Alexander Frid

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Alexander Frid


According to Alexander Frid, research is a tool for developing analytical skills that are pertinent to succeeding in today’s professional and academic worlds. Research afforded him the opportunity to contribute to the demands of political science while also allowing him to express his deep interest in the emergence of international norms that address both theoretical and practical concerns. Frid plans to further apply his reasoning skills at UC Berkeley as a law student. triangle.gif (504 bytes)




This paper examines three rationales explaining the development of international law governing cultural protection.  Departing from traditional theoretical approaches in international relations, this paper looks at normative aspects of state behavior that go beyond the typical aspirations for power, prestige, and wealth.  The plunder of cultural property in times of war has been acceptable behavior for centuries as expropriated items were considered “trophies of war” by the victors.  The paper argues that late 18th to early 19th century liberal discourses instilled a sense of a universal identity in people of different nations.  This sense of a common identity, advocated in Kantian universalism and Hegelian Weltgeist, prompted states to consider certain objects as belonging to humankind as a whole–the concept of a common heritage.  The acceptance of the common heritage doctrine led to the development of international laws and conventions prohibiting the plunder and pillage of cultural property during wartime, provisions for repatriation, and changes in state behavior.triangle.gif (504 bytes)

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Faculty Mentor                                                                                                                
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Wayne Sandholtz

School of Social Sciences

Alexander "Sasha" Frid's project, "The Common Heritage Doctrine and the Treatment of Cultural Property," contributes to research taking place at one of the most exciting frontiers of international relations.  In recent years, scholars have begun to explore the ways in which international rules emerge and evolve, and how those rules affect the behavior of countries.  Sasha's paper adds to that effort by explaining the development of international rules for the protection of art treasures in times of war.  Working together on the project was extremely beneficial for both of us.   The collaboration advanced my own research efforts and helped Sasha toward a prize-winning honors thesis.triangle.gif (504 bytes)

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Alexander Frid - The Common Heritage Doctrine and... [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

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