and have encouraged the VPCOC to distribute 5,000 sets throughout the county. We hope these cards will increase the identification of abused patients and allow them to obtain help and support.
Autonomous Aerial Search Vehicle
Catherine Le & Ralf Socher
Mentor: Dr. Kenneth Mease
The Autonomous Aerial Search Vehicle design teams first objective is to create a sound vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is capable of manually controlled flight. Once the vehicles flight characteristics and maneuverability are demonstrated, control theory will be applied to develop autonomy. The control system is comprised of a multitude of sensors, which provide three axis attitude and orientation data, and a digital controller that actuates the aircrafts systems to maintain stable flight and execute its mission. To achieve autonomous flight, a piecewise process of closing individual feedback loops will provide a means of evaluating the control system while maintaining manual control. A significant obstacle to implementing the autonomous system is overcoming vibration and electrical interference, which degrade sensor readings and affect the digital controller. Shielding all onboard electronics from the motors high voltage ignition system, and isolating sensors from vibration while maintaining precise measurements are challenging tasks that need to be overcome to develop a successful design.
Effects of Computer-Based Patient Records on Physician-Patient Interactions: Physicians' Perspectives
Tai-Wei Lin & Chad Seeraty
Mentors: Dr. Wanda Pratt & Dr. Madhu Reddy
The cornerstone of medical care is the physician-patient relationship. Physicians have used paper-based patient charts or records for years as a necessary artifact for the progress of this relationship. Physicians draw important information from the record to facilitate an exchange of information with patients during visits and to provide an environment that is conducive to a satisfying and efficient interaction. The introduction of computer-based patient records (CPRs) into physicians offices could affect this important interaction. Other researchers have focused on patients views of the effects of CPR on the physician-patient interaction. This study examines physicians perspectives on the effects of CPRs when physicians shift from use of paper-based records to use of CPRs. Physicians in differing specialties were interviewed regarding their views of patient interactions and CPRs, and findings will be based upon analysis of the data received. The study has two main objectives: (1) Results should provide increased understanding of the behavioral effects of CPRs on physician-patient relationships and interactions. (2) Results should provide information relevant to software design in order to develop CPRs that do no significantly interfere with physician-patient interaction.
The Home Environment as Related to the Social Interaction and Play Levels of Twelve Month Old Children with Autism
Martha Martinez & Jehan Seirafi
Mentor: Dr. Wendy Goldberg
The home environment has been shown to be an extremely important variable in the development of children. Children with handicapping conditions may be even more "vulnerable to the deficits, deviations, and uncertainties within the environment"(Bradley et al., 1989). There has been a limited amount of research conducted on the home environment of children with autism. This research aims to provide a better understanding of the associations between aspects of the home environment and one-year old childrens social interactions and play levels. A modified version of Bradley and Caldwells Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scale was used to assess features of the home environment as displayed on naturalistic home-based videotapes that parents made when their children were young. The childrens responses to social bids and levels and types of play activity were also evaluated using the same videotapes, but with coding scales developed by Osterling and Dawson (1993, 1997) and Goldberg (1998) as part of a larger study of children with autism. Data are reported on the correlations between emotional and verbal responsivity, organization of physical and temporal environment, provision of appropriate play materials, and parental involvement and young autistic childrens social interaction and play. We hypothesize that the more sensitive, warm, and stimulating the home environment, the more social the children will be, and the higher their levels of play.
International Terrorism: Changes Toward World Peace
Analia Muñoz & Jason Watanabe
Mentor: Dr. Diane Chang
It is rare in the life of a college, let alone high school student to be familiar with world events and actually be interested in them. The stereotype goes that college students are only passionate about the latest movies and fashion trends. My partner, Jason and I wish to prove otherwise. We both have been involved in an academic program called Model United Nations since we were in high school. Model United Nations allows students the opportunity to engage in debate while representing a nation from the world in a given United Nations committee. Jason and I recently went to the University of California, Berkeleys Model United Nations Collegiate Conference and represented the Republic of Iraq in the Legal Committee of the General Assembly. We were required to be well researched in three topics: Diplomatic Security, International Criminal Court and our personal favorite, International Terrorism. There has always been controversy concerning the Republic of Iraqs policy as a nation labeled by the United States as a country which "sponsors terrorism." Given the circumstances of our country, Jason and I were required to defend the Republic of Iraqs policy in the committee as well as produce resolutions with various members in our committee. The research we will be presenting is the policy of the Republic of Iraq and the information we used to diplomatically get our points across.
Synthesis of Anticancer Compounds
Liza Rebaza & Mary Yan
Mentor: Dr. Filmore Freeman
The project involved the synthesis of derivatives of 2-azabutadiene, piperazine, 3-pyrroline, pyrrole and hexadienoate, compounds that have shown anticancer activities. These compounds were afforded from different types of chemical reactions: condensation, cycloaddition, and Michael addition, using various substituted bezaldehydes as one of the starting materials. The bioactivity and toxicity of these anticancer compounds are directly related to the substituent groups attached to the benzene ring. The goal of this project was to synthesize these compounds in order to increase their bioactivity and to lower their toxicity for the treatment of cancer in living organisms. The reactions were monitored by thin-layer chromatography for qualitative analysis and the final products were isolated using column chromatography. The structures of the final products were confirmed by mass spectrometry and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The products isolated are being sent to the National Cancer Institute to test for bioactivity and toxicity.
Collaborative Self Training
Deidre Schoo & Katjana Vadeboncoeur
Mentor: Dr. Stephen Barker
Art is a collaborative human endeavor. The collegiate atmosphere lends itself to collaboration but without unity and communication the creative act can never be fully realized. We have recognized the potential for undergraduates to become far more focused and involved in their own education. Collaborative Self Training is a student run, creative project dedicated to fostering communication and unity among drama undergraduates. Our goals are to cultivate impulse and instinct, gain self-knowledge and develop an artistic community amongst UCI undergraduate drama majors. There are two components to our project: training sessions and outreach workshops. Through the discipline of meeting regularly with a core group of students we have initiated a dialogue and opened an outlet for discussion with others seeking an extension to their UCI experience. The guest artist workshop series has provided students with exposure to professional working artists. This contact is not only a vital infusion to our training project, but a crucial element in any drama students education. Here we are gaining exposure to advanced techniques and learning the skills we will need to create networks and build support as we cross into the professional world after graduation. Working with professors and students alike we have tailored our project to the needs of its participants. The scope of our training and workshops have included various actor training methods such as improvisation and Anne Bogarts Viewpoints, as well as physical body work, creative discussions, auditioning technique, integrity in professional acting and the artists journey.
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Rat Muscle
Manpreet Sidhu & Vi Quach
Mentor: Dr. Ricardo Miledi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of skeletal muscle are heterosubunit ligand-gate channels that mediate signal transmission from motor nerves to muscle (Miledi and Potter, 1971). Adult vertebrate skeletal muscle can be generally classified into fast (white muscle) and slow (red muscle) twitch subtypes based on specialized contractile and metabolic properties. These properties reflect the expression of specific sets of fast and slow contractile isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, tropomyosin and troponins. Muscle fiber-type characteristics are dependent on the frequency of motor nerve stimulation and are thought to be controlled by calcium-dependent signaling (Uchitel and Miledi, 1987). The present study was undertaken to investigate the electrophysiological properties of ACh receptors expressed by native poly-A+ mRNA purified from fast or slow rat muscles. Using a two electrode voltage-clamp technique, Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing AChRs induced by slow or fast muscle mRNA responded to ACh with an inward membrane current that increased with increasing concentration of ACh and declined with time in a concentration dependent way even though ACh was continuosly applied. The result show that the two tissue express native AChRs differently, with oocytes injected with slow native mRNA eliciting ACh-induced current three to four times bigger (200 nA) than that in oocytes expressing fast native mRNA (40 nA).
Perceived (In)vulnerability in Contracepting and Noncontracepting Teens
Karla Aguirre, Dan Garcia & Laura Loustaunau
Mentor: Dr. Jennifer Johnson
Teenage pregnancy is a phenomenon that affects 9.7% of teenagers between the ages of fifteen and nineteen. One factor that may inform our understanding of why some teens end up pregnant is the optimistic bias. Past research has indicated that the optimistic bias is evident in adults and sixth graders in a variety of domains. This means that they perceived themselves as less likely to be at risk for a variety of health events than others like them. Little research has explored the optimistic bias in teens engaging in risky behavior. No one has checked this in a sample of teens who are engaging in risky sexual behavior. The present study examines whether perceived invulnerability (to a variety of health domains including sex-related events) is evident in and related to risky behavior in teens. To investigate this, self-report data were collected from 211 contracepting and non-contracepting adolescent females who completed surveys while visiting Planned Parenthood and WIC. Data analysis is still in progress. Future research directions will be provided.
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Augment the Antiviral Activity of Anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin (Ig)
Eleanor Cabrera, Gabriel Katz & Tran Phan
Mentor: Dr. Donald Forthal
Treatment with CMV-specific antibody (Ab) can prevent or modify CMV disease. We determined the ability of Ig with high anti-CMV titer (Cytogam), in the presence of monocytes or PBMCs as a source of effectors, to reduce viral yield from CMV infected human foreskin fibroblast (FF) cells. FF cells were infected with CMV (MOI = 0.1-0.5) for 2 to 5 days, washed, and treated with Cytogam (0.01-1.0 mg/ml) with or without monocytes or PBMCs as effector cells. After 3, 5, 7, and 9 days, infected monolayers were inspected for cytopathic effect (CPE). In addition, supernatant was titrated onto fresh FF cells, and the number of CMV cells was determined using an immunofluorescent assay for immediate early antigen. In the absence of Ab, monocytes, or PBMCs, the supernatant yielded a virus titer of 267,000. When Cytogam was added to FF cells 5 days after infection, virus yield dropped 3.78 logs to a titer of 44. Addition of effector cells resulted in a further drop in virus titer to less than 4. Inspection of FF monolayers revealed marked protection from CPE when infected cells were treated with both Cytogam and effector cells. The antiviral effect of Cytogam alone is probably due to neutralization of cell-free virus. The addition of effector cells to Cytogam results in further antiviral effect and protects the cell monolayer, probably through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Since CMV remains largely cell-associated during infection, the ADCC activity of Cytogam may play an important role in its clinical efficacy.
Chinese Migrant Flows in the Era of Exclusion
Emily Chiang, Ben Oh & Tiffany Truong
Mentor: Dr. Gary Richardson
After the discovery of gold in California, Chinese men migrated to the United States in tremendous numbers. By 1880, Chinese immigrants amounted to almost 10 percent of the population west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1882, the United States prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers. The Historical Statistics of the United States indicates few if any Chinese men entered the United States after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. That conclusion is questioned by our research, which establishes accurate statistics of Chinese immigration in the last decades of the 19th century. Existing statistics on Chinese immigration from sources such as the U.S. Historical Statistics, U.S. Census Reports, and the San Francisco Customs House reports are collected and used to construct an accurate time-series of Chinese migrant flows in the U.S. Furthermore, close examination of the original records will reveal certain migrant trends and characteristics that can help explain why major discrepancies exist among published reports on Chinese immigration. Establishing accurate statistical figures not only reveals discrepancies and allows us to quantify them, but it raises many important questions about the era of Chinese exclusion in the U.S. For example, what were the main socio-economic factors driving Chinese immigration in the U.S. despite legal prohibition? Why were they not reported? What were some of the important characteristics in migrant trends? What implications can be made? What are the consequences and how is it relevant to the structure of society and the economy?
Colors of Theatre
Nelson Eusebio, Trina Adelle Mendiola & Boris Sam
Mentor: Dr. Eugene Douglas
American Theatre is a place where tears are shed, emotions are vented, and stars are born. For those of us who have experienced it, images created by Shakespeare, Miller and Oscar & Hammerstein impress upon us thoughts and feelings that last a lifetime. American Theatre is also an evolving art form, whose themes reflect the changes and problems in the present society. In this spirit Colors of Theatre was created last year by Karina Gonzales in an effort to bring to American Theatre something it sorely lacked: an accurate and lurid representation of the stories and experiences of minorities. This effort culminated in the production of "Beyond the Border" which exposed the history of racism and injustices experienced by women, African-Americans, Indians, and Asian-Americans. This year, a few dedicated students have continued with what was one students senior thesis and created an organization where UCI students of all backgrounds can express themselves and create awareness of issues that are close to their hearts. Colors of Theatre has registered as an official club on campus and has coordinated with such organizations as CWGE (Center for Women and Gender Education) and the Cultural Center, and has participated in events such as this years Womens Fest. The actors, writers, singers, dancers, and poets of Colors of Theatre are currently working under the guidance of Prof. Eugene Douglas on a final project that will be presented at the end of the year. Through this project, UCI students have been able to continue bringing to light poignant issues that have often been ignored in todays American Theatre. Colors of Theatre has set a stage where voices of history, racism, and oppression can finally be heard, and we hope that this is only the beginning.
Mouse Stepper for Rehabilitation of Locomotion in Spinal-Transected Mice
Eugene Kwak, Koyiro Minakata & Eddie Ng
Mentor: Dr. David Reinkensmeyer
We describe the design of a robotic system to assist in rehabilitation of locomotion of spinal-transected mice. The underlying objective of the Mouse Stepper is to assist the trajectory of a step taken by a mouse, and to quantify forces generated during the stance and swing phases of the mouse step. To this end, the project will be broken into two parts. The first one is to develop a robotic system for controlling and measuring the kinematics of the hind limbs of the mouse. The robotic system will consist of a four-bar linkage designed to create varied paths for the mouse step to follow. The second part of the project is to develop the necessary software to control the linkages. The resulting device will be used to train spinal-injured mice to step.
Design and Testing of MEMS-Based Microfluidic System
Dennis Lee, Long Tran & Kim Chau Vu
Mentors: Dr. John LaRue & Dr. Richard Nelson
The MEMS-based microfluidic system is developed to measure the rate of lateral diffusion in microfluidic channels for a select set of chemical species and to evaluate the effect of micro-roughness on molecular mixing in the MEMS microfluidic channel. Two important design issues are fluid coupling and injection techniques, and diffusion experiment. First, aluminum alloy (T4, 6061) is used to build a pressurized tank for forcing fluids from the macroscopic realm to microscopic MEMS realm. The small rectangular channel (250m m wide x 5m m high) trench is anisotropically etched in the silicon wafer. The photolithography process consists of deep etching of the input and output trenches, and the shallow etching of the microchannel and other features. Second, two laminar flow streams are laterally merged and lateral diffusion and mixing rates are measured. The speed and the volume flow rate of fluid must be accurately measured. This can be achieved by observing the flow surface movement using the scale etched into the silicon and by integrating a graduated collection chamber. The results of the design studies and the diffusion and mixing experiment will be discussed.
Effect of the Capillary Spacing on EHD Spraying from Multiple Jets
Catherine Le, Michael Papac, Jonathan Regele & Matthew Rickard
Mentor: Dr. Derek Dunn-Rankin
Electrohydrodynamic(EHD) spray atomization is the rapid breakup of liquids into small mono-sized droplets. Among other atomization techniques, electrostatic atomization is of the most efficient in attaining distributions of droplets in the 1 to 100 micron range. Applications of EHD spray atomization exist heavily in the combustion and aerosol sciences, where small mono-sized droplets are required for efficient operation and careful control. However, the limitation of EHD sprays is the maximum flowrate. The objective of the current research is to develop an array of EHD jets that preserve the mono-sizing of the produced droplets and atomization characteristics of a single capillary jet while increasing the flowrate of the system. The experiment examines the interactions of charged capillaries with varied spacing and flowrate situations leading to the optimization of a multiple capillary system.
SAE Collegiate Design Competition: Mini Baja
Jon Dannenberg, Derek Drenske, Emil Karapetian, Michael Peters & Arnold Tuason
Mentor: Dr. Enrique Lavernia
Mini Baja consists of a competition that will simulate real-world engineering design projects and their related challenges. We are asked to design and build an off-road vehicle that will survive the severe punishment of rough terrain. The object of the competition is to provide SAE student members with a challenging project that involves the planning and manufacturing tasks found when introducing a new product to the consumer industrial market. We will be competing against teams from universities along the west coast to have our design accepted for manufacture by a fictitious firm. We are required to design, build, test, promote, and race a vehicle within the limits of the rules, and also to generate financial support for our project and manage our educational priorities.
Anteater Work - A UC Irvine Aero West Design
Ignacio Diaz, Charles Huang, Catherine Le, Ralf Socher, Jose Tong, Geoffrey Truit & Masamitsu Tsuruta
Mentor: Dr. John LaRue
The Aero Design Competition ®, hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), challenged engineering students to develop a heavy-lift model aircraft. In order to meet the objective of lifting a 30-lb cargo, the design team conducted research in the application of channel wing, Gurney flaps, and a canard wing. The channel wing and Gurney flap concepts were validated in wind tunnel testing while control theory demonstrated the advantage of a canard configuration. A channel wing maximizes the wings wetted area that is exposed to the high velocity propeller wash. Computations showed this would increase total lift by 3 pounds. Gurney flaps protrude into the airflow near the wings trailing edge creating additional vorticity, and thus increase the maximum coefficient of lift by 5%. A canard design moves the horizontal stabilizer ahead of the main wing; therefore, a favorable stability margin can be produced with positive lift rather than the down force required by conventional aircraft.
Panda Chandsawangbhuwana, Daniel Chen, Patrick Couch, John Luong, Dieuanh Phan, Vu Phi, Juan Carlos Sotelo & Terrence Yao
Mentor: Dr. Haris Catrakis
To many people, the ultimate dream is to drive racecars. Most of the time, this dream will never come true, but for eight of the mechanical engineering students in the class of 2000, this ultimate dream has become reality. Every graduating mechanical engineer is required to work on a senior design project before graduating from the school, and for the eight of us, we decided to tackle the impossible and compete in the Formula SAE competition. Formula SAE is an event hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers that challenges college students to design, construct, and race a small scale Formula racecar. The purpose of this event is to show the engineering knowledge of students as well as other skills such as presentation and technical writing. Throughout the history of UC Irvine, no car has ever been constructed well enough to finish the event. Therefore, the goal this year is to go to Michigan, where the competition is being held at, and complete all the events required. This years car is powered by a 600 c.c. motorcycle engine, and mounted to a mild steel space-frame chassis. The car is constructed as simple as possible to reduce the possibility of broken parts and construction time. However, the car still consists of some innovative equipment such as adjustable seat, adjustable gas and brake pedals, hand operated clutch unit, composite body panels, and various aerodynamic devices. The ultimate goal is to establish a continually competitive Formula SAE team at UC Irvine.
Bare Bones Dance Theatre
Alicia Albright, Sandee Barnes, Richard Elszy, Ashley Holladay, Albert Jones, Carlene Lai, Meadow Leys, Mary Kate Monahan, Katie Northlich, Jennifer Parsinen, Matt Williams, Seth Williams & Timothy Wilson
Mentor: Dr. Israel Gabriel
Bare Bones Dance Theatre was founded to give undergraduates an opportunity to not only perform but to learn what it takes to produce a dance production from the ground up. This year we celebrated the 12th Anniversary of our annual dance concert, and our existence here on the UCI campus. All aspects of the Bare Bones Concert, such as performing, choreography, administration, publicity, lighting, and costuming, are the result of a cooperative effort of the students. Through our collaboration on this project we like to offer the community an opportunity to experience this wonderful expressive form of communication. By this, we also gain a valuable experience for our futures in the arts. The Bare Bones Concert has received extensive praise for the quality of performance and dedication of the students. The positive support from faculty, UCI administration, and the community, reflects a need for an organization dedicated to the exploration and sharing of this art. Bare Bones is proud to continue a tradition of diversity and freedom of expression. This years participating choreographers, who helped to make our performance successful, include: Alicia Albright, Sandee Barnes, Richard Elszy, Ashley Holladay, Albert Jones, Carlene Lai, Meadow Leys, Mary Kate Monahan, Katie Northlich, Jennifer Parsinen, Matt Williams, Seth Williams, And Timothy Wilson. Bare Bones Dance Theatre has established the Bernard Johnson Memorial Scholarship Fund with the help of Founding Donors and dedicated participates. This scholarship has provided funding for undergraduate choreographers to design, build, and create costumes for their works. Bernard Johnson was a great teacher, friend, mentor, and costume designer here on campus. We will always remember what Bernard taught us.
UCI Etude Ensemble
Cherie Adame, Alicia Albright, Cherie Atia, Sandee Barnes, Richard Elszy, Jared Hanamaikai, Ashley Holladay, Albert Jones, Anna Kaiser, Carlene Lai, Meadow Leys, Jennifer Norton, Samantha Palmer, Jennifer Parsinen, Sarah Reese, Matt Williams & Seth Williams
Mentor: Dr. Donald McKayle
The UCI Etude Ensemble, the resident chamber performance group of the Department of Dance, was founded in 1995 under the artistic direction of Donald McKayle. It has been presented in concert on campus and at national venues in California, Texas, North Carolina, and Colorado. The ensemble can also be viewed on the CD ROM, Herbie Hancock Presents Living Jazz, and is documented in the American Dance Legacy Institutes first interactive volume on choreographer Donald McKayle, which is installed at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC and at the National Museum of Dance in Saratoga Springs, NY. This small and select group of undergraduate dance majors, chosen by annual audition, has as its primary focus the seamless entry of its members into professional careers. Alumni have entered Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, the Martha Graham Dance Company, the Martha Graham Performance Ensemble, Momix, the Limon West Dance Project, the Nashville Ballet, the Cleo Parker Robinson Dance Ensemble, Fame the Musical, and the Metropolitan Opera Ballet.