Group Projects

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O.T.U. Pulitzer! Cabaret, a Celebration of Pulitzer Prize Winning Musicals
Ramy Eletreby & Sharon Lee
Mentor: Dr. John Strain

The objective for O.T.U. (Opportunities in Theatre for Undergraduates) is to create a professional atmosphere in which undergraduates have the opportunity to work on an artistic platform in order to enhance theatrical experience and achieve a stronger foundation in the performing arts. The concept for O.T.U. first came to fruition when we realized that education in theatre could only be achieved through experience. How can one gain experience if never given the opportunity in the first place? The primary focus of this organization is to provide these opportunities to grow through theatrical practice, to have the chance to fail or succeed, to imagine and to work hard at bringing images to life on stage. Whether one has talent in Musical Theatre, Acting, Music, Dance, etc., Undergraduate students should have the right to display their artistic abilities publicly. It is our hope to continue producing more quality shows for the stage, utilizing all our humble resources and providing as professional an environment as possible, under the current circumstances for Undergraduates from multiple disciplines to grow. In choosing O.T.U.'s first project, we felt it necessary to take a moment to celebrate the works of those who have been recognized not only from their lifelong dedication to their art but most importantly for their artistic influence on socially relevant issues. By showcasing a compilation of numbers from Pulitzer Prize winning musicals, we are able to exhibit the distinguished few of the American Musical Theater who have set the standard for artistic greatness.

Does Instructional Feedback Make a Difference?
Lisa Choensookasem & Jieeun Woo
Mentor: Dr. Robin Scarcella

Instructional feedback has been administered in classrooms from the start of academia. We all recall how our essays were strewn with red ink, a teacher's commentary scribbled somewhere in the margin. Many of us will also remember meeting with a teacher to revise an essay and to talk about our progress. These are all forms of instructional feedback. A time-honored practice, this "theory" was unchallenged for eons. It was only centuries later that some educators dared to question its validity, asking does instructional feedback actually work? Many prominent educators, such as Stephen Krashen (1985) and Jim Cummins (2000), boldly came forth to oppose instructional feedback as ineffective and conflicting with the nature of human learning. This research tests the credibility of this claim. With thirty-eight participants, our team investigated whether instructional feedback provided through formS-focused instruction (the teaching of grammar in isolation) actually improves the production of the written English of UCI ESL students. Analyzing the data collected - the pre- and the post-tests in the ten weeks of grammar instruction - we were able to conclude that contrary to the popular claim, there were significant improvements in the participants' writing after receiving instructional feedback. When the pre and the post tests were compared with the nonparametric "Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test", the mean for the pre Subject A Exam was 5.21 while the mean for the post Subject A Exam was 7.65. This difference was highly statistically significant (z = 4.93, p > .001). With many students demonstrating marked improvements in the use of the targeted features, the data suggests that instructional feedback does make a difference.

The Self-Similarity of Wireless Local Area Network Traffic
Rex Chen, Apurva Doshi & Nilesh Patel
Mentor: Dr. Tatsuya Suda

In the past, studies of network traffic dealt primarily with the self-similar nature of network traffic in a wired, Ethernet network. Our project extends this concept of self-similarity, the notion that data transmission behaves independent of time scales, in a wireless environment. The experiment is performed by simulating a variety of traffic over a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) followed by a measurement of the number of packets sent, received, and dropped. The empirical data results are used to determine the Hurst parameter based on variance-time and RS-time plots. Statistical analyses show that wireless traffic, similar to Ethernet traffic, exhibits long-range dependency based on earlier traffic transmission. Thus, network traffic in a wireless environment is self-similar in nature.

Acousto-Optic Tunable Filtering (AOTF)
Juan Cordovez & Saba Kazemi
Mentor: Dr. Henry Lee

We demonstrate how acousto-optic devices can serve as spectral filters in all fiber networks. These devices prove to have wide wavelength tuning range, low insertion loss (~0.3db), and narrow bandwidth (~2nm). AOTF operation is based on the launching acoustic compression waves on a single mode (SM) fiber, creating real-time refraction index gratings throughout the length of the fiber filter. These acoustic waves are generated by applying amplified RF signals into a piezo electric device, which is then channeled into a 20cm SM fiber AOTF. We demonstrate device construction and optimization of parameters and test it at communication wavelengths. In view of the loss filter nature of AOTFs, we will exhibit adequate gain flattening by creating a series AOTF, utilizing impedance matching networks and constructing RF power amplifiers.

Embedded Web Server
Ivan Shum & Lin Swe
Mentor: Dr. Pai Chou

With the increased popularity and versatility of the Internet, more people are using the Internet to communicate and interact with each other. With more people using the Internet, people are finding new ways of using the Internet to make their lives easier. One new and exciting concept is using the Internet to interact with remote devices using embedded web servers. Our purpose is to find out what kind of external devices that could be used with the embedded web server. Currently we are working on an external temperature sensor and we are planning on adding more components later. The embedded web server that we are using for this project is the Tiny InterNet Interface (TINI) platform. TINI is a small microprocessor platform created by the Dallas Semiconductor Company that could be used as an embedded web server by uploading JAVA based web server software onto the platform. Once the TINI platform is made into an embedded web server, we can use its many I/O interfaces to connect devices to it. Once a device is connected to the TINI platform, we would need to program the platform to communicate and interact with the device. The field of embedded web servers is still a relativity new field, but with the help of this project, the reality of mainstream used of embedded web servers will be closer than before.

Fluid Flow Testbed: Bond Testing
Jun (Brandon) Choi & Andrew Good
Mentor: Dr. James Earthman , Dr. John LaRue, & Dr. Richard Nelson

This project is in support of the construction of an apparatus suitable for testing fluid flow problems in general and specifically the buildup of residue in small (millimeter scale) flow channels. The final apparatus will be composed of silicon-wafer channel dividers sandwiched between two plates of glass and will be constructed by manually gluing the wafers to one plate and then the second plate on top of the wafers. The adhesive used must be transparent enough to allow an unobstructed view of the flow patterns and strong enough to withstand the high-pressure fluid that will be injected. The purpose of our work is to construct a device for testing the strength of such glass/silicon/glass systems and then to collect statistics on the strength of various adhesives. Our device consists primarily of custom stainless-steel grips attached to the MTS 810 Material Test System, and an aluminum jig for aligning the test-samples with the grips. This presentation will focus on the details of the testing device and any adhesives statistics gathered to date.

Safe Routes to School Project Site Analysis
Eric Gage & Escobedo Luis
Mentor: Dr. Kristen Day

Pedestrian safety often hinges on road conditions and available pedestrian facilities (sidewalks, medians, signage, etc.). Child pedestrians are particularly vulnerable on the walk to and from school. The Caltrans Safe Routes to School funding project (SR2S) is an attempt to increase safety for children by improving pedestrian facilities on the school route. The first cycle of the SR2S project consists of 84 improvement sites across the state of California. Project improvements vary widely in scope, from new sidewalks to more extensive traffic calming measures such as traffic circles, curb bulb-outs and flashing beacons. The populations being served are also diverse, spanning a wide range of population densities, income levels, and ethnic concentrations. We have sought to characterize the SR2S sites by a variety of criteria including project type, school district demographics, and household income. The data was collected from applications submitted to Caltrans, census data, and school databases. These indicators can be used to determine what groups are benefiting from SR2S funds, and gauge the usefulness of the improvements.

Early Social Communication Behaviors in Siblings of Children With Autism
Julie Endres, Jennifer Ferrouge, & Makiko Tanabe
Mentor: Dr. Wendy Goldberg

The early social and communicative development of the younger siblings of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the focus of the current study. Three groups of children were included: young children diagnosed with ASD, untested younger siblings in families with an older child with ASD, and unaffected, typically developing young children. All children participated in a videotaped, structured interactional procedure called the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS; Mundy & Hogan, 1996). Results indicated that, on three of the four ESCS subscales, the joint attention, communication, and social interactions of the untested younger siblings differed from those of the unaffected children but not from the behaviors displayed by the ASD group. Genetic vulnerability for ASD among siblings and characteristics of family interaction may explain the level of impairment observed in the younger siblings of children with autism and related disorders.

Investigating Banking Panics of the Great Depression: A More Extensive Approach
Shagufta Ahmed & Shaista Ahmed
Mentor: Dr. Gary Richardson

Prior empirical research on banking during the Depression era has focused only upon the consequences of pre-Glass-Steagall banking legislation on a national level (Grossman 1994 & Calomiris and Gorton 2000) or the consequences of a collection of regulations in a particular state (Wheelock 1992 & Kwan and Flood 2000). All prior studies employ data on the number of banks failed but not the causes of bank failures. Empirical analysis cannot determine the costs and benefits of different methods of regulating banks without knowing the causes of failures. Finding aids found at the National Archives and Federal Reserve Board Library allowed us to develop a database of bank examiners' conclusions regarding the causes of bank failures. While previous research was conducted using only national banks, our study is unique in that it examines national, state, and non-member banks. Banking finding aids revealed extensive information on the amount of existing capital, amount of loans and investments, and gross deposits. Examiners noted the primary and contributing causes of suspensions, mainly due to slow or doubtful paper, defalcation, but most notably due to the failure of a corresponding bank, reporting name and location of bank. This data proves to be most critical. Preliminary findings indicate that failures of state banks were far different than failures of national banks. During the panic era, substantial interbank lending took place. When national banks were suspended, small banks that had deposited into such larger banks lost their deposits, directly causing their closure, thereby demonstrating a contagion effect.

Effects of Nutrition on Late-Life Fecundity Plateaus in Drosophila melanogaster
Justin Hong & Simon Lee
Mentor: Dr. Michael Rose

The evolutionary theory of late life based on the force of natural selection predicts the presence of late-life fecundity plateaus. It is when the force of natural selection declines to and remains at zero, that a late-life fecundity plateau is expected to occur. Although evolutionary theory predicts and explains the presence of these late-life fecundity plateaus, we must test alternate causes that may affect the existence of the observed plateaus. We hypothesized that late-life fecundity plateaus may be caused by the amount of nutrition the flies received throughout life. We tested the effects of various nutrition levels on the presence and, or shape of late-life fecundity plateaus. Specifically, we measured fecundity in mid and late life in Drosophila melanogaster populations with low and high nutrition levels. If low nutrition levels caused the late-life fecundity plateaus, then high nutrition levels should eliminate them. However, if late-life fecundity plateaus happen regardless of nutrition level, then this hypothesis can be rejected.

Multicultural Competency in Student Affair Personnel
Melissa Mayorga & Christina Salas
Mentor: Dr. Jeannet Castellanos

Over the years universities have become more diverse in their student bodies. Student affairs professionals need to increase their multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills to assist such student bodies. In 1997, Pope and Reynolds came up with a scale to measure student affairs beliefs and attitudes titled "Characteristics of a Multicultural Competent Student Affairs Practitioners". The scale's items are based on a five point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (Extremely Important) to 5 (Not at all Important). The current study being conducted uses this scale in a questionnaire along with a demographic sheet and other general questions about their current position. The independent variables will be ethnicity, gender, current institution, department and title, and average time spent in direct contact with students. The level of multicultural competency of personnel will be the dependent variable. The questionnaires have been distributed amongst units at the University of California Irvine. Twelve units at the campus have been solicited, and 200 questionnaires were rendered to these participating units. The amount of questionnaires expected is 130, and then data analysis will begin. The analysis will determine the levels of multicultural competency the participating student affairs professional feel that they have acquired. Projected findings are that those who have completed courses in multicultural training will have the highest levels of competency in diversity. Student affair professionals that have more interactions with diverse students on daily bases will on average have a higher level of multicultural competency.

The Effects of Young Males on Late-Life Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster
Michelle Cung, Ronald Ly & Kathy Pham
Mentor: Dr. Michael Rose

According to the evolutionary theory of late life, fecundity plateaus should exist in late life due to the decrease in the force of natural selection. In addition, these fecundity plateaus should evolve according to when the force of natural selection plateaus. Both of these predictions have been experimentally demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster. Although fecundity plateaus are observed in late life, and are explained by evolutionary theory, it is necessary that we test for non-evolutionary factors that may have influenced them. In the experiment to test for the existence of fecundity plateaus, males and females were the same age throughout. Consequently, the fecundity plateau that was observed may have been caused by sexual inadequacy of the older males. We hypothesize that the age of males may be a possible factor that causes the fecundity plateau we observe in late life. To test our hypothesis, we will provide females with young males half way through the experiment and measure fecundity until all flies have died. If older males are causing the fecundity plateaus, then young males should delay or obliterate fecundity plateaus late in life. However, if older males do not cause fecundity plateaus, then we expect to see plateaus regardless of the age of the males.

Anteater Bot
Yampier Aguilar, Chakachai Chandsawangbhuwana, Yu Gu, Cory Halbardier, Roy Hwang, Cyndy Lee, Patusa Papartassee, & Zheng Zheng Sun
Mentor: Dr. James Bobrow

Pursuing a degree in the Mechanical Engineering field requires not only attending lectures, but also experiencing hands on design projects. As a result, all seniors are required to participate in a yearlong design project. For the most part, this team did not want just an ordinary project that would drag on all year long. Instead, we wanted to do something new and something that we would enjoy. This year's BattleBot team has spent the last two quarters designing two different "fighting" robots, one that consists of a pneumatic lift and the other with a rotating saw. Both robots will have a wedge frame that is created from steel and aluminum. Although they are not quite finished yet, they have been developing at a nice, constant pace. We have experienced many circumstances that we have had to overcome in order to continue in the design. But we do not look at these instances as losses, rather a learning experience. The goal of the creation of the Anteater Bot is not only to learn and create the most efficient and powerful robot, but also to start laying the foundation for a better, more successful team in the years to come.

Development of Nanofluidic Microscope
Ki-Hyun Choi, Quan Hai, & Eugene Wang
Mentor: Dr. John LaRue & Dr. Richard Nelson

The need to count and size individual microscopic particles exists in a wide variety of fields. For example, microfluidic devices are finding increasing use for DNA analysis, high-speed detection of pathogens, and combinatorial testing of pharmaceuticals. The original Coulter count is a device that performs this function automatically for particles suspended in an electrolyte. Pressure differences cause the particles to flow through a small current carrying channel where electrodes are inserted to detect the resistance change caused by the particles. The momentary voltage change across the electrode is counted and correlates to the dimension of the particles. The fundamental working principle of our device is similar to the mechanism used in the original Coulter counter. Our flow channel substrate consists of an inlet, flow channel where the particles will be detected, and outlet section. The top and bottom of the device will be glass so that the flowing fluid can be observed. The inlet and outlet sections have approximate channel dimension of 150 um wide and 60 um deep. The flow channel dimensions are approximately 60 um wide and 30 um deep. We must ensure that the flow channel dimension is small enough such that the observation region will contain only one particle. Our device is fabricated on glass with inlet, detection, and outlet section. The device is driven by input stage circuit, and measurements are taken by output stage circuit. The input stage circuit consists of four components: voltage controlled oscillator, butterworth bandpass filter, low gain amplifier, and driver. The output stage circuit consists of three components: differential amplifier, low gain amplifier, and demodulation circuit. When we finish this device, we should be able to count the number of particles in the solution, estimate the particle size, measure the effect of particles on fluid flow velocity, and measure the effect of particles on pressure drop.

The Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Formula SAE Racecar
Eduardo Buenviaje, Tuan Cao, Chien-Wen Chen, Anry Cheung, Christopher Jung, Indra Kartawidjaja, Jeremy Liu, Joe Papac, Michael Randall, James Strayer, Nam Tran, Tuan Tran, & Wakeem Wakeem
Mentor: Dr. Derek Dunn-Rankin

The dynamics of a vehicle can be optimized for autocross-type racing. Last year, a prototype was put through research and development and tests were performed on a controlled course to analyze the vehicle. This year, research continued and focused on refining components that warranted improvement. Some of our recent efforts focus on designing and manufacturing a differential case that will withstand the abuse of automobile racing. Implementing forced induction methods to increase the volumetric efficiency of a small, high-speed, four-stroke engine. Use of Carbon Fiber to form a structural cockpit area versus using a conventional tube-frame chassis made from alloys of steel. Implementation of these efforts has allowed us to create a stiffer chassis that weighs less than the equivalent tube-frame design.

The Affect of Simulated Microgravity on the Tyrosine Kinase Pathways in Carotid and Femoral Arteries

Morassa Mohseni & Morvarid Mohseni
Mentor: Dr. Ralph Purdy

Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts adapt to the environment causing vascular changes that alters hyporesponsivness; this causes orthostatic intolerance. These changes may be due to alteration in the function of tyrosine kinases that mediate vascular contraction. The goal of this project was to determine the changes to the tyrosine kinase pathway upon exposure to simulated microgravity. Ground based rodent hindlimb-unweighting models were used to simulate microgravity. Rats were subjected to 20 days of HU treatment, euthanized, and the carotid and femoral arteries were removed, cleaned, and cut into 3mm rings and mounted in tissue baths to measure isometric contraction. Genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly decreased the contractile response to norepinephrine in both control and HU carotid arteries. However, genestein caused a marked reduction in control femoral arteries but had no affect in HU vessels. PP-1, a selective src inhibitor, caused a significant reduction of the contractile response to norepinephrine in control femoral arteries, but had no affect in HU treated tissues. In contrast, PP-1 caused a significantly larger magnitude of inhibition in HU carotid arteries when compared to control tissues. These results suggest that HU treatment may adversely affect the tyrosine kinase pathway in the rat femoral artery, but not in the carotid artery. Additionally, these results indicate that src activity is significantly reduced in the femoral artery, but possibly up-regulated in the carotid artery. Collectively, these results suggest that local homodynamic changes may mediate src activity in addition to tyrosine kinase activity in the femoral and carotid arteries.

The Effects of Estrogen on Cerebral Vascular Protacyclin Production
Holly Brevig & Clint Lagbas
Mentor: Dr. Diana Krause

Epidemiological studies suggest estrogen has cardiovascular protective effects. Several studies have indicated that the protective effects of estrogen are mediated, in part, through the production of prostacyclin (PGI2), a vasodilator and thrombotic agent. This study sought to investigate: 1) the effects of in vivo administration of estrogen on the production of PGI2 synthesis by rat middle cerebral arteries; 2) the effects of estrogen concentrations on PGI2 synthesis; 3) the effects of estrogen metabolites on protein levels of enzymes involved in PGI2 synthesis, namely protacyclin-synthase (PGI-S) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Middle cerebral arteries from ovariectomized rats (OVX) and ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen (OE) were incubated and examined for PGI2 synthesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, OVX middle cerebral arteries ere incubated with different concentrations of estrogen and examined for PGI2 levels by ELISA and COX-1 and PGI-S levels by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, OVX middle cerebral arteries were incubated with estrogen or estrogen metabolites and examined for levels of COX-1 and PGI-S. We report that chronic estrogen treatment enhances PGI2 production by 2-fold. Also, estrogen increased PGI2 synthesis, COX-1 and PGI-S in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation with estrogen or estrogen metabolites showed that 2-methoxyestrone, methydroxyestradiol, 16a-hydoxyestrone, 17ß-estradiol, and estrone caused increased expression of COX-1. The findings of this study show that estrogen increases PGI2 production via up-regulation of COX-1 and PGI-S. The results presented may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying epidemiological studies showing gender differences in the incidence of stroke.

Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Vascular Contractility: Alterations in the Expression of Voltage Operated Calcium Channels
Shanesha Legardy & Alia Shbeeb
Mentor: Dr. Ralph Purdy

Upon exposure to zero gravity, astronauts experience severe cardiovascular deconditioning caused by the immediate shift of body fluids. This results in a reduced contractile response of the vasculature. Simulated microgravity has been shown to induce vascular hyporesponsiveness to norepinephrine in the rat abdominal aorta. Previous studies have indicated that proteins involved in the a-mediated signal transduction pathway may have been altered including the marked reduction in both the function and protein content of Voltage Operated Calcium Channels (VOCC). This study was designed to further investigate the role of VOCC in simulated microgravity-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness. Microgravity was simulated using a rodent ground-based model, the hindlimb unweighted (HU) model, for 20 days. Control (C) and HU abdominal aortas were isolated, cleaned, cut into 3-mm rings and measured for isometric contraction in the presence and absence of various antagonists. Total protein levels of various components involved in the contractile response were measured using Western Blot Analysis. Tissue bath analysis revealed that GF109203x, a PKC inhibitor, caused a marked reduction in contraction in C and HU tissues. Western analysis revealed an HU-induced reduction in the levels of Calmodulin, a calcium handling protein activated by the calcium entry via VOCC. However, protein levels downstream of Calmodulin, including Myosin Light Chain and Myosin Heavy Chain remained unaltered in HU tissues. These results indicate that HU treatment does not affect the activation of VOCC by PKC, but does alter the expression of the calcium-activated protein, Calmodulin.

Paranoid, Undifferentiated, and Schizoaffective Schizophrenia: A Comparison of Early and Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential Components
Frank Chen & Lily Liu
Mentor: Dr. Julie Patterson

A hypothesis proposed to account for the observed deficits in attention and information processing observed in schizophrenics, as well as their symptoms, is that they cannot inhibit (gate) incoming sensory information, leading to sensory overload. The auditory P50 evoked potential (AEP) in a paired-click task has be used to assess sensory gating by comparing the relative amplitude of the P50 wave (40-80 milliseconds post stimulus) to the first (S1) and second (S2) auditory clicks. In controls, the amplitude of P50 to S2 is reduced compared to S1, indicating normal sensory gating. Schizophrenics often show abnormal sensory gating, but there is some evidence that certain subtypes of schizophrenia, such as paranoid, may not exhibit a sensory gating deficit. Also, whether sensory gating involves attentional as well as pre-attentional AEP components, has been a debatable topic. This study will compare sensory gating in schizoaffective, paranoid, and undifferentiated subtypes of schizophrenia for the P30, P50 and N100, and P200 peaks of AEP measured at Fz, Cz. To examine this relationship, 10 subjects within each schizophrenic subtype and 15 control subjects were tested using the paired click task. Data analysis is currently underway. Planned analyses will address the differences in gating ratios in each component of the AEP across schizophrenic subtypes. Given the diversity of symptoms and cognitive deficits, we expect to find differences in sensory gating between subtypes and across AEP components. The findings of this study are expected to increase our understanding of the differences in physiological deficits within these schizophrenic subtypes.

Integrating Clinical Databases of Tertiary Care Centers
Michael Kim, Nhi Thuc Le, & Ehsan Sarabi
Mentor: Dr. Peter Lawrence & Dr. Joseph Wu

We have developed a UCI clinical trials center that has four purposes: 1) Determine the current status of clinical databases at vascular surgery centers in the Western US, 2) Determine the needs of vascular surgery centers in the Western US for clinical databases, 3) Develop a standardized database that will be available to surgeons and institutions that do not have a database, and 4) Link the databases of the western vascular surgery centers to allow them to share data for clinical research, outcomes research, and quality assurance. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to assess the status of clinical databases or registries in both vascular surgery and clinical medicine. Additionally, we obtained three leading commercial vascular databases to determine if they would meet the needs of the members of the WVS. According to the 44 WVS questionnaires, among 20 medical centers, there are 10 different systems: Vascubase, Atrium, Dataease, File Maker, Excel, Microsoft Work and 4 home grown systems. Eleven medical centers did not keep any vascular database and 13 medical centers did not reveal their database status. The data are entered mostly by Faculty/surgeon (20), followed by office staff (8), nurse (7), and resident (5). The majority of the physicians are willing to spend less than 10 minutes per patient in data entry. There are 30 physicians indicate strong need for storing patient data into surgery/inpatient database. Having obtained these results, we can now proceed to the second step of this research project.

A Novel Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) that Measures Insulin Autoantibody (IAA) IgG Subclasses
Mehraneh Jafari, Danielle Kushner, & Talla Motakef
Mentor: Dr. Edward Arquilla

This study is founded on the need to develop a method that can measure human insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses. This need is based on the fact that IAA IgG subclasses may be involved in blood glucose control, the complications that afflict diabetics, and the onset of human Type 1 diabetes. Yet, because of the deficiency of a consistent and valid method to measure IAA IgG subclasses, there is a paucity of documented evidence on the role that IAA IgG subclasses may actually have. Thus, the specific aim of this study is to develop a method to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) human insulin autoantibodies (IAA) subclasses. There are two specific aims in this project: 1. To develop a very sensitive ELISA that will measure the total IgG concentration and the fractional distribution of each of the IgG subclasses in the peritoneal effluent of insulin treated diabetics and 2. To measure the fraction of the total IgG that is IAA and the amount of IAA in each of the respective IgG subclasses. To date, a very accurate and sensitive IgG ELISA has been developed. This assay's validity has been established by comparing the total IgG level in 18 serum samples to the concentrations measured in the respective samples by the nephelometric method currently used in our clinical laboratories. Using the same but substituting human IgG 1 for human IgG, a highly significant correlation between the nephelometric and ELISA methods for measuring IgG1 was developed.

The Efficacy of Epley's Maneuver in Emergency Department Patients With Benign Positional Vertigo
Lisa Nguyen & Vanessa Phan
Mentor: Dr. Andrew Chang

Benign positional vertigo (BPV) is a common cause of dizziness in Emergency Department (ED) patients that is caused by the inappropriate presence of calcium particles in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. The Epley maneuver is a 5-position head-hanging maneuver that attempts to bring those particles from the semicircular canals back into the utricle of the ear where they belong. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded placebo-controlled trial began in mid-October of 2001 to determine the efficacy of the Epley maneuver versus a placebo maneuver in ED patients with BPV. Consecutive ED patients presenting with BPV were randomized to treatment with either the Epley or a placebo maneuver. Patients ranked their vertigo symptoms on a 10-point scale at various times before and after the maneuver, and changes in score were compared. The patients' length of stay was also compared. Patients received telephone follow up after discharge. In the first five months of the study, patients randomized to the Epley group showed significantly more improvement than patients randomized to the placebo group. Preliminary results also indicate that the Epley group had a lower follow-up score and shorter length of stay in minutes than the placebo group. The study is ongoing and additional sub-analyses are planned once more patients are enrolled. The Epley maneuver is a simple maneuver that is more effective than placebo in the treatment of Emergency Department patients with benign positional vertigo, and may result in shorter length of stay by obviating intravenous medications and fluids.

Robotic Device for Body Weight Supported Locomotion Training
Wade Ichinose, Deanna Johnson, Jason Lin, Karen Ngai, Charles Niemoth, Chuck Niemoth, & Dino Ulanday
Mentor: Dr. David Reinkensmeyer

Every year, hundreds of thousands of Americans suffer a stroke or traumatic spinal cord injury. A common result of such neurologic injuries is impairment in walking ability. Recently, a new approach to locomotion rehabilitation has shown promise. Body weight supported locomotion training has shown improvements in walking ability after stroke and spinal cord injury. Our research project is to design, build and implement a robotic device for body weight supported locomotion training. The robotic device includes four pneumatic cylinders to provide the necessary force to move the subject's torso. Two cylinders positioned nearly perpendicular to each other, will attach to each of the subject's hips. Each cylinder will move independently, providing the necessary range of motion to control each hip. The control system for the device will be designed using Matlab Simulink.

Bare Bones Dance Theater
Anna Kaiser, Maria Munoz, Nathan Hodges, Chris Liu, Marc Macaranas, Chris Magovern, & Miguel Zarate
Mentor: Dr. Israel Gabriel

Bare Bones Dance Theater is a registered club at UCI and for the past fifteen years has been dedicated to providing undergraduates with an opportunity to not only dance and choreograph but to produce a dance production from the ground up. Bare Bones Dance Theater is committed to providing undergraduate students from diverse majors with the resources necessary to produce a dance concert of professional quality. Bare Bones is unique from other dance shows for it unknowingly gives participants an internal unity, which is created through fundraisers, rehearsals, and the show. The production is designed to be an educational experience, which allows choreographers, performers and administrators to learn how a collaborative dance concert is brought to fruition. Proceeds from ticket sales and fundraisers allow our group to support the Bernard Johnson Scholarship Fund established by Bare Bones Dance Theater to help undergraduate choreographer's design, and construct costumes for their works. Today's performance is by one of our choreographic scholarship winners. This years Bare Bones had new additions to our ever growing activities, some of which included master classes by professional teachers, a performance conjunction with the Mu Phi Epsilon Music Fraternity, and an established relationship with Cornerstone whom provided the food and space for our Gala reception. Bare Bones has proven time and time again that we dancers can come together as a community to put on an exciting and memorable dance show. Thank you UROP for supporting our cause.

The Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem: Sensitivity Based Algorithm Analysis
Angela Gallegos & Jiri Herrmann
Mentor: Dr. Amelia Regan

For the last several years, researchers in Dr. Amelia Regan's Freight Transportation and Logistics Research Group have been developing and analyzing algorithms for a set of dynamic and stochastic fleet management problems. These problems have applications in computing and telecommunications networks, in addition to emergency medical services and commercial vehicle operations. This research draws on work in the fields of transportation engineering, supply chain management, applied math (operations research) and computer science. The Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) involves the allocation of mobile servers to provide service to customers whose locations are known a priori, but whose service requests arrive over time in an on-line fashion. Based on earlier analytic analysis, researchers in the group have developed a simulation framework for empirical analysis of algorithms for the DTSP. Our research involves analyzing these algorithms (heuristics) over a wide range of demand intensities, travel and service time distributions, network topologies and allocation rules. Of interest are the ranges of input data over which certain allocation rules perform better than others. We plan to present our research at the next meeting of the Transportation Research Board and at the Fall 2002 meeting of INFORMS, (the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences).

The Relationship Between Carotid Luminal Pathology, Preoperative Imaging, and Symptoms
Jessica Chang, Michael Chung, Harrison Lee, Jacqueline Seifert, & Sambat Ung
Mentor: Dr. Peter Lawrence

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. The principal risk factors of stroke are increased age, hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes. Of these, the most important modifiable risk factors are hypertension and smoking. Stroke risk can be reduced by antiplatelet drugs (aspirin, ticlopidine), anticoagulation, angioplasty/stenting, and carotid endarterectomy. Currently, the percent stenosis of carotid stenosis is the primary determinant of carotid plaque stroke risk and whether a carotid endarterectomy should be performed. Some studies have also suggested that carotid plaque morphology, such as composition of the plaque contents and the luminal (adjacent to flowing blood) surface of the artery in the area of the plaque, are independent risk factors for stroke, and provide information in addition to percent stenosis. Luminal characteristics that have been suggested include ulceration, calcification, intraplaque hemorrhage, thrombus, and irregularity. If these luminal findings are found to correlate with stroke risk, this information can then be used to modify pre-treatment tests.

A Case for Environmental Justice in Pacoima
Kristian Beverly, Jun Ho Kim, Leza Mikhail, Patrick Pham, & Kathleen May Rosario
Mentor: Dr. Jonathon Ericson

Pacoima is an excellent case study for environmental justice given the high minority and low socioeconomic status resident population potentially exposed to lead from variety of environmental sources. Lead has been released by industrial pollution, combustion of leaded gasoline, and deteriorating lead painted housing stock. Pacoima lies nestled in the San Fernando Valley within the foothills of the Angeles Forest. Pacoima contains three heavily traversed freeways and five Superfund sites, one of which is a heavy polluter of lead. Following requests of the Pacoima citizens, students of Environmental Health E115 in the winter quarter of 2002, partnered with UCLA and San Fernando High students to gather soil samples for lead analysis by atomic absorption. The E115 students produced potential estimates of lead exposure using information regarding the industry and transportation corridors location, housing age, population density, socioeconomic status, wind, and soil type. These data were entered into a GIS program combined with blood-level data that was provided by the County of Los Angeles, Department of Health Services. The information gathered has indicated a preliminary correlation of blood lead levels and location. This study will pair the analysis of the soil samples with the previously collected information so any correlation of soil-lead, demographic and blood-lead data may be described.

UCI Etude Ensemble: Angelitos Negros
Derrik Agnoletti, Elizabeth Bogdanski, Carlie Cardona-Robbins, Melody Chen, Maya Elbaum, Ashley Flaner, Nate Hodges, Anna Kaiser, Kurt Kikuchi, Alicia Laumann, Piper Lewis, Chris Liu, Maria Munoz, Wendy Nilsson, Katherine Orloff, Greta Schroeder, Spencer Smith, Sara Walker, Deborah Williams, & Adam Young
Mentor: Dr. Donald McKayle

During the summer, Etude was fortunate enough to attend the Contemporary Dance Festival in San Louis Potosi, Mexico. While attending, the group was asked to perform in an evening's concert of company work. One of the pieces performed was entitled "Songs of the Disinherited," a McKayle repertory work. For the symposium, one of the sections, "Angelitos Negroes, will be performed by Maya Elbaum. Through Donald McKayle's mentorship, we were able to not only experience Mexican culture, but we also were introduced to the artistry of modern dance and its variances on an international level. In discovering this new setting for modern dance, our career options expand and we acknowledge that the professional life extends far beyond the realms of New York or Los Angeles.

Success Rate of Managing Difficult Airways in the Pre-Hospital Setting: Comparing the Use of an Endotracheal Tube, Combitube, or Bag-Valve-Mask, and Their Effects on Patient Outcome
Vanessa Kohl & Vanessa Phan
Mentor: Dr. Thomas Calkins

Early establishment of a patent airway is key for adequate resuscitation and chance for survival. Several devices have been developed to aid in airway management. The combitube, a double lumen airway device, can be blindly inserted into either the esophagus or trachea and still be used to ventilate the patient. Several studies have shown its effectiveness in the inpatient setting. However, there have been limited studies showing its effectiveness in the pre-hospital setting, and there are no previous studies that compare combitube use with other airway adjuncts with respect to patient outcomes. Our study proposes to validate the findings of previous research with a larger sample size and determine the effectiveness of combitube use versus bag valve mask and endotracheal intubation. Paramedic records over a three-year period will be retrospectively reviewed for any attempt to use a combitube, endotracheal tube or bag valve mask in the prehospital setting. The indications for their use, success of ventilation, and complication rates will be analyzed. The study will focus on the complications that paramedics experience in the field when placing an endotracheal tube. The data population consists of patients that are part of the Orange County EMS Continuous Quality Assurance Database, in which all patient identification is removed to protect the anonymity of patients. The data is currently being entered into the computer.

The Role of Calcium Handling in Simulated Microgravity Induced Vascular Hyporesponsiveness
Stephanie Khanbabian & Fatemeh Razavi
Mentor: Dr. Ralph Purdy

In astronauts adapted to zero gravity, a variety of cardiovascular deconditioning effects are observed upon their return to earth. The most significant of the effects is orthostatic intolerance. Vascular hyporesponsiveness to norepinephrine has been identified as a major contributor to this phenomenon. The specific aim of this study is to determine if HU treatment caused any changes in calcium handling by modifying the Voltage Operated Calcium Channel (VOCC) in carotid and femoral arteries. Nifedipene, a VOCC specific antagonist, was used to block VOCC further. To simulate microgravity, Wistar rats were hindlimb unweighted (HU) for twenty days. Their carotid and femoral arteries were isolated, cleaned, and cut into 3 mm rings, and their isometric contractions were measured. In carotid arteries, tissue bath experiments revealed that HU treated arteries had lower contractility to norepinephrine than control tissues. Nifedipene caused a 50% reduction in both HU and control tissues. The same trends in vascular hyporesponsiveness were observed in the femoral artery. Since Nifedipene did not differentially block isometric contraction in control vs. HU arteries, we conclude that simulated microgravity does not differentially modify the VOCC.

Application of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterococcus to Identify the Source of Fecal Contamination in Newport Back Bay, California
Jeff Chen & Rosemary Lopez
Mentor: Dr. Sunny Jiang

The ecologically important Newport Back Bay has experienced a declining water quality in the past several years. This is in part due to an increasing amount of Enterococcus bacteria from fecal sources. However the source of this fecal contamination has yet to be determined. By testing feces samples from local bird, dog, and human populations and creating a library of antibiotic resistance patterns, bacteria isolated from samples could be compared to these profiles and used to determine the origin of the contamination. Our study involved sampling bird and dog feces from four sites around Newport Back Bay as well as water samples from each of the four sites. From both fecal samples and water samples, the Enterococcus bacterium was isolated and its ARP determined. We found that there were identifiable patters in antibiotic resistance in water sample, birds and dogs. However, this is a continuous study and the next step will be to construct an ARP for human fecal samples and compare the three possible sources to the bacteria found in the water to determine the origin of the pollution. Also, the ARP's library of unknown and known sources will be expanded. We hope to find conclusive data as to the origin of the fecal contamination in Newport Bay.

Comparison of Atmospheric Gas Emission in Recreational and Commercial Harbors in Southern California
Mary Ellen Blasius & Angela Young
Mentor: Dr. Donald Blake

In our study, we took air samples at several harbors throughout Southern California and studied the emission ratios of the different types of harbors: commercial ports to recreational harbors. Air pollution once thought to originate only from land-based emissions may also be produced in harbors. Air pollution is produced in part from natural gases known as nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Hydrocarbons are leaked into the water and air at harbors most often when boaters re-fuel, change boats' oil, and boating accidents. Treated wastewater, runoff and combined sewage overflows also find their way into the harbor forming more hydrocarbons. Our air samples were collected with helium flushed vacuumed canisters. Whole air samples were collected; with four to eight air samples at each harbor study site taken. Once the air samples were collected, we used gas chromatography utilizing flame ionization detection, electron captures data and mass spectrometry to analyze our data. We saw elevated levels of hydrocarbons in both recreational and commercial harbors. Recreational harbors tended to have higher levels of unburned fuels. Whereas in commercial harbors tended to have higher levels of burned fuels. We believe these differences between unburned and burned furls are from the types of engines used by the different type of boaters in the different types of harbors. In addition, these escalated levels of hydrocarbons and pollution in harbors are similar to levels of pollution that we are seeing in inner cities. Harbors (recreational and commercial) are a great concern in today's pollution and emissions of gases into our atmosphere and more research should be conducted in this upcoming area of pollution.

"Cool" from "West Side Story"
Angela Boes, Danielle Daguman, Tristen Gire, Anna Kaiser , Marc Macaranas, Jennifer Magpantay, Ellen Ritter, Valerie Salgado, Jessica Summers, & Mia Valez
Mentor: Dr. Robert Boross

Professor Robert "Bob" Boross has created a four-minute piece to a contemporary musical version of "Cool" from the classic West Side Story. This piece is the backbone to our traveling performance series. In working with Professor Boross, we gained training in advanced level theater jazz choreography. In an effort to solidify and strengthen the reputation of the UCI jazz program as well as market the individual dancers, we are in the process of completing a series of performances for various venues, allowing for a broad variety of exposure. In February, performed the piece for an audience of industry professionals at the 2002 Gypsy Awards, organized by the Professional Dancers' Society in Los Angeles. We are currently preparing to take the piece to The Broadway Dance Center Showcase, in New York City, again performing before agents and industry professionals.

Molecular Determinants of Asymmetric Cell Division in Mammalian Neuronal Stem Cells
Abdulrahman Ibrahim & Philip Schwartz
Mentor: Dr. Peter Bryant

Neural precursors are undifferentiated cells thought to give rise to the broad array of specialized cells of the (Central Nervous System) CNS. Long thought to exist only in the developing CNS, these cells have been found in adult animal, as well as human, CNS. Data suggest that stem cells in adult brain tissue may have developmental potential similar to that of stem cells of embryonic or fetal origin. In experimental systems, these cells have shown to undergo specialized asymmetric cell division under the control of well-characterized protein determinants. In collaboration with the National Stem Cell Resource at the Children's Hospital of Orange County, we are investigating the expression and subcellular localization of the mammalian homologs using multipotent neural precursors from adult rodents and from postnatal and postmortem human tissue. Using fluorescent immunocytochemical methods, we are able to characterize the expression and subcellular localization of Dlg, which has been shown to physically interact with and regulate the asymmetric distribution of certain key ACD determinants. We show that Dlg localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane of GFP-labeled adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells and in some instances Dlg appears to be sublocalized to specific regions of the plasma membrane. Ongoing studies are characterizing additional ACD determinants involved in mammalian neuronal ACD using in vitro assays and neuronal transplants as an organotypic brain model in SCID mice. This study attempts to understand the behavior of human neuronal stem cells by elucidating how these cells divide and differentiate.

An ab initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Study of the Chair-Twist Energy Differences in Cyclohexane, tert-Butylcyclohexane, 1,3-Dioxane, tert-Butyl-1,3-dioxanes, 1,3-Dithiane, tert-Butyl-1,3-dithianes, 1,3-Diselenane, tert-Butyl-1,3-diselenanes, 1,3-Ditellurane, and tert-Butyl-1,3-ditelluranes
Bitania Girma, Jee Hwan Hwang, & Michelle Nicole Mathis
Mentor: Dr. Fillmore Freeman

Ab initio molecular orbital theory with the 3-21G, 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), and 6-31+G(d) basis sets and density functional theory (B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91) have been used to calculate the energy differences (DE), enthalpies (DH°), entropies (DS°), free energies (DG°), and structural parameters for the chair, 1,4-twist, and 2,5-twist conformers of cyclohexane, tert-butylcyclohexane, 1,3-dioxane (1,3-dioxacyclohexane), tert-butyl-1,3-dioxanes, 1,3-dithiane (1,3-dithiacyclohexane), tert-butyl-1,3-dithianes, 1,3-diselenane (1,3-diselenacyclohexane), tert-butyl-1,3-diselenanes, 1,3-ditellurane (1,3-ditelluracy-clohexane), and tert-butyl-1,3-ditelluranes. The chair conformer of 1,3-dioxane was shown to be 4.67 ± 0.31 kcal/mol (HF) and 5.19 ± 0.8 kcal/mol (DFT) more stable than the 2,5-twist conformer. The 1,4-twist conformer of 1,3-dioxane is 1.36 ± 0.12 kcal/mol (HF) and 1.0 kcal/mol (DFT) higher in energy than the 2,5-twist conformer. The values of the calculated free energies difference (DG°c-t) between the chair and the 2,5-twist conformers of 1,3-dioxane were 4.85 ± 0.08 (MP2) and 5.14 ± 0.08 kcal/mol (DFT)] at 298.15 K. The conformational free energy (equatorial preference) for 5-tert-butyl-1,3-dioxane is smaller than that for 2-tert-butyl-1,3-dioxane or 4-tert-butyl-1,3-dioxane. The calculated results from the various levels of theory will be compared and the conformational preferences, relative energies, and thermodynamic parameters will be discussed in terms of geometrical parameters (bond angles, bond lengths, torsional angles), 1,3-diaxial interactions, repulsive nonbonded interactions, steric factors, and the positions of the tert-butyl groups on the diheterocyclohexanes. The stereoelectronic hyperconjugative interactions (nx® s*C-Hax, nx ® s*C5-Heq, sC-X ®s*C5-Heq, sC5-Heq ® s*C-X, s C-Hax ® s*C-Hax) in the chair and twist conformers of the diheterocyclohexanes will also be discussed.

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